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C0l»tt atilv Castle <tf UtuAtttfit^* 


















It is to be regretted, that amidst the numerous 
pubUcatk»s issuing from the press, so few re< 
late to the topography of our own country; 
and, more particukrly, as ahnost every town in 
Scotland has diared in the public events of 
fonner times. There are few people who are 
not attached to their native place ; and, aL 
though not so interesting to the genersdity of 
readers, yet to those who reside^ or who have re« 
sided, in the town now described, it is hoped the 
fdlowing sketch will not appear uninteresting. 
The environs of Kelso have been universally 
admired for the beauty of their scenery ; and 
few districts of the kingdom are so rematkahfe 
for events of military fimie as the county in 
i^hich it is situated. It is therefore matter of 
surprise, that while the pai of the topqgropher 
has been employed in giving consequence to 


places much inferior in interest, no account of 
this celebrated spot has yet been offered to the 

The beauty of the simrounding country na- 
turally draws a number of strangers to this quar- 
ter, and the want of some account of the place 
has been much felt. To supply this defect, the 
present work was und^taken ; 'and the authoi^ 
has only to regret it has not fallen into more 
abld hands. He ki ^uite aware of his inability 
to undertake^ such a task; but he has endea^ 
"mured to give a faithfid abeount oi the various 
important e(vents that occurred. The descrip- 
tion. ' and . history of die nionastery of Kelsc^ 
(which for magnificence ranked in the iinst class 
of 1 aiir arident ecclesiastical '^'^st^blishments,^ 
Mr* b^ principany drawB up *rom rare and 
Valuable documents; And the notices of the 
several Abbots^ with the rental <tf the Abbey, 
inust be reoeived with some portion of &lx>Ur 
bbdi t by >the^ genial readei^ and the antiquary, 
n I To the lovfers of Scbttish history, the con- 
Booted aocotuit of the ancient tottn and cai^le 
of Ilpxbvrgh, alid of the vario^ evente of which 
they were the thesktre, will not, it is hbped, be 


found destitate of interest ; and asr the princi- 
]^ events in this quarter arose out of the gene^ 
ral affidrs of the kingdom, so the sketch here 
given embraces a survey of ahnost every politi- 
cal and 'military transaction during the most 
important period 6f our national history. Par- 
ticular attention has been paid to the descrip- 
tion of the town of Kelso, its manners, customs, 
trade, the noblemen and gehtlemeh's seats in 
the vicinity ; and a brief sketch of the lives of 
the most eminent men bom in the county has 
likevnse been subjoined. 

To render the work more complete, neither 
labour nor expense has been spared: every 
work on Scottish history, worthy of credit, has 
been diligently consulted, and the different re- 
lations of the same occurrences (in many in- 
stances discordant, especially as to dates), have 
been carefully compared ; reconciled where it 
was possible, and, where this could not be ef- 
fected, the grounds of the existing discrepan- 
cies have been explained in copious notes. To 
the whole is added an Appendix, comprising 
various authentic and official documents, illus- 
trative of the circumstances noticed in the text. 


The author is sufficiently aware^ that many 
faults of method and style may be discovered 
in the course of the work ; but as he only as- 
pires to the humble character of a faithful com- 
piler, he ventures to hope, that the candid read- 
er will be disposed to treat them with some de- 
gree of indulgence. 

Advooaim Library, At^utt 25, 1825. 



Iktrodoctiok, 1 

Aui8li---Agriciilt««, 3 


Bishop of Rochester takes nimge in K^hs ... 13 

\riI]iandeyalerrai»LoffdChsmberlamo£Sc«t^ 14 

King Henry III. and his Queen yiait Kelso, • . . ib. 
Scotland innuled by Edward I.; his anny passes the Tweed 

atKefao, 16 

King of Scotland to send the ratification of a tmee concluded 

1380, vndor the gfeat seal) to Kdso . . . . ib. 

A tmce conchided at Kelso, 1391, ..... 18 
Compiainls by the EngHsli of eBcrsochmenta nade by the Scots 

to be sent to the abbots of Kelso, 19 

Henry IV. desires lus letters, claiming the crown of Scotland, 

and homage of King Robert UI. and his nobles, to be read at 

Kelson 20 

A trace concluded, 1400, and commissioners to meet at Kelso 

to negotiate a peace, 21 

James in. cnnmed at Kelso, 23 

Commissioners to meet at Kelso to conclude a peace, 1487, ib. 

Battle of Flodden-field, 24 

Abbot of Kelso expelled from the Abbey by Carr, 27 

Duke of Albany arriyes at Kelso, ib. 

Sir James Hamilton comes to Kelso with a numerous army, 29 

Kelso bunied by Locd Dacres, S2 



Garrisons stationed in Kelso by the Earl of Huntly, S4 

Kelso and its Abbey burnt by the English, ... 35 

Kelso plundered and destroyed, 88 

The Abbey of Kelso destroyed, and the town plundered, . 41 

A fort proposed to be built at Keiso by the Queen-Regent, . 42 
The Queen-Regent*s army arrives at Kelso, and a garrison left 

there, . 43 

Kelso ordered to be put in a state of defence by Lord James 

Stuart, 44 

Lords Eure, Wharton, Huntly, Morton, Argyle, with the Qveen* 

Dowager and the French general, arrive at Kelac^ • • 45 

Scottish army stationed in Kelso, ib. 

Meeting at Kelso between Lord James Stuart and Lord Gray, 47 

Queen Mary visits Kelso, and holds a council, . • • 49 
Elu*] of Murray, Lord Hunsdon, and Sir John Forster, me^t at 

Kelso, . . . 53 

English army in Kdso, . • . • • • .55 
Bothwell holds a conference at Kelso with the Earls of Angus 

and Mar, on passing into England, • . • • . 59 
Earls of Angus and Mar, with the Master of Glammis, oiter- 

tained at Kelso by the Earl of BotbweUy . . . . GO 
Army under the command of Hume, Cessfehl, and Bucclengh, 

arrives at Kelso, . . • • • • • • ' 67 

Bothwell and his army come to Kelso, • . •' - . ib. 

Kelso Abbey delivered up to Carr of Ceesford, * . • 68 
Covenanters* army in Kelso, ... * • .73 

Kelso a depot for troops, . • , • ■ • . • 78 

King's army arrives at Kelso, . . . ... 79 

Army of the Covenanters march to Kelso, • • ... dO 

Plague in Kelso, • ib. 

English officers arrive at Kelso, . . . • . 8L 

Kelso burnt by acttient, • ib. 

Pretender's army in Kelso, 1715, . • • • ,84 

James VIL proclaimed at Kelso, . • • • • 86 

Declaration of the inhabitants of Kelso in favour of Geo, L . ib. 



Arriya] of the royal anny in Kelso, 88 

Commimion of Oyer and Terminer in Kelso, ... ib. 

CfaarWa army arrives at Kelso, 1745, . • • . 92 

Luianli ascends in $i ballpon frpm Kelso, • • • • 95 

A whirlwind hi^pens at Kebo^ • • . • • 96 

Fi«nch prisoners stationed in Kelso on parole^. ... 97 

Description of the town, . . ' . . • . 98 

Government, . • • . . ... * 99 

PopnlaUon, ... 108 

Manners^ .... . . . 1(Mp 

Customs, .. ...... . . . . 105 

Trade, . . .... . . . 108 

Bulks, . . ... . . . 110 

Fails, ..... . ..... ill 

Botcher market, . . . . . . 115 

Scenery, 116 

Religious honses, . 118 

Schools, . .124 

Bible Society, ........ 125 

libraries, . . ib. 

School of Arts, 126 

Newspapers, 128 

Benefit Societies. 129 

Free Masons, 134 

Bowmen of the Border, ib. 

Baces, . . . 1S5 

Stage coaches, . . .... 139 

New bridge^ 140 

Gentleman's seats, 143 

Abbey, .148 

■ • description, . . • 155 

history, 162 

Abbots, 169 

Suggested improvements, 178 




Town and cattle, deaGription of^ . . • 

Cardinal Crima Tiaila Roxb ui ||i^ • • « 
Tlmntin, Arckbishop of York, at Roxb«r|*k, 
M^Heth confined in Rond^wgh Gaslle^ • 

Stephen's army arriTes at Roxbinghy . w 

Mnce Henry's death, 
Nobles Tisit David L at Roxburgh, • 
I>riDald, grandson to Malcolm, confined in* Roxbu]^ Castlei 
Castle of Roxburgh deliTered up to Henry U. • • 
Sinteville appointed goTemor of the CJastle, 
Caatle of Roxburgh restored to King AlS^Uiam, . 
Etel of Caithness confined in the castle, 
Roxburgh nearly consumed by accidental fire, 
B3ng William's army assembles' at Roxburgh, 
Biriiop of Rochester seeks refuge in Roxbuigh, 
King John arrives at Roxburgh^ 
ikkxander U. and his Queen reside at Roxbuigh, 
II confera the*honour of knighthood on sereral 

blemen there, ...•*.*• 







at Roxburgh,! • 
Alexander nL bcnrn at Roxburgh, 
Riokburg^ almost destroyed by fire, •• 
Alexander HI. and his Queen rende «t Roxburgh, 
Henry E9. visits Roxburgh, • •. ; - 

Alexander IIL conveyed to Roxburgh, 
Ptitee Edward visits Roxburgh) 
Mi*riageK»ntnct betwixt Ericy IVinee of Norway, and 
der's daughter, Margaret, signed at Roxburgh, ^ 
Prince Alexander married>at Rexbuif^ \ 

PiAlic Records removed to Roxburgh, 
Edward L stays a month at Roxbuigh, <•. 

Biglish Court sits at Roxburgh^ 
Roxburgh delivered up tO'Edward, • • • - . 
Bishop of Glasgow confined in R<|xbwgh Castle, 









Sir WOliam Wallace kys siege to die Cattle, ... 226 

Edward'ft army arrives at Roxburgh, .... ib. 
Cmsile of Roxburgh committed to the eare of John de Bi^etagnei MS 

Lady Mary Brace confined in a cage at Roxburgh, 289 

Bdward !!• at Roxburgh, • . . . . ib. 

ilobert Biuee fwoeeeda to Roxburgh, 290 

Mary Bruce exchanged for Wahcr Conyu, . 2»1 

Edward II. ordien his army to ataemble at Roxburgh, H^. 

Sb* James Douglas lays siege to the Castle, • ib. 

Legates sent by the Pope to Roxbivgh, .... 294 

RobertL holdshis Court at Roxburgh^ .... 29a 

Bdward Baliol obtains possessioa of the Castle, R>. 

BaHol at Roxbuigh, 298 

Bail of Murray taken prisoner at RoKbwgh, M>0 

Asfthony de Lucy appointed keeper of B o ri m rgh, ib; 

Edward II. orders the Castle to be put in a state of defence, 249 
I orders the GrOTemor of the Castle to keep a garrison 

there, ib. 

Croremor of Roxburgh Castle to furnish a garrison, • M4 

Earl of Derby celebrates Christmas at Roxburgh, . 246 

8ir Alexander Ramsay takes the Castle, • . . lb. 

Dttrid XL proceeds with his aimy to Roxbui^h, • 248^ 

Castle of Roxburgh surrendered to the £ng^, < 249 

Cofpeland appointed Governor of the Castle, . • 850 

Edward n. resides at Roxburgh, • 26^1 

TVKaty concluded at Roxburgh, . 258 

Edward orders the Castle to be repaired, Ik 

Cotomissionera app<Nnted to meet at Roxbugb, . 266 

Edward neinfonces the garrison at Roxburgh, 26^ 

AiBny at the fair of Roxbm^h, . •• . • 258 
^Siag of Scotland to send his terms of peace to Edward «t Rwc*' 

Inirgh, . • • * ^^ 

Castle of Roxburgh intrusted to Lord Graystock, . 261 

Tlte Scoto endeavour to recover the Gastie, 282 

Cemplaints of the Scots to be sent to> Roxbui]gh, 288 

« William Stewart breaks down the Bridge ^ Reaftw^, ib. 




Bridge of Roxburgh again broken down, and the town bamt» 264 
Hemy V. orders the Castle to be repaired, • . ; 265 

Earl of Douglas besieges Roxburgh, . . ib. 

James I. lays siege to Roxburgfat 268 

■ raises the siege, ... • • . ih. 

Granison of the Castle to have grttss and fdel round Roxburgh, 269 
Roxburgh enjoys the privilege of a truce, . .... 271 
Watches placed at the passages between Roxburgh and Berwick, 272 
IVohibition against supplying Roxburgh with victual, &c., ib. 

James Ih lays siege to Roxburgh . . 274 


kiUed by the bursting ai a camion. 

Castle demolished by the Scots, 
Cfnke of Somerset repairs the Castle, , 
English army assembles at Roxburgh, 
Treaty entered into fw destroying the Castle, 


Winiam Crawford, . . . " • . . . 288 

James Thomson, • ib. 

Sir John Pringle, 290 

James Brown, 294 

William Buchan, M.D. . . .... 296 

Lord Henthfield, . 297 

John Armstrong, M.D. 300 

J<^m Home, ...•••*..• 301 
EarlofMinto, .... .804 

Jdm Leyden, M.D. ... . . . . . 305 

Peter Fenton, . . . ... 310 

John Rutherford, . « 311 

Miss Jane EDiot, ib. 

Greorge Barry, D.D. ib. 

William Dawson, . . • . . • ib. 

Commissioners of the Shire of Roxburgh, 313 

Appendix, (Kelso) ^ • . 319 

, (RozbuiKh) . • 331 


f F the description of towns be either useful or interest- 
ing, few places in Scotland can prefer stronger claims 
to the attention of the topographer than the town of 
Kelso. The events of former ages, combined with the 
local circumstances of the place, give to it a varied and 
prominent importance, both to the antiquary and the 
statist This town, and its immediate neighbourhood, 
have been illustrated by many remarkable events in the 
ancient history of our country, the remembrance of 
which, cannot fail to associate the scene of their occur- 
rence with sentiments of peculiar interest. 

Of the origin of Kelso nothing is known. It is not 
until the reign of David I. that we find mention made 
oi such a place, although it is sufficiently manifest, that 
even at this early period, it was accounted oi consider- 
able importance. 

No town in Scotland has ever been known under a 
greater variety of appellations, all derived from the 
same original, than the town of Kelso ; and there is 
scarcely an ancient author who mentions that place, 


who designates it by the same name. According to the 
most early accounts, we find this town denominated 
CalceOy Calcoe, Calko, Calcehon, Calcon, Calonia, Cal- 
covia, Kalcehoh, Kalco, Kalcho» Kalchow, Kelceo, Kel- 
con, Kelchou, Kelhoii, Kelchehon, Kilchow, Kelcou, and 
Kelsow. The etymology of its ancient name is quite un- 
certain, but the most probable derivation of it is from 
an eminence near the Tweed, called the Clialk-heugh,* 
and which contained a quantity of gypaum, and other 
calcareous matter. Calx^ in the Latin language, sig- 
nifying chalk or Ume^ and co/r, in the Irish or Celtic, 
as well as the Teutonic tongues, means the same ; and 
hcWf a hill or height. Calchow is therefore evidently 
translated by Chalk-height, or Cbalk-heugh.f 

* This plaoe« which was formerly a dry and barren rock, 
IDg a wild and roraaotic appearance, has assumed of late a rery dif- 
ferent aspect. Some years ago, it was projected to throw the whole 
of, this emineDce into ganlens, a plan not only useful in itself, but 
conducing likewise to the general embellishment of the neighbour- 
ing scenery. The late Miss Paton of Kelao was the first to set the 
flcuunple, which was soon followed by the other proprietors. A wall 
ia now carried along the whole base of the height ; and the gardens 
on the ftice of it, from their sloping direction, and the tasteful man- 
ner in which they are laid out, produce an imposing effect. 

t Chalmers' CaUmia. 



The parish of Kelso, in the county of Roxburgh 
or Teviotdale, exhibits the appearance of an irr^nlar 
triangle, extending firom north to south 4^ miles in 
length ; about the same in breadth firom east to west, 
and contains a surface of nearly 6000 acres.* It is 
beautifully situated on both sides of the rivers Tweed 
and Teviot, which unite at the town of Kelso; the 
former dividing the parish into two equal parts. It 
is bounded, on die n(»th and east, by the parishes of 
Earlfitcm, Ednam, and Sproustoun, (the last separates 
it firom Northumberland ;) on the south, by the parish 
of Roxburgh ; and on the west, by the parish of Ma- 

* The present parish of Kelso was formerly dirided into the three 
parishes of Kelso proper, St James, and Maxwell. The parish of St 
James laj between the two rirers, the parish of Maxwell to the 
soath-east, and the parish of Kdso on the north and west of hoth 
rivers. The ancient parish of Kelso belonged to the bishopric of 
St Andrews, and the parishes of Roxburgh and Maxwell to the Epis- 
copal see of Glasgow ; the Tweed being here the boondary of the 
two bishoprics. — CuAhMMas, toL IL p. 1^ 


In the tiorthem part of the parish the surface is ge- 
nerally level ; but, in the southern, it abounds in hills, 
which, though mostly arable, are better calculated for 
pastiure; and considerable herds of black cattle and 
sheep are annually reared. 

The soil, for an extensive range, on the banks of 
the Tweed and Teviot, is a rich, deep loam, on a bot- 
tom of fine gravel ; and the system of agriculture here 
practised seldom fails in producing early and plenti- 
ftil crops. In the north-west the soil is composed of a 
wet clay, and in the south it is thin and wet, on a red 
aluminous bottom ; consequently the crops in these dis- 
tricts are considerably later than those on the finer 

The improvements recently made in agriculture are 
nowhere more conspicuous than in this parish. Pre- 
vious to the general introduction of lime and marl as a 
manure, the general return to the fanner barely com- 
pensated him for his labour, especially on the cold and 
wet soils ; but since their introduction, things have 
changed materially for the better. 

Formerly the practice was to portion out the lands 
into six equal parts, each of which in succession re- 
ceived a summer fallow ; this was followed by crops of 
wheat* barley, oats, pease, then oats or wheat, and af- 
terMrards they were either laid out in pasture, or again 
fallowed, each portion receiving, on its being first plough- 
ed up, the whole dung of the fiEUin. The consequence 
was, that often after the first, and generally after the 


second year, the crops were very deficient ; but accord- 
ing to the improved system, by which the rotation of 
crops is limited to four, including turnip or potatoes, 
(which had not been introduced when the old method 
was in practice,) the land is kept clean, and in good con- 
dition, with far less expense. The system, however, 
varies, in some degree, according to the difference of 
the soilf which, in some places, being wholly clay, the 
crops are restricted to wheat, pease or beans, barley 
and oats, which are succeeded by fallow ; and in others, 
where it is cold and wet, the first crop after the sum- 
mer fallow is wheat, succeeded by hay, and then, if not 
laid out in pasture, by oats. 

The whole of the county of Roxburgh is excellently 
adapted for cultivation ; and in no part of Scotland 
has agriculture attained to greater perfection : It may, 
therefore, be interesting to the reader to give a short 
sketch of its progress and improvement in this county, 
from the earliest period we find it noticed in history.* 

* Chalmers, in his Caledonia^ speaking of the state of Scotland in 
more rude and barbarous times, has the following excellent remarks 
on the progress of civilization and of agriculture, to the conclusion 
of the ISth century. — ** The Caledonian woods long gave shelter and 
pasture to various animals which no longer exist within North Bri- 
tain. Throughout many an age of rude society, hunting and pastu- 
rage were the principal occupations, as they were the principal stib- 
sistence of a wretched people. Long after agriculture began her ope- 
rations^ at tlie commencement of the twelfth century, the Scottish 
woodlands furnished mast^ and pasture, and harbour, to numerous 
herds of swine^ droves of cattle, studs of horses^ and flocks of sheep. 
The introduction of a new people, who possessed the habits and the 


When the Romans entered this county in the first 
century^ they found it in its rude and natural state, co- 
vered with impervious woods, and interminable wastes ; 
and their conquests being merely a military occupa- 
tion, they did little, except in the vicinity of their 
camps, for the improvement of the soil. The Saxons, 
who invaded it after the departure of the Romans in 
the fifth century, bestowed somewhat more attention on 
husbandry, began to cut down the woods, and to culti- 
vate the grounds. But it was not till the middle of the 
9th century that we find anything like an approadi to 
civilization, when Ecgred, Bishop of Lidisfam, built 
the village of Jedworth. The next settlement in the 
county, which is found on record, is Edenham, by 

knowledge which they had aoqiured in countries of more refinement, 
gave unwonted energy, diuring the twelfth century, to all the pursuits 
of an improving husbandry. The woods were now cleared away, and 
villages were reared ; meadows were drained, and the fidds were ma- 
nured; hay was preserved, and com was cultivated; mills were 
erected, malting was practised, and brewhouses were built in every 
hamlet. During that period, the kings and earls, the bishops and 
abbots, were the great formers, who carried on their operations by 
means of their cottars and villeyns. They reared numerous beasts 
of every kind ; they cultivated corn of every sort, with such skill and 
success as to be scarcely credible in modem times: Horticulture was 
practised, and wchyards were planted. As the result of all these 
georgical pursuits, we hear of the import and export of com, amid 
the frequent returns of scarcity and of famine. The rude produce of 
the country, its wool, and akins and hides, were the artides of ex- 
portation to more industrious countries, which supplied the Scottish 
people with such luxuries as were then in vogue. Before the sad de- 
mise of Alexander III., in 1286, they had acquired, under a bene- 
ficent government, much happiness, plenty, and peace." 

PARiSit — A6RIClTf.TtritE. T 

Tfcor-iiongus, a vassal of Edgar, who conferred u^km 
hftn^ by grant, Ednam, then a waste or desert ; which, 
with his own followers, and at his own expense, he 
commenced to improve, and built upon it a church, a 
myln, a malt-kyln and brewhouse, which in those rude 
times were the buildings first erected on the manoM' 
thus granted to a chief. 

But although, even during the occupation of thid 
country by the Saxons, the lands were divided into cud-^ 
tiv^ted and uncultivated ; it was not until the reign of 
that munificent prince, David I., that a plan of syste-^^ 
fnatic ctQtivation was adopted. This wise and good 
prince was not only a great husbandman himself, but 
he was the spring and " moving cause of husbandry in 
others," as he possessed numerous manors, with all the 
necessary buildings, in every shire throughout the 

During the reign of his successor, Malcolm IV., we 
find the cultivable land in this county surrounded with 
hedges, and the wastes or meadows by ditches ; add 
we also find the first mention of a dairy, which was 
established at Cumbesley by the monks of Melrose. In 
this age, the nobles and chiefs paid particular attention 
to agriculture ; but the most intelligent, and perhaps the 
most extensive, agriculturists of thc^e times, were thfe 
monks, who were endowed with extensive territorial 
property in this shire. 

Until this period the labour of ailfivatioki was per- 


formed by viUeyns^^ with the assistance of the cot- 
tagers, for which they received a certain portion of 
ground ; but the monks, who were reckoned the most 
liberal masters, and who were ever forward to reward 
their serfs for their good conduct, were the first to con- 
vert their services into money ; so that, in progress ot 
time, these ville3ms and cottagers were intrusted with 
the cultivation of some husband lands, on paying rents, 
and yielding services for their cottages and lands. 

The civil discord and contention which took place on 
the death of Alexander III., and which continued al- 
most unceasingly for nearly three centuries, not only 
retarded improvement, but, in fact, destroyed agricul- 
ture in this district, which was the principal theatre of 
strife. From the accession of James to the English 
throne, to the time of the Union, things were not in a 
much better state ; and even when this great (measure 
was effected, so reduced were the Scottish landholders, 
in consequence of the long-continued factions, broils, 
and civil wars which had devastated the country, that 
they were possessed neither of skill nor of capital to 
enable them to take advantage of the internal quiet and 
security which ensued. 

Encumbered with such difficulties, it is not surpri- 
sing that a long time should elapse before the vigorous 

* The term vUleyn signifies one who was bound to his lord as a 
member belonging and joined to a manor^ of which the lord was- 
owner.-— BaiIiST* 


practice of improved hustiandry was general ia this or 
any other county. ** The jn-actice of draining, inclosing, 
summer-fallowing, sowing flax, hemp, rape, turnip, 
and grass seeds, was introduced by Dr John Ruther^ 
ford, about 1740 ;" but a r^ular system of cropi^ng 
was not adopted till 1753, when Mr Dawson, an enter- 
prizing and skilful farmer, b^;an turnip husbandry, 
and his example has been generally and successfully 
followed throughout this district About the same pe« 
nod, potatoes were first planted, drill-ploughing adopt- 
ed, and the sowing of grass introduced by Dr Ruther- 
ford. Fans for winnowing com were first used by Mr 
Rogers, at Cavers, in 1797, and marl and lime were 
first employed as manure in 1755. 

The improved method of husbandry having thus ob- 
tained a firm footing, the old practice was gradually 
abandoned ; and such was the pn^ress of the new sjrs- 
tem, that, in 1773, on a survey of the county, by or^ 
der of the Trustees for Fisheries, all the fiEumers were 
reported as ** found busy in the practice of it" And 
when a second survey, by the same authority, was 
made about 1780, Mr Wight, in his report, states his 
surprise ^ at the amazing advances all had made sino9 
his former survey, as every field had assumed a better 
aspect fi:t>m an improving hand." The consequence 
was, that in the twenty years previous to 1794, the 
rents of land in this county had increased to double 
their former value. 

Since this period the agriculture rf Roxbuighshire 


has continued in a progresciive state of improvement^ 
and may be said, from the increased capital employed 
in it, and the consummate skill of the farmer, to have 
almost reached the utmost perfection of which it is ca- 

In the year 1813 an agricultural society was farm- 
ed in this county, under the name of the ** Border Agri- 
cultural Society," for the purpose of promoting emula- 
tion in every branch of this science, by premiums to be 
awarded to superior skill, enterprize, and industry ; 
and, in the year 1820, this society having farmed a 
junction with the Tweedside Agricultural Society, their 
interests and views were united into one, now denomi- 
nated ** The Union Agricultural Society.'' By the re- 
gulations of this society, exhibitions, for the purpose of 
bestowing premiums, are to be held at Kelso and Cold- 
stream, or Comhill, viz. two years in succession at 
Kelso, for one at Coldstream or Comhill. Independently 
of the benefits which the county has derived from the 
breed of the different kinds of stock introduced by this 
society, a very great advantage has been conferred on 
the town of Kelso and its agricultural district, by the 
establishment of the monthly cattle markets, commen- 
dng in January, and ending in May. 

Some parts of this district abound in freestone, while 
others are perfectly destitute of it. About a mile from 
Kelso there was formerly an excellent quarry, known by 


the name of the " Quarry-holes," which, however, from 
the number of springs, it was found impossible to work 
to any advantage. When the new Town*house of 
Kelso was erected, the stones for the building were dug 
out of this quarry, after a great expense had been in- 
curred by the late Duke of Roxburgh in drawing off 
the water ; but from the rajndity of its increase, it was 
found that the cost of keeping it under, far overbalanced 
the profit derived from the materials obtained, and it 
was in consequence abandoned. 

Sprouston quarry, about three miles distant from the 
town, furnishes a very fine species of freestone, of a 
light blue colour, and of a hard and durable nature, 
and is the stone principally used for building in Kelso 
and the neighbourhood. At Sinless there is imother 
quarry, of a bright yellow colour, but remarkably soft^ 
which is generally employed in the constructi(m of walls 
and fences. 

There is also a quarry at Swinton, of a fine yellow 
colour, and very hard, and is reckoned the best in the 
county ; but from its distance, being upwards of ten 
miles from the town, the expense of carriage is too 
high to admit of its being brought into general use» 



It is stated in the Introduction, that the town of 
Kelso has been the scene of many important events ; 
and this assertion is fully warranted by the prominent 
place it occupies in the pages of the history of our 

Situated on the Borders, and a frontier town of the 
kingdom, it was repeatedly desolated by fire and sword, 
during those unhappy conflicts which devastated both 
countries for so many ages. Kelso, or its immediate 
neighbourhood, was the usual rendezvous of our ar- 
mies upon the eastern Marches, when the vassals were 
summoned either to repel an invading enemy, or to re- 
taliate cm English ground the injuries which had been 
committed on their own. 

Kelso is also famous as a place of n^otiation ; and 
many truces, or treaties, were here concluded between 
the two nations. It was likewise frequently honoured 
by the presence of the sovereigns of both kingdoms. 

As the Ancient JSistary of Kelso, connected as it is 
with the general history of Scotland, cannot therefore 
fail to be interesting to every one desirous of becoming 
acquainted with the deeds of his forefathers, the writer 
has endeavoured to gratify the reader by the following 
Sketch, drawn from the most authentic sources. 


No event of historical importance appears to have 
occurred at Kelso prior to the reign of William I., sir- 
named the Lion, when, in the year 1209, the Bishop 
of Rochester left his See in England, and came to take 
refuge in this town, the kingdoms of England and 
Wales having been laid under an interdict by the Pope^ 
on account of the contumacy of King John, arising 
firom the following circumstance : — ^A vacancy happen- 
ing in the Archiepiscopal See of Canterbury, in the 
year 1205, part of the monks took upon them to fill it 
up, by choosing their own superior to the office ; but 
fSsdling soon under their displeasure, they ejected him, 
and, in concurrence with the suffragan bishops of the 
province, elected in his room the Bishop of Norwich, 
who enjoyed the favour of King John. A deputation 
of twelve of the monks being sent to Rome to notify 
their proceeding to the Pope, he declared both the 
present and the former election to be irr^ular, and 
consequently null ; and having determined the sole right 
of election to be vested in the convent, he compelled the 
deputation to nominate Stephen Langton, an English- 
man and a cardinal, to the vacant see. To this deci- 
sion John refused submission, and, in his representa* 
tions to the Holy Court, made use of such intemperate 
language as provoked the Pope to lay the kingdcnns of 
England and Wales under an interdict, and this was 
ultimately followed by sentence of excommunication 


against the king, and the fuhnination of a bull relea^ 
sing his subjects from their fealty and obedience. 

The interdict, which was originally proclaimed in 
12069 was renewed in still severer terms in the year 
lS09f so that '^ all order, all religion, all dignity, was 
laid prostrate, and no privilege favoured or allowed, 
except the baptism of infants, which was performed 
without the church. Then were seen bodies lying un- 
bnried outside the burying-ground, prelates as well as 
priests, clergy as well as laity, all heaped together in 
cross ways and public roads.'' 

The clergy, thus prevented from performing the du- 
ties of their office, resorted to countries where they 
might exercise their functions ; and accordingly the Bi- 
shops of Rochester and Salisbury retired to Scotland, 
and fixed their residence, the former at Kelso, the lat- 
ter at Roxburgh. Hiese prelates were liospitably re- 
ceived by King William, who gave them eighty dial- 
ders of wheat, sixty-six chalders of malt, and eighty 
cbalders of oats.* 

William de Valoines, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland, 
died at Kelso, in the prime of life, in the year ISIO^ 
and was interred in the Abbey Church of Melrode.f 

In consequence of the internal troubles of Scotland 
during^ the minority of Alexander III., lus £Either-in- 
law, Henry III. of England, found it necessary to in- 
terpose, with the view of restoring order, by giving li- 

♦ Fordun, vol. I. p, 523. t lb. vol. II. p. 43. Crawfurd> vol. 
r. p^ 258. 


berty and protection to the king and queen» who w^^ 
kept prisoners in Edinbiu*gh Castle by those to whom 
Henry had intrusted the care of them, on their mar- 
riage in- 1251, till Alexander should attain the age of 


With this intent, in the summer of 125d« Henry and 
his Queen, attended by a large retinue of his noUes, 
proceeded to the Marches, where he had ordered a nu- 
merous force to be assembled in case of emergeiicy. 
Atexander and his queen^ who by this time had been 
released from their confinement, and were then residing 
in Roxburgh Castle, hearing of the arrival of their 
royal relatives at the Castle of Wark, proceeded thither 
to welcome them to the Borders. Alexander himself 
made no stay at Wark^ returning the same day to 
Roxburgh, but his queen was prevailed upon to remain 
there with her mother, who had taken ill. 

Henry, at the earnest solicitation of his son-in-law, 
proceeded the next day to Roxburgh, where he was re- 
ceived with every demonstration of joy, amid the loud- 
est acclamations, by the king and his nobility. During 
his residence at the Castle, Alexander, in compliment 
to Henry, and in honour of his visit, formed a grand 
procession at Roxburgh, and introduced the king with 
great pomp into Kelso, and afterwards conducted him 
to the Abbey, where he had commanded a royal banr 
quet to be prepared, at which most of the nobility of 
the kingdom attended. After partaking of the banquet. 
King Henry took occasion to address the guests, strong- 
ly recommending to them to intrust the care of the 


king, and the administration of the government, to the 
Earl of Dunbar and his party, and, on leaving the en- 
tertainment, proceeded to Wark Castle on his return to 
England.* For further particulars of what occiured 
on this visit, see Ancient Ilistary (^ Roxburgh. 

Edward I. of England^ having summoned the Scots 
nobles to attend a Parliament to be held at York on the 
14th day of January, 1297 ; on their failing to appear, 
ordered the kingdom to be invaded in the course of 
eight days from that date. The army destined for this 
service was accordingly assembled at Newcastle, con- 
sisting of 100,000 foot, 2000 horse, and 1 200 men-at- 
arms ; having entered Scotland, these troops proceeded 
to Roxburgh, and relieved the castle, at that time be- 
sieged by the Scots. After this, they passed the Tweed 
at Kelso, and marched to Berwick, which they took, 
the Scots having abandoned the town before their ar- 


The town of Kelso, as has before been remarked, 

was often fixed upon as the place for arranging and 

settling truces and treaties between the two kingdoms. 

The first mention we find of any such occurrence there, 

is in the year 1380, when, agreeably to the tenor of a 

truce formerly concluded, the Kings of Scotland and 

England were, by the conditions of that truce, to send 

their ratifications of the same, in writing, under the 

great seal of their respective kingdoms, the former to 

"* ChroD. Mail. p. 220-1. Ridpath, p. 145. 
t Ridpath, p. 209. 


the monastery of Kdso» tbe latta- to the monastery of 
Mehrose, on the day of ttie festirel of the Epipliany of 
oar hotd ; but the ^cact day on which this festiviU 
ought to be observed being unc^etain, they agreed t6 
tefer thi^ disputed point to their councils, who were to 
decide upon it ; and their pleasure in this matter was, 
in consequence to be signified in the same way, at the 
same places, on the day of the festival of the Purifica^ 
tion of the Virgin. 

The for^^oing truce not being likely to tead to m 
permanent peace between the t#o kingdoms, and th^ 
differences between them assuming a more serious ap^ 
pearance, it was proposed, in the year 1881, to refer 
the points in dispute to the decision of a jUry chdsen 
out of both nations, composed of persons of equal rank t 
but it being considered as degrading to the majesty of 
independettt sovereigns to submit their concerns to the 
judgment of their own subjects, it was finally agreed 
upon by the conmussioners on both sides, to refer every 
matter of difference to a foreign prince, unconnected 
with either party, whose award should be binding v^on 
them. The difliculty attendmg such a reference, (espe- 
dally in fiidng upcm a sovereign prince on the oonM^ 
nent, against whom no objection could be brought by 
one or other of the disputants,) appeared, however, to 
be so great, that it was detennined to prcdong thfe triice 
for three years, in order to obtain this desirable end ; 
and in the meantime to endeavour, by every means in 
their power^ to adjust their differences themselves. 



been agreed up<m by the commissioners, the 
King of Scotland was desired to forward his consent to 
this arrangement, in writing, under the great seal of his 
kingdom, to the monastery of Kelso, before the festival 
of St Michael ; and the King of England was to do the 
same to the monastery of Melrose.* 

Another truce was concluded at Kelso in the year 
1991 > the conditions of which do not appear to have 
been strictly observed, for in the ensuing year, 139% 
we find the King of England appointing commissioners 
to meet those of Scotland, *^ in any place that may be 
fixed upon in the Marches ;" and in his instructions, 
referring to the above-mentioned truce, gave them di- 
rections strictly to adhere, in their future arrange- 
ments, to the stipulations contained in it ; and in the 
year 1893} a meeting of commissioners firom both 
kingdoms was appointed to be held at Alton or Kelso, 
to treat on the means necessary to be adopted for the 
faithful observance of the truces concluded between 
the two kingdoms, and for the preservation or conti- 
nuance of them ; and also for the punishment of cer- 
tain attempts, misprisions, and evil deeds, contrary to 
the form and tenor of the said truces, committed by the 
subjects of both kingdoms*! 

The truce which was agreed to in the year 1897» 
between England and Scotland, was concluded at Dun- 

* Rymer, torn. VII. p. S14. Ridpath, p. S51. 

t RyMer, torn. VIL p. 759. 


fermline on the 8d day of October, being Michaelmas*' 
day ; and the complaints of the inhabitants of the 
Borders of either kingdom against the encroachments 
of the other, appear to have been the only grievance it 
was designed to remedy. The parties complaining were^ 
by this convention, ordered to render a statement of their 
complaints ; the English to the Abbot of Kelso or his 
deputies, and the Scots to the Constable of Roxburgh 
castle, who was to forward them to the Warden of the 
Marches ; this truce to be in force for one year. The 
King of England, however, did not ratify this conven- 
tion for some months, but at last he signified his plea-^ 
sure, that, agreeably to its tenor, it should continue in 
force for the time specified, and that the indentures! 
should be exchanged on the 16th of October, 1398 ; 
and it was farther agreed, that commissioners should 
meet on the Slst of the same month, to reconsider the 
terms of this truce, and to provide for an adjustment of 
all existing differences. The following is the clause in 
the original truce respecting the delivery of their cora-> 
plaints :*- 

^* Alswa it is accordit, for cause of mar playn and hastie 
redresse, yat al ye of the kinrik of Scotlande yat ar plantif 
of ony of ye kings leges of Inlande, yai sal sende yair billes^ 
indented of yair playntes, to the Castel of Roxburgh, and 
delivir yaim to the lieutenant or the constable of the Castel 
before yhole nest commande ; ye qwhilk sal receyve yaim, and 
sende yaim to ye conservatairs or his deputes, to ger yaim be 
wamit to finde borowis, to aper befor the forsayde lordes at 
ye forsayde day and plaee : Ande al yai of the Idnrik of Ing- 

eo htstohy of kblso. 

lande yat'ar plantife of any of ye kinges leges of Scotland, yai 
sal eende yair billes, indentid of yair (dayntes, to the Abbey of 
SLeLsow, and delivir yaim to ye abbat or the sc^estayne of the 
same abbey, before yhole nest commande, yat yai may be 
sonde fiirth to ye conservatairs of ye trewes or yair depntes, 
to ger yaim be wamit and finde borowis, to aper befor ye 
forsayde lordes, at ye forsayde day and place."* 

Henry IV. of England having arrived at Newcastle, 
on his way to Scotland to claim the crowti of that king- 
dom, wrote a letter, dated the 6th day of August, 1400, 
to inform the King of Scotland (Robert III.) of his in- 
tention, and requiring him to be ready to do homage 
to him, on the 28d of the same month, at Edinburgh, 
where he meant to be on that day ; and also requiring 
him to summon all his peers, spiritual and temporal, to 
be present to acknowledge him as their sovereign. At 
the same time he also sent letters to the prelates and 
nobles to the same effect. These letters Were intrusted 
to special commissioners, with strict injunctions, and 
under pain of forfeiture of whatever could be forfeited 
by them, to obtain, if possible, admission into the pre- 
sence of the king and his nobles, and to read these let- 
ters to them ; but should this be impracticable, then 
they were to read them, openly and aloud, at Kelso, 
Dryburgh, Jedworth, Melrode, EkUnburgfa, and other 
public places within the kingd(»n. 

This measure not producing the desired etfect. King 
Henry advanced into Scotland ; and having arrived at 

♦ Rymer, torn, VIIL p. 18. KiiliKitli, p. SfiV 


Leitfa, he 8?nt a second letter, of the same purport, to 
the king, on the 21 st of August, and also one to his el-* 
dest son, the Duke of Rothesay, at that time governot' 
of the castle of Edinburgh, requiring him to surrender 
it into his hands. To this summons the duke replied, 
by a herald, that he would not surrender, but that he 
would, in the course of six days, give him battle, and 
either force him to relinquish his design of laying 
siege to the castle, or run the risk of falling in the at- 
tempt The English king did not prosecute his object 
farther^ but returned to England ; and shortly after- 
wards a truce was agreed to, and commissioners ap- 
pointed to meet at Kelso^ to negotiate a peace between 
the two kingdoms. These commissioners met accord- 
ingly, and ai^Qther truce for twelve months was signe4 
on the 8l9t of December. 

The following is a tranislation of the lettw which 
King Henry sent to Robert, King of Scotland :— 

<^ Henry, by the grace of Ged, King of JBnglaiid aiMl Francei 
and Lord of Irelaiid, to the King q{ the Scots, health, 
that yen may instantly do what We advise. 

<^ Whereas our ancestors and progenitors, by the rigli^t of $(0,^ 
periority and direct dominion, from the most remote antiquity, 
vis. from about the time of Loerinus, soq of Brutus, goverun 
ed the kings of Scotland and tlieir dependend^ in their tm%i 
poralities) and received from the swd kuig^ for l^e kingdom qf 
Seotlaad, and frtei the ohiefe hdonging to that kingdom^ ^ 
oath of li^e homage and fidelity. — We doubt not to receive 
the same from yoo. 

^< And because onr said ancestors and pr<^[enitor8 weroi 
fi^m about the time before mentioned, in posaessiim of the 


rights and dominion before said. We, retaining poseeseion of 
the said right and dominion, and introducing nothing new, 
but being only desirous of preserving unimpaired the rights 
and prerogatives of our crown, to which we are obliged by the 
oath we have taken : 

** Therefore, We, by the tenor of these presents, require, 
advise, and exhort you, that, taking into consideration the ef- 
fusion of Christian blood, and the other dangers and losses 
which may most likely happen, if, according to these pre- 
misses, the said homage and fidelity is not rendered to Us, even 
as your predecessors, the right and lawful kings of the Soots, 
and especially, 

^< Willjam, who to Henry IL and John hiB son, and 

<^ Alexander, who to Henry HI. and to Edward, our an- 
cestors, and 

' *< John de Baliol, who to the same Edward, and Edward, 
son of the said John de Baliol, who to 

** Edward IIL our grandfather. Kings of England, did in 
later times ; — ^that you do the same at Edinbvnrgh, on Mon- 
day the 23d day of the present month of August, where for 
this purpose, and aliM> for the peace of our kingdoms of Eng- 
land and Soodand, we intend to be ; and that you shall caus^ 
all the prelates and chiefs of the kingdom to repair thither, on 
the same day, to perform the same. 

'^ Certifying to you and them, that, not from any presump- 
tion or elation of our heart, but that we may cancel the debt 
for which yon are bound to us, we make thb demand in this 
manner ; and we exh<ni you, and also axier you, from the 
cause and force of this requintion, that you the more qpeedily 
and freely perform that homage and Melity wbioh is due to 
us, rather than (wUob will be the conteqnenoe of yosr eon^ 
tumacy and rebcfllion) you should provoke the eactendssg the 
arm of our powen 

*< Confiding in the kindness of the Supreme Ju^e, who 
bestows on every one what is his right, we hope thut He 
(sHoilld you per^^vere in yOur rebellion and obstinacy) will 


direct our deeds in a {Hrosperous manner, to the preeenraticMi 
of our righta, and the confosiiHi of our riTale and rebels. 

<^ In testimony whereoi^ we have caused these our letters to 
be made patent. 

*^ Witness m3rself, at the town of Neweastle-npon-Tynef 
the 6th day of Angust» in the first year of our rtiffkJ*^ 

Immediately upon the death of King James II., who 
was kiUed at the si^pe of Roxburgh castle on the Sd of 
August, 1460, by the bursting of a cannon, his queen 
with her infant son being at the time in the camp, she 
brought him to the nobles, who, availing themselves of 
the opportunity of their being assembled with the royal 
army, conducted him to the abbey of Kelso, where he 
was crowned with great solemnity, and received their 
oaths of fidelity and allegianocf 

The distress occasioned to the subjects of the two 
kingdoms, especiaUy to those on or near the Borders, by 
the perpetual hostility and warfare which had so long 
existed between them, inclined the sovereigns of both 
countries to conclude a peace, on such a basis as would 
prevent in future the recurrence of so great a calamity. 
For this purpose, oomnussionerB met at Kdso, in .the 
year 1487, in order to prolong a truce then about to 
expire^ to afford time for concluding a treaty of mar- 
riage between. the eldest son of King James III. and 
the eldest datlghter of the late King Edward IV. of 

* Rymer, torn. VIII. p. I89. Maitland, vol. I. p. 582. Ridpath, 
p. S6&. 

f Sir J. Balfour^ voL I. p. 189* Maitiand, foI. I. p. 652. Ridpath^ 
p. 422. Abercromby^ vol II. p. 381—2. Holinshed, p. 279* 


England, in the h<^ that, by this alliaiice»f a perpetual 
peace and lasting friendship would be estabUahed be« 
tween the two kingdoms. The ratifications of this 
figreemenit Were to bi^ exchaage4 ajb £^^> 93 appears 
from the following conduding aitide u 

*^ And moreover it is ordaint, and hy ^le said cooinusnon- 
gris of Imth tho kings fiilloly aggreit and concludit, that this 
present prorogate trewis, to the seid firste day of September, 
sal be firmly kepit and obiervit, nnto the playne exspiration 
<if the samyn day, and that athir #f the asid kings sal, before 
the ipi iagqi the j/m^% ifaf^fiajpe, iii tbe kirk of j^^lsp^ under 
^lare grat^ selis, interchangeably, sufficiently, and in due 
forme, ratifie and conferme thir presents, and the continues 
of the samyn."** 

In the year 1518, James IV., at the iiiatigatioa of 
the King of France, invaded England with an army 
100^000 strong* He advanced to Noriiam, and laid 
^ege to the Oaatle, which, finun the want of ammuni-t 
tion^ soon £b11 into his hands. In the noeantinie^ the 
£inglish reeeiTed a great accession of strength^ being 
reinforoed by the Eari of Surrey with «n army ef 
86,000 nMB, and shortly afterwards by fiis san^ with 
1000 more. 

King Jfunes had previously taken hii atalion v^ n 
strong positicm upon the field of FloAden, whare thfi 
battle between the twa armies was firagfat^ wUdi eikk 
ed in the total defeat of the Scots ; the king himself apd 

* Rymeij torn. XII- p. 330. 


the flower of Im mkSlaty being fUtku md a vant muii- 
ber of all ranks made prisoners. The Bng^ish thenif- 
selves aeknowledge that the king fought with the most 
determined braYery, and with great skill; and that evw 
after part of his army had heen put to flight, he con- 
tinued to encourage the remainder to persevere in the 
conflict, and not to surrender to the enemy ; and him- 
self setting the example, he plunged into the thidcest 
of the battle, where it is supposed he met his deattt 
The army, discouraged by the loss of their king, weve 
soooL thrown into oonfuskm, and being hardly pressed 
by the enemy, retreated in the utmost di9order. The 
loss on both sides was immense^ and many of the Scots 
were made prisoners.* 

The disastrous battle of ^odden^i^eM took place OB 
Friday the 9th day of September, 1518. It is men<- 
tiened by Bodianan, Khai King James had heen previ- 
ously advtrtised oi the issue of this battie, by a vene- 
itElble old man, who apjpearsd to his majesty, wrapjped 
in a blue mantle, and advised him not to risk it, aslt 
had been nvealed to him* that if he persisted in so 
doingy ii would {krove injurious to him and his army. 

. oiJi 

* Sif James fiaffour^ in hi^ Aoual^ of S<^tland^ ssljs^ remctmg 
tKis uliimuiiate iiattle^— '' li was no meruailte tibe Scot^ fia^ me 
imm, Ar, 4imfiM iiM, *oi above lS,Oeo itsydl with tie l^^lloi 
all of tliem rent home 4 or 5 dayes befoe the bateU^ and wold aot 
8tay» b^qraase the long wold not follow the counaell and adwyate of 
his nobUitej and besi ca|>itanes, hot scorned and mod^ed them wHh 
idle rejirochesi vich wfi^ hia ruipe."— VoL I. p. ^37. 


Having ddirered his mesBage, he disappeared, and was 
never seen afterwards. 

It is said that the body of the king was found the 
day after the battle by the English, who, having em- 
balmed it, carried it to the Monastery of Sheen, in the 
county of Surrey, where it was interred. 

Another account of this battle states, that upon ex- 
amining the slain the following morning, the dead 
■body ci the king was found by Lord Dacres, who, af- 
ter it was carried to Berwick, showed it to Sir William 
Scott, the Chancellor of Scotland, and to Sir John For- 
man, his serjeant porter, taken prisoners in this battle, 
who inunediately recognised it ; and that after being 
embowelled, the corpse was wrapped in lead, and kept 
at Berwick until the king's pleasure respecting it should 
be signified. 

Leslie and Budianan affirm that the body found by 
the English was not that of the king, but had only a 
strong restamblance to him; and they fiurther- assert, 
that the king was shortly afterwards seen at Kelso, 
whence he went to Jerusalem, where he died.* 

Another report states, that the king, after leaving 
the field of battle, took reftige in the Castle of Hume, 
where he was murdered by the Earl (who had pre- 
viously been gained over to the English interest) and 

* Tbis appears to hare been, to say the least, bardy posnUe ; and, 
wben we consider the fabulous accounts credited in those days, we are 
the more inclined to doubt the existence of the miracles said to have 
been wrought. 


some of his adherents, which obtained considerable ere^ 
dit from the circumstance of one Carr, a follower of 
Lord Hume, having, the very night following the battle, 
turned the Abbot of Kelso <mt of the abbacjr, which he 
would not have presumed to do, had the king been alive.* 
Abercromby quotes the following passage respecting 
the body of King James, from a MS. History of Scot-* 
land, by the Earl of Nidsdale:— *' That during the 
usurpation of Cromwell, a skeleton, girded with an iron 
chain, and involved in a bull's skin, was found among 
the mines of the old castle of Roxburgh ; and that the 
iron dhain, which King James IV. did at no time lay 
by, made people generally believe that it was the. body 
of that prince which they had discovered ; but that the 
nation being then in subjection, there waa no way to 
make a further enquiry into the matter ; so the skele- 
ton was interred, without any ceremony, in the com- 
mon burial-place."! i » 
. The Duke of Albany,' as Gbvemor of the Kingdom 
during the minority of James V^^* arrived at Kelso in 
the year 1515, in his journey^ through the kingdom^ for 
the purpose of ascertaining the measures proper to be 
adopted in order to put a stop to the murders and rob- 
beries then so frequent. Here the people presented 
many heavy complaints against Lord Hume, the Earl 
of Angus, and others, who had exceedingly oppressed 

•Buch.Lib» XIII. Leslie, p. 349. Baker's Chron. 259^261. 
PitacoUie, p. 117. Ridpath> p. 495. 
t Abercromby, vol. II. p. 537* 

38 HI6T0SY OF K£L80. 

and wronged theni, at a time when they had no one to 
whom they could state their grievances with any pro« 
spect of redress. The Governor, who had ever evinced a 
just r^ard for the good of the kingdom, expressed his 
sorrow at hearing such representation^, assured them 
he should employ all his power in obtaining satisfac- 
tion for the past, and security for the future.* 

The rancorous private feuds which about this pe- 
riod (15£0) existed betwixt different noble families of 
Booiland, arising from their love and desire of power, 
of which the following is not a solitary iiistance, is a 
ipatter of melancholy recollection :-^— Andrew Ciot, or 
Kerf, Baron of Famiherst, pretending that he possess- 
ed the power 9o hold courts in the Forest of Jedburgh, 
notwithstanding that the lai|cb belonged ei^tirely to the 
Earl of Angfus, proceeded to exercise this jurisdiction. 
The Earl, irritated at tUs presumption, detomined to 
oppose his carrying this assumed right into effeet Both 
parties ajqoMled to arms. In this quisrreU Gair was 
supported by Sir James Hamilton, who came to his as** 
sistanoe with 400 men from the Merae, while the Earl 
of Angus was joined by several of the name <^ Garr.f 

« f itaooliti^ p. 125. 

t The quarrel which had thus oommenced between them and the 
proroBtry of Jedbdrgh^ existed for many yean iftei' this peried,/er we 

Ibd, in the y«ar 1^» that tk <^ Laird of Feniihenil^ b^ 
ceased^ and the heir left youngs William Ker of Ancmm^ as descend- 
ed of that house^ did what he could to maintain the reputation of it» 
which was an eye-sore to the other; and some time beHore thisji this 
gentleman, in the trial of goods stolen from England^ was so vigilant 


The Baron of Cessford, at this time Mrarden of the 
Marches, being informed that Sir Jatnes Hamilton had 
proceeded to Kelso, followed him thither with a nttme* 
rous army, and having fallen in with him, gave him 
battle. The contest, however, was not of long dura*- 
tion ; the Borderers, on whose courage and support he 
chiefly relied, deserted him, and, in Gonseq«ieiioe of his 
defeat, the Baron of Famiherst submitted, and held a 
court at Jedburgh as bailiff under the Earl of August 
who held his court in the lands adjoining. 

This dispute, though apparently adjusted^ did not 
end here, but produced consequences still more fatal 
and disastrous ; for the Hamiltons, reg#ding with jea^ 
lousy the ascendancy which ^gus and his party daily 
obtained, used every endeavour to increase the strength 
of their follower's. Nor were they unsuccesi^ful, for they 

as to discover the thief, who was ofDe of C^seford's followers, and, 
when it was denied^ to bring clear testimony ci it before the caundl, 
which was taken to be done out of spleen, and to rub some infamy 
upon Cessford, who was then Warden. This the Lady Cessford, a 
woman of haughty spirit, highly retented, and moved her son, then 
very young, to murder Ancrum, which he did in 1591* His death 
was much lamented, he being a wise and courageous gentleman^ and 
expert^ beyond most men^ in the laws and customs of the Borders, 
which, and the manner of his death, exasperated the king, who re» 
solved to use exemplary justice on the actor. But he, having esca- 
ped, after some months' absence Was pardoned, upon satisfaction 
made to Ancrum's children, and, as wits thought, by the interoesstoii 
of Chancellor Maitland, who afterwards married him to his niece, a 
daughter of William Maitland, the secretary."— Soott*s Stagger* 
ing State, p. 103. 


gained over to their cause many of the nobility, and 
with them the Chancdlor, Archbishop Beaton. Not- 
withstanding, many of the friends of both parties, sin-* 
cere lovers of their country, were anxiously desirous 
that a solid peace should be effected between them, and 
thus extinguish their former enmity. For this pur- 
pose, they succeeded in procuring a Parliament to be 
swnmoned to meet at Eldinburgh the following year ; 
but the Hamiltons, pretending they could not be safe in 
a city where a relation of the Earl of Angus had the 
chief authority, Archibald Douglas, at that time Pro- 
vost of Edinburgh, resigned his office to Logan of Res- 
talrig, upon ii#ich they came to town in a body. In- 
stead, however^ of intending to adjust the differences 
between them, the Hamiltons only projected means of 
revenge against the Earl of Angus ; and finding him 
posted in the main street with about 100 followers, 
attacked him, and would most likely have prevailed 
against him, had he not been speedily reinforced by a 
number of his friends. The Hamiltons fled, escaping 
through the marshes to the northward of the town. In 
this affray about seventy of the Hamiltons were slain, 
including Sir Patrick, brother to the Earl. The loss 
of the Douglases is not mentioned in history.* 

The war between Charles V. and Francis I., which 
commenced in the year 15S1, involved Scotland in hos« 

* Leslie, p. 376. Maitland, foI. II. p. 776. HoUnshed, voL I. p. 
307. Ridpath, p. 509. 


tilities with England^ Henry VIII. having first been 
applied to as umpire in the dispute between these mo- 
imrchs, seemed to the latter to be so decidedly in fa- 
vour of his opponent, that he refused to submit to his 
decision ; and in order to prevent him Arom becoming 
a party in the quarrel, he sent the Duke of Albany, 
Governor of Scotland, who had been in France upwards 
of four years, to reassume the government, with the 
view of creating a diversion in his favour, so that Hen- 
ry might be prevented from sending any troops to the 

The Duke was received on his return with every 
mark of joy and affection, but not beiyg prepared to 
conunence hostilities against England, he summoned a 
Parliament, in which it was agreed to apply for a pro- 
longation of the truce then existing between the two 
kingdoms, now about to expire. This application, how- 
ever, was answered by Henry with proposals for a de- 
finite peace, the first condition of which was, that Al- 
bany should be deprived of his o&ce of governor, and 
of the care of the king's person, alleging that it was 
dangerous for the king to be in the power of the next 
heir to the crown. These proposals were accompanied 
by letters from Lord Dacres, (who had entered the 
Scottish Borders in February, 15S2,) to the Parlia- 
ment, the queen-mother, and the governor, declaring, 
that if these terms were not accepted before the first of 
March, ensuing, the Scots might stand to their peril. 
They were, however, rejected by the Scottish Pariia- 


ment, who, at the same time, declared their full confi- 
dence in the Dulce of Albany. 

In consequoice, Henry levied, by royal prodama^ 
tion, an immense force, consisting of idl the males be- 
tween sixteen and 6ixty, in the ten northern counties of 
England, and gave the command of it, and of the fleet 
which was to be employed in conveying it to Scotland, 
to the Earl of Shrewsbury. 

This fleet having arrived in the Forth, the forces 
were landed and marched into the interior, laying 
waste the country in their route ; and in their progress 
being joined by Lord Dacres, they entered Kelso, one 
half of whidv they destroyed by fire, the other they 
plundered, and also did much injury to the Abbey. 
The inhabitants of the Marse and Teviotdale, cm this 
occasion, nobly flew to arms, and marched to the a»- 
aistance of their friends and neighbours ; and thus the 
progresis of the English being dieeked, they retreated 
within their own borders.* 

From the time that James V. assumed the reins of 
government, there never was any settled or lasting 
peace with England, although Henry VIII., having 
many internal commotions to contend with, resulting 
from hig determination to overturn the papal supre- 
macy in his dominions, seemed very desirous of main^ 
taining a friendly relation with the Scottish king, 
his nq>hew, and made several proposals for an intel:- 

• Maitland, vol. II. p. 787. Pinkerton, vol. II. p. 215. Rid- 
pftih, p. 51. S. 



view with him for this purpose. James, in an evasive 
manner, declined for some time to meet his uncle, but 
at last consented to an interview at York, in the sum- 
mer of 1541, whither Henry went in great pomp, in 
the full expectation of his keeping the appointment ; 
he, however, did not appear, and Henry, irritated at 
the affront thus put upon him, and learning, while 
there, that the Scots had made an inroad into England, 
left York, vowing revenge for this insulting and un- 
principled conduct on the part of the King of Scotland. 

James, although prevailed upon by his clergy to de- 
cline the meeting, was by no means desirous of provo- 
king an open rupture ; he therefore sent amb^sadors to 
London to excuse his non-attendance ttt York, at the 
same time professing the highest esteem and affection 
for his uncle, and proposing that commissioners should 
be appointed to meet on the Borders to settle a dispute 
respecting some land in that quarter, which the Scots 
had seized. The commissioners met accordingly, (July 
4, 1542,) but did not settle the dispute ; and although 
they parted on friendly terms, and James had sent an 
especial ambassador to apologize for his late conduct^ 
with offers of redress for any injury sustained, Henry 
determined to resent the insult he had received, and, 
at the same time, to protect his borders from insult. 
He accordingly placed strong garrisons in all his fron- 
tier towns and castles, and put every place in the best 
possible state of defence. 

Henry, intent upon his purpose, and even when King 



James's ambassador was stiU at his court, ordered a 
force to invade Scotland. The governor of Norham 
Castle, Sir Robert Bowes, accordingly collected about 
8000 men, with which he entered Scotland, accompa- 
nied by the Earl of Angus, Sir George Douglas, and 
others of their party, who were appointed commission- 
ers to superintend this invasion, with the intention of 
proceedmg to Jedburgh, and laying waste the coimtry 
in their route. 

In the meantime, the Earl of Huntly, who had been 
appointed Guardian of the Marches, was not inat- 
tentive to their motions, and, having stationed garri- 
sons in Kelso and Jedburgh, he set out with his trusty 
Borderers in quest of the enemy. Having fallen in with 
them at Haldan-Rigg, on the 24th of August, 1548, a 
battle ensued, which was so severely contested on both 
sides, that victory remained for a long time doubtful. 
Fortunately, however, Lord Hume arrived at the most 
critical moment with 400 lancers, which inspired the 
Scots with fresh vigour, and finally decided the battle 
in their favour. Many of the English were made pri- 
soners, among whom were Sir Robert Bowes, Sir Wil- 
liam Mowbray, Sir James Douglas, and others of equal 

Notwithstanding this defeat. King Henry, perseve- 
ring in his hostile designs against Scotland, ordered a 
more numerous army to be raised to march to the 
north, and appointed the Duke of Norfolk to the chief 
command. Previously to this army leaving York, King 


James made an ineffectual attempt (which Henry belie- 
ved to be insincere, and only for the purpose of gain- 
ing time) to treat for peace; and the negotiations 
being broken off, the English army was ordered imme- 
diately to advance into Scotland. 

Whether James was sincere or not in his offers to 
treat for peace, it certainly was a good stroke of policy 
to prevent, as long as possible, the advances of an inva- 
ding army, and it produced this effect ; for the Duke 
of Norfolk did not cross the Tweed till the 21st of Oc- 
tober, much too late for him to expect any great advan- 
tage from this invasion. 

In the meantime, James, informed of the determina- 
tion of Henry, had collected an army on Fala-Moor, 
80,000 strong, from which he sent detachments to the 
Earl of Himtly, that increased the force imder his 
command to 10,000 men ; and, with the remainder, he 
retired to the Lammer-Moor, expecting that the Duke 
of Norfolk would endeavour by that route to penetrate 
to the capital. 

Huntly, although unequal to any attempt upon the 
enemy while collected, prevented, by his hovering near 
them, any detachment being sent from the main body, 
and thus preserved the country from that devastation to 
which it would otherwise have been exposed. It was, 
however, imposGable for him to save either the town of 
Kelso or the Abbey, which they burned. They also de- 
stroyed several villages in the neighbourhood, but the 
army becoming disheartened through want of provisions 


and the rigour of the season, Norfolk reerossed the 
Tweed, and retired into England. The intelligence 
also that James was in the field with a well-appointed 
and numerous force, it Js said, hastened their retreat, 
which the same authority states to have been most dis- 
King James being informed that the English had 
withdrawn to Berwick, instantly proposed to his no- 
bles to advance into England ; but they all, with one 
accord, refused, objecting against such a measure the 
•lateness of the season and the scarcity of provisions ; ai- 
ling, at the same time, that enough of honour had 
been gained by the retreat of the enemy. The king, 
being unable by any argument to prevail upon them to 
accede to his wishes, returned with his army to Edin- 
burgh, where it was disbanded.* 

On the death of King James V., in 1542, Henry 
VIII. of England, with the view of terminating the 
discord between the nations, and uniting them imder 
one head, proposed a treaty of peace and of marriage 
between the infuit queen, (Mary,) and his son Prince 
Edward, (afterwards Edward VI. ;) and, to effect this, 
he brought over to his views the Scottish noblemen who 
had lately been made prisoners at the battle on the banks 
of the Solway, whom he sent to Scotland to use all 
their influence in promoting his designs. The Earl of 
Arran, at this time governor of Scotland, profossing to 

^ Grafton's Chron. p. 1067- Maitland, vol. 11. p. S31. Kdox^ p. 
86. Bucbanan, lib. XIV. Ridpatb, p. 540. 


be favDuraUe to a refarmation in religioiiy and desurow 
of obtaining the asaistanoe of Henry against the queen^ 
nKither» Cardinal Beaton, and the French party, was 
iqpidied to by the Lords on their return from England, 
among whom were the Earl of Angus, and his brother. 
Sir Geoi^ Douglas, who seized this opportunity of re* 
turning frmn exile ; and, having called a Parliament 
in March 1543, ambassadors were sent to conclude 
these treaties with the King of England, to which the 
Cardinal and his friends made no opposition, the party 
in fiEtvour of the alliance with England being too stroi^ 
£nr him to contend with at present But the Cardinal 
having gained over Arran, the governor, (a weak and 
irresolute character,) to his interest, another Parliament 
was called in December of the same year, which annul- 
led the treaties, on the ground that Henry, in the in- 
terval between their conclusion and ratification, had 
seisied some Scottish vessels which were bound to 
France with fish and provisions ; but the real cause 
was the ascendancy which the Cardinal and the Frendi 
party had now gained in the state. 

Henry, irritated by this conduct, resolved to take re- 
venge on the Scottish nation ; and the Earl of Lennox^ 
who had been sent to Scotland by the King of France 
to strengthen the party of the queen-dowager and Bea- 
ton, (nowthat they had gained over the governor,) beii^ 
treated by them very slightingly, he, with the noUea 
in his interest, joined the English, and entered into a 
treaty with Henry, whereby it was agreed to assist him 


in the conquest of the counties of Mers and Tiviot-* 
dale ; and Lennox also promised to place in his hands 
the Castle of Dumbarton,, of which he was governor. 
This treaty being conduded, Lennox sailed from Bris- 
tol early in 1544, with a considerable force, for the Ri- 
ver Clyde ; but Stirling, who held the castle under him, 
. refusing to deliver it up, he returned to England, and 
shortly thereafter, in conjunction with Lord Dacres and 
Sir Thomas Wharton, entered Scotland by the West 
Marches, took and destroyed Dumfries, laying waste a 
great tract of country, and, having collected an im- 
mense quantity of booty, retired, without having ex- 
perienced any resistance. 

Another English army entering the country by the 
Eastern Marches, plundered and destroyed Jedburgh 
and Kelso^ at the same time ravaging and burning the 
villages, &c^ in the neighbourhood. They afterwards 
proceeded to Coldinghame, and having taken possession 
of the Abbey, they put the tower in a state of defence, 
by fortifying and leaving a garrison in it. In order to 
drive the English from this place, the governor, (Ar-i 
ran,) collected an army of about 8000 men, who, not- 
withstanding the severity of the winter, were employed 
day and night in battering and destroying the tower. 
The English, however, receiving a reinforoement from 
Berwick, Arran relinquished his attempts to reduce it, 
and dreading the resentment of his army, who he waa 
afraid might deliver him into the hand of the enemy^ 
set off privately for Dunbar. This pusillanimous con- 


duct occasioned such offence, that the army, in retreat- 
ing from before this fortress, would have abandoned all 
their artillery, had not the Earl of Angus taken the 
conmiand, and with much difficulty brought it off. Sir 
Ralph Evers, or Eure, and Sir Bryan Layton, who 
had the command of this expedition, at the same time 
devastated the counties of Mers and Tiviotdale, pur- 
suing their ravaging system with unparalleled barba. 
rity ;* and having returned to London to give the king 
an account of their success, and to demand a recom- 
pense for their services, he, by the advice of the Duke 
of Norfolk, bestowed upon them all the lands which 
they had already conquered, or should conquer ; and, 
to enable them tb protect what they had gained, and 
extend their acquisitions, he put under their command 
SOOO Borderers, andSOOO mercenaries, with which force 
they entered Scotland early in February 1545. This 
expedition they conducted with their wonted cruelty ; 
for, having taken the tower of Bovinhouse, or Broom- 
house, they consumed it, with its lady, her children, and 
whole fomily. Their predatory coiurse, however, was 

* The devasUtifMi perpetrated by the English on this oocaeion is 
next to incredible ; and their booty was immense. The following is 
a statement of the destruction committed^ and plunder carried off by 
them, taken from Hayne's State Papers : — '' Taken and destroyed, 
towns, towers, stedes, bamekjms, paryshe-churches, bastell booses^ 
192. Scots slain, 403. Prisoners taken, 8 16. Nolt. 10^386. Sbepe, 
12, 492. Nags and geldings, 1296. Gayt, 200. Bolls of corn, 850. 
Insight geare, Sic*" — Hatkb's State Papers, p. 51. 


soon checked ; for the Scots, having collected a small 
force, proceeded to Melrose, where they were joined by 
about 1800 men, under the command of Lesly, eldest 
son of the Earl of Rothes, and Walter Scott of Buc- 
deoch. The English, who were then at Jedburgh, hear- 
ing of the small force that was with the Governor and 
Angus, marched in the night to Melrose to take them 
by surprise ; but their approach being discovered, the 
Scots retreated to the neighbouring hills, whence they 
could see the operations of the enemy, who, finding the 
Scots had left it, plundered the town and retired. The 
Soots, however, determined to give th^m battle ; and 
having dismounted, and sent their horses to some heights 
in the rear, took up their position in a low piece of 
ground in tiie neighbourhood of the village of Ancram, 
where they were concealed from the English, who, con- 
ceiving, from the motion of the horses, that they were 
flying before them, made a rapid advance ; and before 
they were aware, came full up<m the Scotsb who received 
them with an attack as gallant as it was unexpected. 
The consequence was, that the English were soon 
thrown into confusion, and a complete victory was ob- 
tained. E vers and Layton, and about 800 of their army, 
many of them persons of note, were killed, and 1000 
made prisoners, among whom were ^ 80 of good birth 
and qualitie.'' 

The French King, in consequence of this victory, 
sent 3000 foot and 500 horse, under the annmand of 


IfOrgiH^ t^ the assistance of the Scots, which arrived at. 
Edinburgh in the month of July, and being joined by 
about 15,000 Soots, marched to the Borders. 

An Singlish army, under the Earl of Hertford* 
18,000 strong, well equipped and provided, entered 
Scotland in September, and laid waste the Mers and 
Tiviotdale. While this army was plundering Kelso, 
about 800 men took possession of the abbey, which th^y 
defended most gallantly for some time, but being oveorv 
powered, the English took and destroyed it The towns 
and villages burnt in this irruption amounted to jfSv^ 
scare, and the abbeys destroyed were Kelso, Jedburgh, 
Melrose, and Dryburgh. 

The Scots in the meantime with their French aux-* 
iliaries, had crossed the Tweed, and reached Maxwell* 
heugh, with the intent of retaliating upon the Englidi ; 
and having destroyed a number of towns and villages, 
they intended to have proceeded to lay siege to the 
castle of Wark, whidi, however, the want of artiUesy, 
and the lateness of the season, prevented them from 
doing ; and the Earl of Hertford having withdrawn, 
the Scots did not feel inclined to foUow them, so the 
army was dismissed, and the French were left to guard 
the Borders. 

The Parliament, nevertheless, which was sitting at 
this time at Linlithgow, in order to guard against any 
irruption during the winter, appointed 1000 horsemen 
to remain near the Borders, and levied the sum of 
L. 16,000 for their support. This precaution had the 


effect of preserving peace to the Borders for the re- 
mainder of the year.* 

The Queen-Regent having, in the year 1558, sent 
ambassadors to congratulate Mary, Queen of England, 
on her marriage with Philip of Spain, charged them 
also to demand a renewal of the treaty between tiie 
two nations ; iHien it was agreed that commissioners 
should meet the next year for this purpose. The meet- 
ing not taking place, the Queen Regent directed her 
attention to the strengthening of the Borders ; and for 
carrying her intentions into effect, she called a parlia- 
ment, when it was determined to build a fort at Kelso, 
for the expense of which, a tax of L.80,000 was order- 
ed to be levied, one half to be paid by the spiritual, and 
the other half by the tanporal estate ; but it does not 
appear that this resolution was ever carried into effectf 

England, in the year ISST^ being at wkt with 
France, a very considerable force was sent into Scot- 
land, under the command of M. lyOysel, with the hope 
of inducing the Queen Regent to dedare war against 
Elizabeth. But to this although she waft much in* 
dined^ yet the ndUes conceiving that the only advan- 
tage to be derived from it would accrue to France, they 
were equally averse ; and the more especially, as com^- 
miamoners from both nations were at the time sitting 

* Maitbmdt voL II. p. 660-1. Holinahed, vol. I. p. 338. Gnf- 
ton, p. 1276. Hall, p. 101. Keith, p. 48. Godscroft, pi 267-S70. 
tedpath, p. 550-54. Lodge, r(A. I. p. 90. 

t Ridpath, p. 583. 


at Carlisle^ for the purpose of settling the disputes upon 
the Borders, and adjusting the differences between the 
two countries. The Queen R^nt, however, as she 
could not obtain their, consent, resolved to provdce 
England by some act of hostility ; and this she did by 
<Hrdering lyOysel to rebuild the fort at Eyemouth, 
which, in terms of a firamer treaty, had been demolish- 
ed, both nations being bound by the same treaty never 
to rebuild it, which had the desired effect The deli- 
berations at Carlisle were broken off, and Queen Eliza* 
beth threatened with a declaration of war, if she did 
not withdraw her troops from France. 

In the meantime the Earl of Huntly, who, as we have 
already mentioned, was lieutenant of the Borders, as* 
sisted by the French, entered England, destroyed se- 
veral of their strongholds, and set fire to all the towns 
and villages which lay on his route. In these inroads 
he met with little resistance. 

The Queen Regent having also collected a numeroua 
army, it was marched, early in October, to Kelso, un- 
der the command of the Earl of Arran ; where, being 
joined l^ the French with their artillery, it crossed the 
Tweed, and encamped at Maxwell-heugh,* and after- 
wards iHTOoeeded to Wark castle^ whidi, however, they 
ware not able to redooe. It was therefore thought ad- 
visable to withdraw the army, leaving only a garri- 
son at Kelso and Roxburgh, for the protection of the 

* A village, about half a mile from Kelao. 


Borders. Shortly after this. Sir Andrew Carr> assisted 
by the nobility, invaded England with a powerful army; 
this coming to the knowledge of the Earl of North- 
umberland, (at that time warden of the North of Eng- 
landf ) he collected his forceSt and advanced to CSheviot, 
where the two armies met, when a severe and well- 
contested battle ensued. Both sides fought with unex- 
ampled fiiry, but the Scots maintained their ground. 
Shortly after, an order was issued, commanding the 
Scots nobility, in rotation, to take charge of the Bor- 
ders ; and the English receiving continued supplies of 
men, daily skimushes took place between the two ar- 
mies, detachments from which made repeated inroads 
into either country ; the Scots destroying the towns 
and villages of the English Border, while the English, 
with equal success, pursued a similar system on the 
Scottish Borders.* 

At this time the Lord James Stuart (natural son to 
King James V.) put Kelso in a state of defence, for its 
security against the repeated inroads of the enemy • We 
are informed, that ^^ the same Lord James ys now 
bttyldyng a howse of defence at Kelsey, and makyng 
a force about the townc^f 

« The xx^ of October, 1557, the intelligence saythe 
to the I^ Eurye, and the L. Wharton, that the Duke, 


• Hulinahed, n>L Lp. S6l. Ledic^ p. 498. KiioK,p»9& Keith'* 
Scotland, p. 72. Lodge's lUustrations, vol. I. p. 283-5. Ridpath, p. 
587- Stuart's ReformatioD, p. 84. Gordon, vol. I. p. 183. 

t Lodge, YoL I. p. 942. 


the Erlb of Huntlejr, Murtone, and Argile, with all 
the noMl3rt6, resolved to disparce th' army, the xviii^ 
in the momynge ; and the same daye thes noblemen 
wear with the Dowager and Docye* in Kelsowe ; and 
there the Dowager raged, and reprievid them df theire 
promsrses, whidie was to invade and annoye England. 
Thejrre determnaydons to departe, and the consyde- 
racions they tolde hir ; and thereupone arguments grewe 
great betwene them, wherewith she sorrowed, and wepp 
openlye ; Doyce in gret herynes ; and with high wctfds 
emongest them to thes effects, they departed. Docye 
wished hymself in Fraunce. The Duke, wyth the 
others, passed to Jedworthe ; and kepithe the choeeil 
men on their borders. The others of theiie great nom^ 
fare passed to theire countreyes."! 

About Whitsunday, in the fScrilowing year, 1558, Sir 
Henry Percy, and Sir George Bowes, governor of Ber- 
wick, aided by other garrisons, invaded Scotland wiUi 
a body of 800 horse, and 9000 foot; and, having ptoflh 
dered the adjacent country of all the cattle they could 
find, burnt the towns of Dunse and Langton, and re- 
treated. The Scottish army stationed at Kelso^ and on 
the Borders, were sent to check this incursion ; and; 
coming up with the English at Swinton, a sharp skir* 
mish took jdaoe, in which the Scots were vanquished } 
the whole of the foot being either slain or taken pnscm* 
era. Shortly after, a body of Scottish hone and foot 

* M. D'OyMl, general of the Frenck. 
t Lodge, vol. I. 29S. 


entered England, who began to jdunder and lay waste 
the country. They were attacked by a superior body 
of horse, under the Earl of Northumberland and his 
brother. Sir Henry Percy, who forced them to re-cross 
the Tweed, which, nevertheless, they did in good or- 
der ; and although pursued by the English upwards 
of two miles, still they could make no impression upon 
them. The enemy, however, did considerable damage 
to the country, burning and destroying the villages, 
&C.9 among which was Eldnam, about two miles from 

The robberies committed on the Borders being so 
numerous, and perpetrated with a boldness and daring 
effrontery that set the ordinary means of preventing 
them at defiance, it became necessary to resort to more 
powerful and decisive measurai. Queen Mary, accord- 
ingly, anxious to restore tranquillity in this quarter, in 
the year 1561, appointed Lord James Stuart her Lieu- 
tenant and Judge over the courts held, or to be held, 
in Jedburgh, with the Earl of Bothwell as his assistant. 
Lord James, acting with that decision which existing 
circumstances required, did ample justice to his com- 
mission ; for, upon finding the banditti too numerous 
for his present iorce to contend with, he summoned 
the counties of Berwick, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, 
the three Lothians, Stirling, Clackmannan, Kinross, 
and the shire of Fife, to his assistance. During the pe^ 

• Holinshed, vol. 1. p. S62. t Ridpttth, p. 589-90- 


riod he exercised his judicial authority in Jedbui^h, 
above twenty of the most daring of this lawless gang 
were condemned and executed. About the same time, 
a meeting took place at Kelso, between Lord James 
and the Lord Gray of England, for settling the affairs 
of the Borders, and for preventing the recurrence of 
such enormities in future. 

The following is a copy of the instructions under 
which Lord James acted : — 

Apud dictum Palatinum, 12 Noyembris, Anno 1561. 
FoUowis the Inatructionis gevin be the Quenis Majestie to 
my Lord James, to be nfiit be him, and as he thinkis ex- 
pedient, be the Advyss of the Comisale presente with hini^ 
in the preceding^ at the Justice-Court, now to be haldin^ 
by eontinuatioun, to the 15th day of this instant month of 
November, 1561, at Jedburgh : 

In the first : — 

Item, Gif it be thocht expedient to the said L6rd James^ 
be the Advyss of the Counsale being present witii him in 
ony part yfirof the tyme of his remaning in Jedburgh, yat 
ony persone or petsonis dissobedient within the boundis of the 
Myddil Mercheis, or utheris partis, be riddin on and invadit 
by fyre and swerd, the samyn to be als lauchfullie done as 
gif speciale commissioun wer gevin under the Quenis Majes*- 
ties greit soil, to do the samyii uponn every particular, yair 
partakeris, assistaris or adheraris ; and to asage houses^ and 
gif yai be haldin, to cast doun the samyn, as sal be tbocht 
gude be him ; and quhat snmever thing yat happynis to be 
done by fyre, slachter, taking of gudes, presonaris or utther- 
wyss in yat behalf, na persone nor personis, subjectis of this 
realme, to have actioun yairfoir, nowther criminalie nor ci- 


viHk bol ye said Lord Jamet, or quhatfumever utheris boing 
widi him, or at his command, doand the premissis, to be fre 
of all the actionis foirs^ds, with power to him to direct let- 
tens in oure said Soveranis name, to charge all and sundry 
ye inhabitants of the said Mydil Merchis, and utheris partis 
adjacent yairto to concor with him, to the effect foirsaid, un- 
der the pane of deid : And ordanis the Signet to answer let- 
teris upoun his deliverance, and twa of the Counsallis hand- 
writtis to the effect foirsaid, or any uyer efliEU-is concemyng 
the Weill of the cunttre dureng his residence yain 

Item, Gif it sal be thocht gude to the said Lord James to 
wryt to the wardanis of Ingland, or any utheris havand com- 
missioun of the Queue of Ingland, for the Weill of ibis realme, 
and kepyng of the samyn, aad li^:i8 yairof in quietness, that 
he wryt to yat eflSset, as he sal think expedient : And als, 
with power to the said Lord James to charge the wardanis 
dPall the Merchis of thi^ realme, and utheris harand charge 
within ye samyn, to do in all ihingis, for die sup pr essing of 
malefactoris, as he sal charge yame, and as thai will answer 
to oure said Soverane upoun yair all^eance and particular 
bandis ; with certificatioun to yame, and yai fidze^ yai sal be 
accusityairfoir, as ^f yai were chargit be oure said Soyerene 
In partioular. 

Item, Gif miy persone or personis happynis to be eonyiet 
at the snd Justice-Court, for quhatsnmevir orjrme, giff the 
said Lord James diinkis yame to be replaitit, and ye execu- 
tioun yairof to be continewlt, for the better eorecutionn of jus- 
tice. That he continew the sam3rn» and transport, and causs 
the personis foiraaidis to be transportit to the burgh of Edin- 
burgh, or ok nthir place he pletssis, quhile our Soveranis 
nynd be knawin thairintiU. 

Item, Gif ony persone or personis, being at the home, or 
fiigitiye 6a Ae lawis, with quhome he may not, wi Aoat 
dsiagerj interoommune with jrame ; that he speik and inler- 
eommone and causs utheris quhome he pleissis name^ with 
thame, for the weiU of the dhnitre, and fbrtherance of the 



ezeeutioiiii of justicey als oft as he sal think ezpediMit, for the 
quhilk yai sal incur na skayth nor danger in tyme to com* 

Item, Quhatsumeyir uther thingis the said Lord James, 
be the advyss of the maist part of the lordis of ye secreit 
Connsale being with him, happynis to do, and put to execu- 
tioun, for the weill of ye countre, ye samyn sal be haldin als 
lanchfuUie done as gif speciale commissioun wer gevin to 
him or yame upoun every point and particle yairof, in the 
nudst ample form under the gpreit seill. 

Qululkis instructionis the Quenis Majestie ordanis to be 
insert in the bukis of Privie Counsale, and to have the strendi 
of ane act yairof, and to remane yairin adperpetuam rei me- 

In the year 1566, Kelso was honoured by the pre« 
sence of one of the most beautiful, at the same time, 
the most unfortunate of her sex — Queen Mary, who^ 
in order to settle some disturbances on die Borders, de^ 
termined to visit that part of the country. Previously 
to her setting out, the Earl of Morton had won over 
many of the Borderers to his party, and, among the 
rest, the Laird of Cessfurd, who at this time was war- 
den of the mardies. The queen, as may naturally be 
supposed, did not relish this faction ; and, therefore, 
resolved, in order mcNre expeditiously and more effectu- 
ally to crush it, to hold a court of justice at Jedburgh, 
for the trial and punishment of her unruly and traitor- 
ous subjects. Her majesty, considering that the Earl 
of Both well, (who was also her lieutenant in that quar» 
ter,) might have considenihle influence with die B«» 
derers, sent him before her to Liddisdale, to prepare 

* Ksitli, 20a RidpsUi, p. 608. 



them to pay that obedience and respect due to her as 
their queen ; but, on his arrival, he was roughly treat- 
ed by the people, and being by them severely wounded 
in many parts of his body, was conveyed to Hermitage 
Castle, where he rem^ed till his cure was effected. 

Ift the meantime, the Queen had arrived at Jed- 
burgh, where being informed of BothweU's misfortune, 
and that his life was in inmiinent danger, she resol- 
ved to pay him a visit ; and accordingly left Jedburgh 
for Hermitage Castle; but her stay was very short, as 
she returned back the same night, having travelled 
in the course of that day about forty miles. The con- 
sequences of this rapid journey, from fatigue and ex- 
posure to the cold of a stormy winter evening, had 
nearly proved fSatal to her ; as she caught a severe cold» 
which ended in a violent fever, attended with delirium, 
and for some time her life was despaired of. 

The lords who attended her majesty to Jedburgh, 
judging it advisable, in these circumstances, to prevent 
any tumult or disorder, published the following procla- 
mation :— 

<< Proclamatioim to krip gude Reule at Jedburgh. 
*^ Forasmekill as the quenis majestie, movit of the zeale hir 
hienes hes continowallie borne to justice, reparit to this coun- 
trie accumpanyit with hir nobilite for administratioun thairpf 
to the uthir oppressit sabjectis ; and for hir hither cuming, at 
Goddis pleBSour, lur Majestie is vexit with infinnite and seik- 
ness, quhairthrow her hienes is not abiU, according to hir 
gude inclinatioan, to attend, upoun that thing quhilk wes tlw 
occasioun of hir Majesties reparing in thir parts at first : 
And albeit the nobillmen and counsal present hes gude hoip 
and confidence of hir gracious convalescence and restoring to 


helth, yit in the men tyme divers personis, la£Eurs of im« 
quyetnee and innemeis to this commoim weill, mair respec- 
tand thair particular quarrellis nor the quyetnes of the 
ooontre^ may peradventure tak occasioun throw hir hienes 
disease and seiknes, to revenge thair privat quarrellis, and 
mak molestatioun and perturbatioun to the disturbing of all 
gude ordour; quhilk the nobilite and counsal tymeouslie 
fearand, hes with ane voice and mynd consentit, and in the 
presence of Grod, and on thair honors, faithfullie promittit to 
uthers, that all particularitie, feid, favour, or affectioun, set 
asyd, thai sail declair thamselfis innemds to the persoun or 
persounis quhatsumevir comittaris of the said disordour and 
unquyetnes, as gif the offence were done to ony of thamselffis 
in particular. And thairfoir ordanis ane officiar of armes to 
pass to the mercat-croce of the burgb of Jedburgh, and thair 
be opin proclamatioun command and charge all and sundrie 
her majesties l^eis and subdittis quhatsumevir, that thai, and 
ilk ane of them, contein themselffis in quyetness and gude 
ordour, and on nawayis to tak upoun hand to put on armour, . 
or to invaid, molest, persew, or inquiet utheris in bodyes or 
gudes, be word, deid, or countenance, undir the pain i^ 
tressoun ; certifyeing thame that sail presume to do in the 
contrair, besyde the puneisment ordinar of the law and con- 
suetude of the realme, thai sail be persewit and foUowit to the 
deid as tndtouris to the haill realme ; and the hail force and 
power of the nobilite sail be usit agains thame, as gif the 
offence were comittit agains ony of thair awn personis in 

The queen having recovered, expressed a desire to see 
Berwick^ and as soon as she was able to undertake thi^ 
journey, set out from Jedburgh for that purpose, taldog 
Kelso in her route, where she remained two nighta, 
and held a council, at which a private dispute was set- 
tled. From thence she proceeded to Hume Castle, and 

* Keith, p. 353. 


passing through Langtown and Wedderbum, arrived 
at Berwick, escorted by firom 800 to 1000 horse. On 
reaching the Bounroad, she was received by Sir John 
Forster and the captain of the town, attended by a 
number of the most respectable of the inhabitants, who 
manifested the utmost joy on receiving this unexpect- 
ed visit. Leaving Berwick she proceeded to Dunbar, 
and thence to her residence at Craigmillar, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Edinburgh.* 

In a letter from Lord Hunsdon to Cecil, dated Ber- 
wick, 18th of September, 1569, it is stated^ that for 
the purpose of administering justice, and in order to 
suppress the petty feuds that were continually distress- 
ing the Border, the Earl of Murray had arrived at 
Kelso, where he intended to remain for five or six 
weeks. Accordingly, on his arrival, he dispatched a 
messenger requiring the attendance of Lord Hunsdon 
and Sir John Forster, that he might have the benefit of 
their advice to enable him to come to some determina- 
tion as to the best means to be employed for accom- 
plishing so desirable an object. They, in consequence, 
met him at Kelso, and made with him the arrange- 
ments deemed necessary.f 

The Lairds of Bucdeugfa and Femiherst, (two of the 
most strenuous firiends of Queen Mary,) on the very 
night of the murder of the R^nt Murray, at Lin- 
lithgow, (23d of January, 1570,) broke into England 

* Keiths 351-4 Robertaoo, toI. II. 172* Chahnen* Q. Uary, 
ToL I, 191- Bidpath, 621. 
t Haynes' State Papers, p. 5^S. Ridpath, p. 6S0. 


with their dans, and laid waste the frontiera with un- 
wonted ferodtf. In this incursian they were accom- 
panied by some English rebels who had taken refuge 
in Scotland ; and their motive for it was revenge on 
Queen Elizabeth, for her treatment of Queen Mary, 
and also for the usage they had themselves received 
from the Regmt, who they supposed had been instiga- 
ted thereto by the Queen of England. 

On receiving intelligence of this inroad, Elizabeth 
sent an ambassador to Scotland to complain of this in- 
sult, and to state, that, if the government vOf the Idag- 
dom was not able to prevent such outrages, or to pu^ 
nish the offenders, she would chastise them herself; 
at the same time, she would take care that the guilty 
alone should suffer. The lords, who at this time ezer«- 
dsed the supreme power, declined returning any an- 
swer to the queen till a regent should be appointed, 
which, from the^tmsettled state of the country, was not 
likely soon to take place ; she, therefore, in order to 
avenge this affront, and to punish those Border chief* 
tains^ as well for harbouring and protecting English re* 
bels and fugitives, as for the outrages they had com^ 
mitted, and to make them, as Cedl expresses in a letter 
to Sir Norris, ** feel tiie sword and firebrand," dispatdif 
ed the Earl of Sussex, her lieutenant in the north, and 
Lord Hunsdon, governor of Berwick, into Scotland^ 
who, in the course of a week, totally wasted, burned^ 
and destroyed, the vales of Tiviot, Kale, and Bowmont, 
levelling fifty castles and strong-holds, and above 800 
villages. * 


This force left Berwick on the 17th of April, and 
the same night arrived at Wark Castle. Next morn- 
ing: they entered Tiviotdale, burning and destrojring all 
the castles, towns, and villages, till they came to the 
Castle of Mosse, belonging to the Lord of Bucdeugb, 
strongly situated in a marsh, which they also destroyed, 
and afterwards advanced to Crailing, a strong castle of 
the Lord of Femiherst, laying waste everything in 
their route. The same day Sir John Forster, warden of 
the Middle Marches, entered Tiviotdale, in the direc- 
tion of Gat^fiead, with a very considerable force, and 
carrying destruction along with him, pushed on to 
Crailing, where both armies met. This castle they 
burnt and destroyed, with the other strong^iolds and 
towns in the vicinity. The two armies aftierwards 
marched along the Tiviot, burning and spoiling all the 
castles and towns on that river, till they came to Jed- 
burgh, where they halted, and were courteously recei- 
ved by the magistrates and inhabitants, on which ac- 
count they spared the town, where the Laird of Cess- 
ford having arrived and made his submission, and ha- 
ving showed the Earl of Sussex that he had not been 
engaged in these incursions for which the present re* 
venge was taken, he received the same fovour. 

Next day, the 19th, the army divided, and one part 
passing the Tiviot, burnt the Castle of Femiherst, and 
all the other castles and towns belonging to its proprie- 
tor, till they came to Bedruelle ; and having reached 
Minto, both armies again joined and proceeded to Ha- 
wick, carrying the same destruction along both banks 


of the river. Here they intended to have fixed their 
quarters for the night, but the inhabitants learning 
their approach, had deserted the town, carrying with 
them most of their valuables, after taking the thatch 
from their dweUings, and setting fire to it in the streets. 
The English, irritated by this conduct, took all the 
wood belonging to the houses and consumed it also, 
thus completing the destruction of the town, with the 
exception of one small house built of stone, in which 
the English commander slept. 

The following day they marched to a house belong- 
ing to the Lord of Bucdeugh, which they blew up, and 
afterwards proceeding to the northward of the Tiviot, 
they destroyed aU the castles, towns, piles, and towers 
which belonged to that nobleman's kinsm^a and adhe- 
rents, and the same night returned to Jedburgh. 

Next day, the 21st, part of the army proceeded to the 
river Bowmont, and the other to the river Kale, de- 
stroying the dwellings of every sort on both these 
waters, and then met at Kelso, (where the lord-lieu- 
tenant was waiting their arrival,) for the purpose of 
laying siege to Hume Castle, but being disappointed 
in receiving his artillery from Wark, he was obliged to 
return with the army to Berwick, without attempting 
this siege. 

On the 22d, the army reached Berwick, having been 
absent only six days, and in all this time never did any 
Scottish force appear to oppose or resist them.* 

* Notes to Sadler's State Papers, vol. III. p. 419. Stow^p. 417- 
19. Ridpath, p GSS-SS. 


Lodge^ in Lis ^ Illustrations of British Historjr," has 
preserved an original account of the depredations com- 
mitted by the English on the Borders in this year. We 
shall therefore take the liberty of eictractiug the record 
from that work verbatim, as printed : — 

^ Sir Robert Constabls to the Earl of Shrewsbury, 


^< Bdf^ Han^Ucj and my motie eq^edatt ffood Lord^ 

*^ Foragmuehe as I wolde not be forgettfuU of my deutiie to 
yo* lordship, I have thought good to troble you with these my 
letters, adv'tisiiig yo' Honor the whole discourse of o' enter- 
prises here donn, sythen so* comfaig into these partis.* First, 
my Lord Le ed with my Lord Hunsdon, 

and hundreth armed pykes, and tow 

from Wark, the xvii*^ 
of Aprill, intred into the realme of Scottlande, and did bume 
and spoyle all alonge the rjrver of Rowle, and the Water of 
Cale, and camped that night at GMworth. The next morn- 
ing ha marched to FemehorBtf and overthrew it, and so 
burned and spoyled all along the ryyer of Tyyyett, and so to 

^ This curious aodent Gasette contains a jonmal of the furioos 
inroad made by Sussex^ called here the lord-lieuteDantt and Hud- 
son^ in 1570. The pretence for this expedition was the chastisement 
of the dans of Carre^ or Ker^ and Scot, which had lately committed 
some depredations on the English Bordeit, but the true motive was 
to awe the few remaining friends of Mary, and to prevent them from 
uniting while the regency remained vacant Elizabeth issued a pro- 
clamation upon this occasion, declaring her inviolable friendship to 
the Scottish nation, but setting forth the necessity of punishing 
some particular offenders ; and this was repeatedly read at the head 
of an army whidi was then employed in desolating the East and 
West Borders. The circumstances which attended this invasion have 
escaped the notice of historians. Even Camden, who lived at the 
timet makes no mention of so horrible a spoil. 

t Femiherst, in Tiviotdale ; a house belonging to the Ken^ ances- 
tors of the Marquis of Lothian 


Hawid^aad boned and spoykd it. The next day he e^Feiv 
thieir the stronge house of the Lord of Buodeoghe, called 
Brencksome,* and from thense to Bedrowell, a howse of S' 
Andrew Tmmfaley and oyerthrew it, with dyrers other notar 
ble towers and houses all alonge those ryvers aforenamed: 
The next night we retired to Gedworth, where we camped 
againe. The next momyng we dislodged and burnt all the 
cuntre alonge the ryver of Bowbanok, and burnt and spoyl- 
ed Uie hole cuntre as we marched^ and came bock that night 
to Kelsay. The nombr of the townes and viUages, by estinHi* 
cion, was aboue fyve hundreth» the terhor of the vidiiehe cau- 
sed the reste of the cuntre to cume and offer thdr submission 
to my Lord Leventen'ute, with all the finendsh^ and ser* 
vice they cold do to hym and to hys, and so we retyred our- 
selves back againe for that tyme, so that we rested ogives 
thre or fewer dales. The xxvii^ day, my Liord Leveten'ute 
being at Warke, accompanid withe the hide bandes of fote- 
ment, and one thousande horse, with thre batterie peces and 
tow sacris, went to the sege of Home, where he planted his 
batterie, where, within twelve houres after the batterie was 
planted, the castle was surrendred to hym symplie, being 
within yt tow hundredth and fortie souldiours; so the soul- 
diours deputed owt of yt in there hose and doblette. Suerly^ 
my lorde, yf I had had the charge, with fyftie souldiers, I 
wolde have thought me worthie to have bene hanged, drawn^ 
and quartred, yf I had delyered yt within the moneth sege. 
My lorde hath appoynted M' Wood his bande, and M' Pyk^ 
man Ids band, tow of the bandes of Barwick, to bave die 
kepyng of yt ; and so my lord retyred back againe to Bar- 
wicke to refresh hymscHe and his companye. 

** Item, the iiii^ daye of May he sent owte eerteine bandes 
of horsemen, and also eerteine fotemoi, to marehe lowardsa 
Fa8tecastle,f whiche, immediatlie uppon the horsemens eo- 

^ Braaxholiiie, near Hawidc, the sncieiit seat of the fiunily of SooC 
t A strong fortrem, which likewise belonged to the family of 

Hume. It stood on a little promontory a few miles north of Cold- 



mingey yeided themselves symplie ; and there ys also oerteine 
garrison appoynted there for the kepyng of yt. Assuredlie, 
my lorde, all the hole cuntre here 

submytt themselves to my lorde 

newes that hathe here happened sythens o' arrjrvall here; 
and as occasion shall happen, I shall adv'tyse yo' Lordship 
from tyme to tyme, as I can gett convenient messeng^ers. 
Thus, leving to troble yo' lordship anb further, I com'itt 
jon to the Almightie, who, ever p'serve you in helth and 
long lyfe, with increase of great honor. Frome Barwick, this 
v^ of May. 

<^ Yo' Lordshippe's at com'^aundment for eV, 

<^ (Signed) Rob^ Constable. 

" To the rig^t honiable and his most 
espesball good Lorde, th' Erie of 
Shrosbury, gyve this. 
In hast, hast, bast"* 


The measures adopted by James VI. with the advice 
of his ministers, (of whom James Stewart, Earl of Ar- 
ran, was the chief,) who are represented as '* insatiable 
in their avarice, cruel in their malice, and unsatisfiable 
in their suspicions," were considered by the Earl of An- 
gus, the Earl of Mar, and a great proportion of the 
nobles, as subversive of both the dvil and religious li- 
berties of the subject ; they, thexefore, in order to rid 
the king of his mal advisers, and to save the country, 
resolved, after every other method had failed, to as- 
semble their forces at Stirling, there to renew their 
supplications to his majesty, to intimate to him their 

* Lodge, vol. II. p. 42. * 


grievances, and to issue a declaration expressive of 
their views and intentions. Having there met, they 
obtained possession of the castle, (18th April, 1584,) and 
a Colonel Stuart was sent with 500 men to take them 
prisoners, when, finding they had not force sufficient to 
make an effectual resi$tance, they retired during the 
night, with the determination to quit the kingdom. 
Passing, in their route towards England, near to Kel- 
so, where the Earl of Bothwell, (grandson to King 
James V., and commendator of Kelso,) then was, he se- 
cretly came out and held a conference with them ; after 
which, to make it appear as if he had done this in or«> 
der to prevent their escape, a counterfeit chase took 
place for about a mile, till they reached English ground. 
Next day they proceeded to Berwick, where they were 
received, and there remained for some time ; but this 
place being too near the Scottish capital for them to 
continue with safety, especially as Lord Hunsdon, the 
governor, was on friendly terms with the Scottish court, 
they were removed first to Newcastle, thence to Ndir« 
wich, and afterwards to London, for the avowed pur«> 
pose of answering to charges exhibited against them 
by the ambassador of the King of Scotland, as rebds 
and traitors. This, however, was merely a pretext, 
the real cause of their removal to London being to con* 
cert measures for their return. The Earl of Arran, 
who had so long governed the kingdom, having, by 
his injustice, cruelty, and rapacity, excited the univer* 
safdisgust and indignation of the nation ; the banished. 


or rather fugitive lords, were accordingly brought to 
trial, in the month of April, 1585, before a certain 
number of the councillors of England, appointed hy the 
queen ; and although the Scottish ambassador (who 
was, nevertheless, though secretly, heartily attadied to 
their cause) seemingly did everything in his power to 
procure their condemnation, their innocence appeared 
to be so clearly established, that they were acquitted 
most honourably of every charge brought against them. 

The ambassador, having thus executed his misaiim, 
left England, where he secretly lent his aid in matu^ 
ring the plan for their return ; and the English am- 
bassador at the court of James was, at the same time, 
ordered to use all his influence with his majesty to 
have them recalled. ^ 

In this state of things, the Earl of Angus, the Earl 
of Mar, and the Master of Glammis, left Liondon, and 
arrived on the Borders in the month of October, 1585, 
where they remained a short time; and afterwards 
prdceeded to Kelso, where they were kindly received 
by the Earl of Bothwell, with whom they abode two or 
three days, and were then joined by Lord Hume, and 
others of their friends. From this they went to Jed- 
burgh, and there published a manifesto declaratory of 
their intentions, and also justifying their previous con- 
duct as dictated by the imperious necessity of the case. 
They now openly avowed that their purpose was to 
rescue the king from the power of sudi wicked and 
dangerous coundUors as the Earl of Arran and lis 


party, and called iqpon every subject, in the king's 
name, to assist in this woric. From Jedburgh they 
pushed on by rapid marches, taking Hamilton and Fal-* 
kirk in their route, to St Ninian's, in the neighbour- 
hood of Stirling, having with them about 4000 men ; 
and, on the very morning after their arrival, about 
daybreak, they surprised the town, which they took 
without almost any opposition ; the Earl of Arran ha-> 
ving made his escape, and the Earls of Rothes, GhsD?^ 
cairn, and Errol, being made prisoners. The castle^ 
where the king resided, being unprovided for a siege 
even of two days, his majesty, in great wrath, sent 
a message by his secretary to the Lords, demand- 
ing to know the meaning of this disloyal behaviour. 
They answered, — ^* Necessity." And as they had no 
intention of doing any harm to his royal person, or to 
olBfer his majesty any insult, so would they, on their 
knees, b^ pardon, if they were admitted into his pre- 
sence. This answer, in some measure, calmed his fury, 
and he replied, ** That although he did not approve 
of Arran's violent measures, yet he was not less dis- 
pleased with their actions." The nobles were shortly 
after received by the king, who granted them his par- 
don, which was afterwards confirmed by a Parliament 
held at Linlithgow ; and the party, to the satisfsu^on 
of the coimtry, was restored to fiivour.* f 

* Godflcroft, p. SS$, et seq. Maitland, yoI. II. p. 1181. Iticl- 
path, p. 665-6. 

t It is inferred, from letters of James which are extant, that he 


On the return of James VI., in 1590, from his matri- 
monial expedition to Denmark, he and his council were 
much occupied with the numerous prosecutions which 
at this time were instituted against the lowest of the 
community, upon charges of witchcraft and sorcery ; 
and it often happened that, to escape the horrid tor- 
tures to which the poor wretches who had the misfor- 
tune to be suspected of these crimes were exposed, 
many of them acknowledged their guilt, and made 
confessions which afford sufficient evidence that they 
were either extorted by, or emitted through the dread 
o^ these tortures. 

The Earl of Bothwell, an ambitious and intriguing 
character, and who, during the king's absence, held the 
second place in the council of the regency, was the ob- 
ject of fear, mistrust, and envy, to all those who were 
actuated by a similar ambition. 

That he little regarded the means, whether of vio- 
lence or deceit, by which he might attain his object, 
there is no reason to dispute ; but there is every reason 
to doubt that a man of his intrepidity and intelligence 
would have resorted to means which, in his judgment, 

was privy to the whole of this business^ which he secretly encouraged ; 
but« from weakness of intellect, or want of resolution^ he could not 
be induced to act openly or decisively against Arran and his party, 
to whom he was still so partial, that before receiving the bAiished 
lords into fsLVour, or conferring on them the government, he exacted 
from them a promise that they would not molest his former servants, 
and that they would bury in oblivion all personal or family quarrels 
between them. 


he must have considered as alU^ether inadequate to 
his purpose. Be this as it may, history informs us, that 
in the examinations of certain witches and sorcerers, 
the king and his council received information that the 
earl, while the king was abroad, had consulted with 
some of these wretches how his majestjr's life might be 
shortened. On this information the earl was appre- 
hended, and committed to the Castle of Edinburgh 
(June 22, 1591,) upon a charge of high-treason, in order 
to take his trial. After two months' confinement, he ef- 
fected his escape, and fled to the south, where, having 
collected a few followers, he was joined by the Lord <^ 

The Earl of Bothwell, for this act, having been de- 
clared a traitor, and all who had connected themselves 
with him having experienced the same treatment, their 
fortimes and his became inseparable. The king, there* 
fore, summoned a council, to which he required the 
presence of the Lord of Hume, with the view of enga« 
ging all his nobles to assist in the apprehension or sub- 
jugation of the Earl of Bothwell. Lord Hume refu- 
sing .to attend this meeting, the barons of the district 
entered into a bond, in consequence of this refasal, to 
act against them both. Bothwell, in consequence, fled 
into England, and Iiord Hume took shelter in Flaik^ 
ders ; but shortly afterwards transmitting his submidy 
sion to the king, he was pardoned, and allowed to re* 
turn to the kingdom. 

Bothwell still remained upon the Borders, and kept 


up a oorrespondenoe with some of his majesty's domes- 
ties in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, who favoured his 
design of procuring possession of the king^s person ; 
and a fit opportunity, as he supposed, offering, he, by 
a rapid march, reached the palace, which he entered 
through a i»iyate passage, accompanied hy a band of 
resolute and desperate men ; and would have effected his 
purpose but for the intervention of some faithful and 
well-affected servants, who gave the alarm in sufficient 
time to allow the king to retire to a place of safety, and 
to obtain help from the dty, (December ST^ 1091*) The 
earl was, in consequence, obliged to retire, but his de- 
sign was not abandoned, for he afterwards made the 
same attempt at Falkland, when the Idng very narrow- 
ly escaped falling into his hands. 

The immediate effects of these two attempts to seize 
his ])erson, were the assembling of a large force by the 
king to follow after and take Bothwell ; who, aware of 
his inability to withstand Uiis force, again took re- 
fuge in England, imploring the protection of the queen, 
and her good offices with the King of Scotland to re* 
ceive him again into fevour. 

Although he did not obtain his object in this way, 
yet, through his influence with his friends, the Stew*^ 
arts, he was allowed to return, and was admitted into 
the presence of the king at Hcdyroodhouse, (1598,) who, 
at the solicitation of this party, granted a pardon to 
him and his accomplices, with the restitution of all 
their property. The king, however, considering this 


ANCIRNT HisTooay. 65 

promise as extorted from him, took the esaiiest oeca- 
sicm that offered of calling a convention at Stirling ; 
when, upon due deliberation, the king was absolved 
firom this promise, and it was determined to send a 
message to the earl, offering pardon to him aiid kis fol* 
lowers, if supplication was made in tf eettam tiftie, but 
only on condition of his* leaning the kingdom during hte 
majesty's pleasure. 

Hiese terms^ were accepted by BothweK ; but temifr^ 
ing that Hume had been allowed to return to court, 
he threatened the king that he would oblige hmi tofiil^ 
fil the promise given to him at Holyrood^ouse ; and^ 
despairing of this by negotiation, again took up arm» to 
enforce it. He was, in consequence^ summoned to ap- 
pear before the council, and ^Euliii^ so to do, was a se- 
cond time denounced a rebel. 

BothweU, aware of the distracted state of the coufl- 
tary, and knowing well the irresdute temper of the kiqg, 
had obtahied the concurrence at a number of powerffd 
noUes in his attempt]to overthrow the present measures 
of the court ; and in this he was encouraged, (tlmigh 
secretly,) by the English cabinet, who r^aided James 
in heart, attadied to the Catholic cause, wiiich Eliaa« 
betk was endetivourtng, by every means in her pow^, 
to destroy. The king, nrritated by the obstinacy of' 
Bothwell, yet desirous' of avoiding the last extfetmtfi' 
stmnnoned'aconvlentionat Linlithgow ; wherein it wti^- 
agreed to offer to Bothwell, and to his confederates; ^ 



(Himtly and Errol,) the restitution of their estates, on 
the condition of their quitting the kingdom. The cler- 
gy, however, opposing this, as betraying the cause of 
religion, and as contrary to the repeated declarations 
of the king, it became void. 

Meanwhile the king, aware that the excommunicated 
popish lords had entered into a league to send to Spain 
for an army to assist them in the invasion of England, 
for the purpose of delivering the Spanish Catholics who 
had fallen into the hands of the queen, sent an embassy 
to the court of Queen Elizabeth, requesting money, to 
defend the kingdom against the landing of the Spa- 
niards, to enable him to punish these popish lords ; and 
at the same time requesting Bothwell to be delivered up. 

The Queen, still distrustful of James, did not comply 
with his requests to the extent he expected. A small 
sum of money was given to him ; and, with respect to 
Bothwell, her answer was, *^ that, agreeable to treaty, 
he would be delivered up, or sent from the kingdom.** 
Still, however, she secretly encouraged Bothwell, who 
continued lurking about the Borders. 

The rejection of the offers made by the king to Both- 
well and his adherents, on the recommendation of the 
convention held at Linlithgow, to which, without doubt» 
he was stimulated by the promises of the English court, 
incensed his majesty to that degree, that he resolved to 
bing the whole of them to instant trial ; and for this 
purpose summoned them to surrender themselves pri- 
soners in certain castles. This they refused ; and this 


refusal, jmned to the certain intelUgence the King had 
received of the dealings of the English ambassador with 
these rebels, so irritated him, that he assembled a body 
of troops, (April 1 £(94,) amounting to upwards of 1000 
men, at Kelso, under the command of Liord Hume, 
Lairds Cessford and Buccleugb, to oppose Bothwell^ 
should he attempt to enter the kingdom ; where, after' 
remaining for some time, they dispersed. BothweU,' 
apprized of this; immediately crossed the Borders, and 
arrived at Kelso with 400 horse, \i^ll armed and eqttip^- 
ped, where he was joined by Lord Odiiltree, with 100 
men. With this small force he left Kelso next day, and 
proceeding by way of Dalkeith, he marched to Leith, in 
e:q^ctati(m of being joined by AthoU and others. 

Disappointed, however, in meeting these chiefe, hia 
resolved to make good his retreat by the same route 
to th^ Borders ; and accordingly, in the course of the 
night, lisaving Leith, he drew up Ins men in order of 
battle on the idain between Leith and Edinburgh^ whero > 
he continued till mid-day, in opeii defiance of the king's - 
troops. On his advance south, when but a short dis-^ 
tance from the metropolis, he was followed by .Lord 
Home ; but, turning suddenly upon him, ,he attacked 
and. defeated his troops, pursuing them to the vidnity 
of the Burrow-moor, where the king was encamped witk 
the citizens of Edinburgh, and his artillery ; and the 
punruit was only Mopped on his receiving a fall jBrom 
his horse, by which he was severely bruised. 

Next day he retired unmolested to Dalkeith, and af- 

68 HlffTOmY OK KBiSO. 

tenraids to KeltcH wkefe his fones separated ; and lie 
agaiB retired into En^aiid* 

Mattaia by this time haTing beea in some measure 
eipUdned and adjusted between EKwibfth and James» 
she by procUunatioa fiorbade Bothwdl coming into Eny^ 
landt or being received into any dwelUng4MNise. He 
then returned to Scotland^ where be made a fimitless 
attempt to obtain assistance firom his old friends; and 
sAor wandering for some time as an exile in Caithness, 
ha again withdrew to England ; bnt Cearing lest he 
might be apprehended, and sent to Scotland as a rebd* 
(according to the agreement between the two courts,) he 
twk refuge, first in France^ afterwarda in Spaan, and 
lastly in Italy ; dragging out a misemUe emittfnfd nn- 
pitiedand feigotten. 

Meanwhile his vast estates, were confiscated bf Kii^ 
Janes, who divided them among the foUowiag diiefs, 
tomfoAy his partirann, but now his enesniiWL To Locd 
Hums he gave CoMinghame ; Kslse to Rsfissl Gsrr of 
CemftMrd ; and Liddisdale to Walter Scott rflimirlwigh ; 
while the wife and fiunily of Bothwell ware left ivith 
scsrcely any support* 

. i>om the period when the lefiMinataoa in Oecmany 
had obtained something like a firm foundation, and the 
d wtrines and principka q£ the two great Icadew in that 
important event had gained a looting in England and 
Sookland^ the whcrie pownr of the Homan Pootifr 

• I^dpsdi. IV 6S& 

ANCIENT HfsrroRV. 69 

exerted in both cmmtries to previmt their dissemini- 
tk>ii and increase. NotwitbrtatficBng every BUtb^mptf 
niiethier by insinuation and flattery^ or by fytte ttiMl 
persecution, to attain this end, these opinions sodn ob^ 
tained a preponderant influence in dthet Idngdom. 

The cebtentikm in both countries, while undeir sepal 
tMq mmmMi was jprindpally confined to the biroad 
basis of ProtesttfkUsmi^gainst Popeiy ; and in this w»- 
£eure their succeM Was complete^-^Pc^M^ being so fiir 
abolished, that ^ PMteMant becatne the itetbUishM 
religion in both. 

No sdoneir, however, was the goveihunent of the two 
kii^dokns Vtsstdl in one sdv^reij^^ than a scheme Wikfa 
BdHned for effecting a uniformity in rites, prittdplei, 
and doctrine, throughout the empiM t and thfe kiii|f, 
{Chaiies I.,) eadSy foiling hi with the fohns of WtMhip 
a^ doctrine eslfcablished in England, lent alibis author 
rity to the plahs folrmed by the blotted and perseed^ 
thig bishops to early this puirpoSe into effebt ThUs 
were sown die Seeds <^ all the calaniities whidt be^ 
both cbuntries in this and the threA succeeding reighs. 

The Scots, who undw James had received a modifiM 
Episcopacy, soon imUbed so violent a dislike of an hi^ 
rarchical pdlity, and tiieii* attachtn^t to Ptesbytofjr 
(which had Sopow^rAiUy been ihculeated i^ the Mai <of 
Knox and Melville) beetone so strongs that they M- 
garded eveiTthing connected with Episeopikcy m so 
many symbols of Popery. As such, they viewed the 
attanpts of Charts I. to introduce a new JUturgy and 


canons into the Kirk of Scotland* and entered into a 
covenant to stand by each other, even at the risk of 
their lives, in opposing this .imprudent and tyrannical 

The king, however, notwithstanding of every re- 
monstrance, still persevered ; and, urged on by his ad* 
visers, of whom Archbishop Laud was the chief, deter- 
mined, at all hazards, to force upon the Scots nation a 
form of worship no less obnoxious to their feelings than, 
contrary to his own interest and duties* The conse- 
quence of this infiatuated policy was a dvil war. 

The measure, however, bring determined on> orders 
were'sent to Scotland tibat the new Liturgy should be 
read in all the churches on piaster Sunday, 1687 ; but 
the opposition expected to be made to it'so strongly ap- 
peared, that it was not carried into effect on that day^ 
jas>T was it attempted to be read until farther orders 
should be received from his mfgesty. These orders socm 
came, and the ecclesiastics were commanded to perfbnn 
this service, under high penalties. Accordingly, next 
Sabbath it was attempted in the Cathedral C!hurch 
of St Giles, at Edinburgh, the archbishops, bishops, 
lords of session, and magistrates, being present ; but 
the tumult was such that it became necessary to turn 
out the greaiter part of the congregation by force ; and 
the doors being shut against them, the service was gone 
through ; the^multitude, however, continuing their riot- 
ous behaviour without, by assailing the diurch with 
stones, venting their execrations against the king and his 


councU, and threatening the lives of those who had per- 
formed the service, the military was called out for their 
protection. At the same time, petitions from various 
parts of Scotland were addressed to the king, complain- 
ing of this measure, and settingforth their reasons for re- 
fiising to obey his commands in this instance. To these 
representations the king returned a most unfavourable 
answer; at the same time, he issued a proclamation, 
forbidding the people to meet for framingpetitions, upon 
pain of hig^-treason. Against this stretch of power a 
strong protest was taken by a number of noblemen, ba- 
rons, ministers, and burghers, who asserted their right 
to petition the king, and declared, that all their proceed- 
ings in this affair were only for the preservation of the 
true reformed religion, the laws and liberties of the 

The assembling of such multitudes in contravention 
of the king's proclamation, inspired the council with 
apprehension of danger ; they therefore recommended 
that the four classes above-mentioned should choose a 
certain number of delegates to meet concerning this bu- 
siness, till the king's pleasure should be known. This 
was agreed to, and the rest of the people returned 
quietly to their homes. These delegates having met at 
Edinburgh, commissioners were chosen by them to di- 
gest the matters agreed to by the whole body, whose 
decision on these points was to be final. The first thing 
the commissioners decided upon was the renewal of 
the solemn league and covenant subscribed by King 


Jamesy bis household, and by the whole Scots na- 
tion ; and to this was added a nwrative of the diffe- 
rent acts of Parliament, by which the reformed religion 
had been ratified since that time ; and also a declaration 
of all the innovations that had taken place contrary to 
the king^s coronation oath, and the established doctrines 
of the church ; and that they would not yidd obedience 
unto them until the same were sanctioned by a Gene- 
ral Assembly and by Parliament. A copy of this act 
being sent to his majesty for his concurrence, he was so 
much displeased, that he set his face against it, and was 
determined not to be thwarted in his original design. 
This dedaraticm, nevertheless, was signed with great 
solemnity and devotion at Edinburgh, in February 
16S8, and copies sent through the whole kingdom for 
the same purpose ; and so eager were the Scots to sul>- 
scribe, that, by the month of April, there was scarcely 
a Presbyterian whose name was not affixed to it. 

Such bold proceedings on the part of the Scots had 
this effect, that the king was induced to call his coun- 
cil, in order to consider the measures proper to be 
adopted, to prevent the resort to arms ; but^ at the same 
time, to enforce obedience to his mandates. At this 
council it was determined to appoint commissioners to 
hear and to deliberate upon the grievances complained 
of, and, if possible, to effect a reconciliation : — should 
this prove ineffectual, to employ coercive means in or- 
der to obtain submission* 

To second these views, the Marquis of Hamilt^m was 

appoitttad IliB majegty's U^ commissioner to Scotlanc^ 
witb uuitroctiondt far the pf\e^ent^ to suspend the ua^ 
of the latut^y^t, neTartheless, to require .the jcove* 
nant to be ddiveted up within six we^. The mar- 
quis was Terjr w^ received on his: amval at £din* 
buri^, but when the nature of his powers were made 
public* they were not found at all calculated to allay the 
ferment the former jMrooedure of his majesty had pro^ 
duoed ; so th9t» after making every endeavour to obtain 
tbe end <^ his missioii» he was obliged to repi^ent to tht 
king the necessity either of yielding to the people^ or of 
speedily quelUng the malcontents by force. The latter 
advice : wfis unfortunately followed, and his majesty, 
upon leeeipt of this intelligence, declared the Covenant** 
ers rebels, and made preparations to reduce them to 

In the meantime, the Covenanters, aware of the 
king's determination, used every exertion to resist it^ 
and for this purpose an army was raised, the command 
of which was given to General Lesley, (who was sent for 
from Germany, and who, upon this occasion, quitted the 
Swedish service ;) they also secured the castles of Edin- 
burgh and Dumbarton, but, at the same time, were mi- 
serably deficient in arms, ammunition, and money. The 
command of the king's forces was intrusted to the Mar- 
quis of Hamilton. 

The army of the Covenanters, which amounted to 
from seventeen to eighteen thousand men, was ordered 
to r^idezvous at Dunse, from whence it weal to Kelso. 


In the meantime, the king having taken the field in 
person, arrived at Birics, in the neighbourhood of Ber- 
wick, where he pitched his camp ; and where, on the 
2d June, 1689, he received information that the Scots 
had established their quarters at Kelso. His majesty 
hereupon called a council of war, when it was deter- 
mined to send the Earl of Holland against them with 
one thousand horse, and three thousand foot This 
fitNTce crossed the Tweed the next day at Twisle, but, 
fix>m the intense heat, although somewhat refreshed by 
crossing the river, they were scarcely able to proceed. 
Having, however, arrived within a short distance of 
the Covenanters' army, a herald was dispatched to de- 
mand the reason of such a wariike advance ; but a large 
body of horse and foot, which had hitherto been con- 
cealed, coming suddenly upon the English, they, after a 
iittie deliberation, judged it prudent to retreat ; and ar- 
riving at the camp, their discomfiture tended in no small 
degree to discourage the king's army,— a great portion 
of which was by no means hearty in the cause. 

The following letter, sent from Sir Henry Vane to 
the Marquis of Hamiltcm, will show the state of affairs 
at this time : — . 

" My Lord, 
<< By the dispatch Sir James Hamilton brought your lord- 
ship from his Majesty's sacred pen, you were left at yoor li- 
berty to commit any act of hostility upon the rebels, when 
your lordship should find it most opportune* Since which, 
my Lord Holland, with 1000 horse, and 3000 foot, marched 


toiwardb Kdsey, lumself adraneed towards them with the 
horM^ (leaving the foot three mUes bdiiiid,) to a fdaoe called 
Maacwell-heiigh) a height above Kekey ; which, when the re- 
bels discovered, they instantly marched out with 150 horsey 
and (as my Lord Holland says) eight or ten thonsand foot ; 
fire or six thousand there ndght have bin. He thereupon 
sent a trumpet, commanding them to retreat, according iq 
what they had promised by the proclamation. They asked^ 
whose trumpet he was ? He sai^ my Lord Holland's. Their 
answer was, He were best to be gofie. And so my Lord Hol- 
land made his retreat, and waited on his majesty this night to 
give him this account 

« This morning advertisement is brought his majesty that 
Lesley, with 12,000 men, is at Cockbumspath, Ihat 5000 
men wiKbe this n^t or to-morrow at Dunce, 6000 at Kel- 
sey; so his majesty's opinicm is, with many of his coun<nl, to 
keep himself upon a defensive, and make himself here as fiuU 
as he can ; for his majesty doth now clearly see, and is fully 
satisfied in his own judgment, that what passed in the galle- 
ry* betwixt his majesty, your lordship, and myself, hath bin 
but too much verified on this occasion ; and therefore his ma- 
jesty would not have you to begin with them, but to settle 
things with you in a safe and good posture, and yourself to 
come hither in person, to consult what counsels are fit to be 
taken, as the affiurs now hold. And so, wishing your lord- 
ship a speedy passage, I rest, 

^* Your lordship's 

^< most humble servant, 

** and fiuthfiil friend, 

« H. Vane. 

<' From die Camp at 
Huntley-field^ this 

ithof June^ 1639 


* That the nobility and gentry of England would never incline 
to invade Scotland^ and thereby begin an offensive war. 


The day following, the King's camp was thrown 
into considerable alarm by the approach of the Scottish 
army, which took up its station at Dunse Hill. This 
gave the king occasion to find fault with the director 
of his scouts, who had permitted this advanie to be 
made without giving him timely information. At this 
period the two armies were encamped in sight of each 
other, but neither had. an inclination to offer battle ; 
and the proTisions of the English faeginmiig to fiul, 
they were the less inclined for hostile procei^tlgl). A 
council was accordingly held the second day after, when 
proposals for a reconciliation were raade^; which being 
accepted, the Scottish army was disbanded ; the king 
having consented to allow them the free enjoyment of 
the privileges secured to them by various declarations 
and acts of Parliament. 

This peace, however, was not of long duration ; for 
we find the Scottish army advancing the year follow- 
ing to Newcastle, where a battle took place, in which 
they were victorious, and obtained possession of the 
town. Another treaty was shortly after concluded by 
commissioners appointed by both paii;ies ; but this also 
proving unsatisfactory, neither of them considered it 

Had, however, the king been sincere in his desire 
for peace, the above treaties, although defective, might 
have had the effect of preserving tranquillity ; but from 
his vacillating conduct, in always granting what was 
wrested from him in the hour of danger, and receding 


as S00& as that daoger ceased to eadst, the Covenanters 
found that no faith could be placed either in his pro- 
mises, his declarations^ or his treaties. AcoordiBgly, 
finding themselves so rq)eatedly deceived, they prep»« 
red for the worst 

At this time matters were in a very critical state ; 
the king, who still had a strong party in Engbnd and 
Ireland, had been very snccessfnl in his operations in 
the west and south of England, which gave the Eng« 
lish parliament serious alarm. In this dilemma, and 
when they daily expected that he would march upon 
the capital, they applied for assistance to die Soots, who 
consented to make common cause with them, but only 
on cpnditioa that the Solemn League and CbVenaM 
sho^dd b^ recognized and signed by Hue English nation, 
and thus become the bond of their union. This being 
agreed upon by the Parliament, and the Assembly of 
Divines, then sitting^ at Westminster, it was solemnly 
sworn to and signed by the House of CcHnmon^, suf^^ 
the Ass^nbly, on the 25th of September. Oil the 15tb 
of October, it was subscribed by the lords. The lords 
of his majesty's coimcil were afterwards summoned to 
sign it, which some of them refusii^, they were decla- 
red enemies to religion, their king and country, and 
their goodsr orc^ained to be seized^ and their persons ap- 
prehended. To avoid the latter, many of them fejEl the 
country. On the 2d February following^ (1 644^) it w^ 
published throughput the kingdom^ acoompanied' witli' 
an exhortation drat>^n tip by the A^embly, recopmiehd- 
ing the people to receive it, and requesting that all 


above the age of eighteen jrears should subscribe the 

The treaty of union being thus completed, the Cove* 
nanters ordered their army to march to England, which 
took possession of Berwick in the month of December, 
and on the 19th of January, 1644, crossed the Tweed, 
to the number of 21,000, under the command of Ge- 
neral Lesley;* and being joined to the forces under 
Lord Fairfax, the Earl of Manchester, and Lieute* 
nant-General Cromwell, they laid siege to the city of 
York, which being rdieved by Prince Rupert, a battle 
took place on Marston Moor, wherein the prince was 
defeated, with the loss of 8000 men, and the whole of 
his artillery. He then retired to Chester, leaving the 
whole of the garrisons in the north in the power of 
the Covenanters, to whom they submitted in the course 
of the ensuing summer.f 

* General Lesley was created Earl of Leven,. Lord Balgonie, by 
King Charles, in 1641, and received his patent with great solem- 
nity in the presence of the parliament at Edinburgh, on the 6th No* 
yember, the king himself placing the coronet on his head. See Sir 
J. Balfour, v. IIL p. 139. 

f Kelso appears at this time to have been the depot where troqis 
were collected, in order to fturnish reinforcements to the army in 
England ; as we see by a proclamation published at the Cross of 
Edinburgh, on the 11th of June this year, for the commanders and 
officers under the Earl of Kalender^s diarge to repair to the rendei- 
Tous at Kelso.p**Robertson's Index. 

In the same year, on account of some of the English forces in the 
king^s interest being in the neighbourhood of Kelso, 'the Scotft Par- 
liament, on the lOth of April, passed an act, prohibitiBg the txportM 
tion of grain from Scotland to England by land:— 

" The Estatis presentlie conyened, considering, that in respect of 


The war being thus ended in this quarter, we hear 
nothing of the Clovenanters' army, till, in the year 
1645, we find the Marquis of Douglas and Lord Ogil- 
vie sent, by order of Montrose, into the shires of Annan- 
dale and Nithsdale, to prevent Lesley from advancing 
with his army towards the Borders. In the meantime 
Lesley, having marched to Berwick, took the Earls 
of Roxburgh and Hume prisoners. On learning this, 
Montrose marched to Kelso, and from thence to Jed- 
burgh, and afterwards to Selkirk, where, having quar- . 
tered his cavalry in the town, he placed his infantry in 
a wood at a little distance from it Lesley, however, 
having followed him unobserved to that town, cam0' 
upon him by surprise, on the 18th of September, and 
takinghim thus unawares, theEnglish army was thrown 
into the utmost confusion ; and before th^ could reco« 
ver from it, Lesley had commenced his attack on their 
right wing. The English, unable to make any effectual 
resistance, were beat back, and forced to beg for quar^ 
ter : Lesley, nevertheless, commanded them to be cut 
in pieces. The route being complete, the whole baggage 
fell into the hands of the Scottish army. 

The next mention we find of the army of the Cove* 

some Englishe trouperis lying on the way of Northumberland^ That 
it 18 not saif that any meale be carried frome Kelso into England be 
land^ Do therefore discharge all carieing of anie victuale into £ng« 
land be land^ bot be order of the Comittees of Estatis of this king* 
dome ; and recomendis to the Comittee of Warre of Roodiu^h/ SeU 
kirk^ To see this order punctuallie observed."— i4c/« of ParUammi, 
▼ol. VI. p. 84. 


nanters, is in 1647, when, by an agreement entered 
into by commissioners appointed for this purpose, it 
left Newcastle, on the 80th of January, for Berwick ; 
and from thence, on the 11th of February, marched to 
Kelso. This place had been fixed upon as the rendez- 
vous of the whole army, whi<^ was to assemble in the 
abbey ; and having there met, six regiments of horse 
were disbanded, on delivering up their arms, and ta- 
king the fcXkfwing oath : ** That they should commit no 
manner of violence on the roads they were to take in 
going to their own houses ; that they should continue 
faithful to the League and Covenant betwixt the two 
kingdoms ; and, lastly, that they should never ingage 
themselves in any party against these two crowns.*^ 

The circumslanees attending this prolonged and un- 
natural war are so well knovt^n, that we forbear to en«- 
large farther on the subject. The grand object for 
which both nations took up^ arms was obtained, and 
the P^resbyterian form of worahip folly acknowledged 
and established in Sootlaad. Happy it is for us that we 
live in an age "vriien liberty of conscience is enjoyed, 
and every one is allowed to practise in peace whatever 
mode of worship is most congenial to his own mind 
and conscience* 

In the year 1645^ the inhabitants of Kelso were 

* Monteitli, p. 59y€i seq, Rushworthy vd. L p. 19» ^ 9eq* Nal* 
son, vol* L p. 230, ei seq. Thiirloe's State Papera, vol. I. p. J9,^it 
seq. Gordon's Fam. of Gordon, vol. II. p. 305-489. Nea^ vol. 
I. p. 230^ et seq, Burnet's Duke of Hamilton, p. 139. 



doomed to suffer {rota one of the most itevel^ cidamik 
ties with which the human race can be visited. The 
plague, which for some time past had been raging at 
Newcastle, was brought thither, where it commenced 
its ravages with all the fury natural to that disease*: 
How long it continued the scourge of the inhabitants 
we are not informed, but it afterwards broke out iai 
Edinburgh, where it was so fatal, that Parliament re- 
moved j&om thence to Stirling, where the same distem^ 
per soon after appearing, they a^oumed their sittings 
to the 24th day of July, to be then held at Perth.* 

About the year 1648, the dection of 0(»nmis8ionara 
for the church gave rise to much ccmtention, and och' 
casioned many private quarrels, which it was feaii^ 
might end in another dvii war. In oo&sequente, a^ 
number of English oflkxm who had been discharged, 
tendered their services, and in a very diort time ijnp^ 
wards of 100 aifrived at Kelso and Peeblec^ with the' 
expectation of being employed. Apprebenaivew hovi^ 
ever, that their views in coming to Scotland might b^ 
misrepresented or misconstrued, they sent two of their 
body as a d^utatacm to Parlitoient, to eitplain tbeit 
reasons for so doing ; but no rupture taking jpiace, their 
services were not required.f ./: 

No town in Scotland has been more fteqiiently vfn 
sited by fire, or suffered more from that destructive ekn 
ment, than the town of Kelso. During the war9 between 


* Guthrie's Mem. p. IBQ. f Ibid. p. 9^U 

: •n^ffJM 


the two kingdoms, being peculiarly exposed to the in* 
roads of the English, it repeatedly fell a prey to the 
flames, the invaders having, every time they got poa* 
session of the town, destroyed it more or less. It has 
also suffered much from wicked incendiaries, who have 
frequently attempted to lay it in ruins by setting iGire to 
it in different places. 

In the month of March, in the year 1684,* it was to- 
tally destroyed by an accidental fire which broke out at 
two different places, and raged with such fury, that the 
flames could not be subdued before the whole of the 
town was consumed. In consequence of this awful ca- 
lamity, a prodamationf was issued on the 17th of April 
following, recommending a general collection through- 
out the kingdom, for the relief of the suffering inhabit- 
ants, and for the purpose of rebuilding the town. About 
eighty years ago it met with nearly a similar fate ; and, 
since that period, it has suffered considerably at diffe- 
rent times, from the acts of wilful incendiaries. So fire- 
quent were the attempts at wilful fire-raising, that the 
inhabitants were put in the utmost consternation from 
the dread of having their dwellings burned during the 
night ; and it was deemed necessary to mstitate a nighUy 
watch for their* safety. For thiis purpose, a portion of 
the inhabitants were selected every evening, and placed 
under the direction c^ some respectable householder, 

* Law's Mem. p. 261. FouDtainhall^ p. 35, 91* 
f We are sorry we cannot procure a copy of this prodamation ; 
but we find, from the records of the city of Edinburgh, that on this 
occamon a liberal sum was raised by subscription for relief of the 


whose djoty it was to take care that they patroled the 
streets from sunset till the break of day. Happily these 
precautioiis are now become unnecessary, nothing of 
this diabolical nature having been attempted for seve- 
ral years past. 

The rebellion which broke out in the year 1715, for 
the purpose of replacing the house of Stuart on the 
throne they had for so many centuries possessed, was 
for some time confined to the northern provinces, the 
rebels not having acquired sufficient strength or confi- 
dence to proceed southwards. In the month of Oc- 
tober, however, when they had obtained possession of 
the whole coast of Fife, they meditated an attempt on 
the southern counties ; and, having landed a consi- 
deraUe body of their forces on the Lothian' shore of 
the Forth, at Aberlady, North Berwick, and other 
places adjacent, they marched to Haddington and Tra^ 
nent, where they quartered the first night ; next day 
they marched to Edinburgh, which they expected to 
have taken by surprise^ and to have been joined by a 
number of the inhabitants ; but being disappointed, and 
learning that the Duke of Argyle was rapidly advan- 
cing from Stirling with a strong detachment of dra- 
goons, they changed their plan, and resolved to attack 
the town of Leith, which they took possession of with- 
out resistance ; and, to guard aminst surprise, thqr 
placed their troops in the dtadet (an old demolished 
fort built by Oliver Cnmiwell,) which they finrtified 
with cannon taken out of the ships in the harbour. 


The Duke of Argyle haring, in the meantime, arrived^ 
ha hastened to attadc tliem with 400 horse, and 800 
loot, but finding them so stnmgly posted that he ooold 
not act against them without artilleiy, be retomed to 
Edinburgh to make the necessary preparatioos far at- 
taddng them next day. 

Informed of his intention, and aware of their inability 
to withstand the force he was able to bring against them, 
and, at the same time, despairing of any rising of the 
people in their fitvour, the rebels determined to eflfoct 
their retreat under cover of the darimfss of the nig^t. 
Accordingly, taking advantage of the low ebb of the 
tide, they quitted the fort, and mardiing off by the head 
of the pier on the sands, they crossed the mouth of the 
fiver to the knees ooly in water, with so modi ai* 
lenoe^ that they effected their escspe unobserved, and 
marching eastward, came safe to Seaton-house, in the 
bamediate neighbourhood of Mnaselborgh, witli the 
loss of about forty stragglers only. 

While posted there, several ineffiBctnal att e mp ts were 
made by detadmients from the garrison of Ediabargh 
to dislodge them; but having received intelligenoe that a 
oonsiderable rising had been effected in Nocthmnberw 
land in favour of the Pretender,^ under the coromand 

* Patten* ia Us Uktory of tlie Rebdliaa, ttrnte^ tkat the r«Mt 
who had taken arma in 'Northuraherland, on learning of General 
Carpenter's i^proach, and that the Highlanders were on their anrdi 
Id Kelso* resolred to job then at this place, and hairing left Wooier 
lor this purpose* when they cane near to the town thejr halted ea a 
noor to arrange their troops and to appoint oftcers. *' Whilsl they 


of Mr Forster, and also of the south-country gentlemen 
under the command of Lord Viscount Kenmure ; and 
at the same time receiving an express from Mr Forster 
inviting them to meet him at Kelso, they resolved im- 
mediately to quit this station, and to march to the south. 
They accordingly left Seaton-house on the Idth of Oc« 
tober, and arrived next day at Dunse, where, after ha«> 
ving proclaimed the Pretender, they took up their quar* 
ters for the night The next morning, the 22d, they 
marched towards Kelso, where the English and Scotch 
horse, (i. e. the Northumberland and Nithsdale rebels,) 
had arrived ; and so excessively were they exhilarated 
by the accounts they had received of the gallantry and 
good conduct manifested by the Highlanders in cross- 
ing the Frith, and their future proceedings, that the 
Nithsdale cavalry, without halting at Kelso, proceeded 
to Ednam Bridge to greet their arrival, and triumph* 
antly conducted them to the town, where the whole of 
the rebel forces was now collected.* 

vere thus employed^ there came some townsmen from Kelso and ac- 
quainted the rebels that Sir William Bennet of Grubbet, who had 
been in Kelso^ and had barricadoed the town^ pretending to keep 
post there> had gone off in the night with his men^ and that they 
might enter the town without opposition ; so they continued their ' 
march, and crossiBg the Tweed, though very deep at that time, and 
rapid, they entered the town. The Highlanders came into the town 
ptesently after, from the Scots side, with their bagpipes playing, led 
by old Mackintosh^ but they made a very indifferent figure, for the 
rain and their long marches had extreinely fatigued them, though 
their old brigadier, who mardied at the head of them, appeared very 
* Although the rebels acquired peaceable p o ss es sion of the town at 


Next day, being Sunday, Lord Kenmure, command* 
ing in chief, ordered Mr Patten, du^dain to Mr Fotb- 
ter, to preach in the forenoon at the ** Great Kirk,** and 
gave orders that all the men should attend divine ser- 
vice. In the afternoon, Mr William Irvine, a Soottish 
clergyman, delivered an eloquent discourse, strenuously 
exhorting his audience to be zealous and steady in the 
cause. Next morning, the Highlanders were drawn up 
in the church-yard, and marched with colours flying, 
drums beating, and bagpipes plajring, to the Market- 
plaoe, where they were formed into a drde, having an 
hmer circle composed of the gentlemen volunteers, 
within which stood the lords and other gentry. Si- 

this period, it does not appear that tlie ioludNtanta were frieodly to 
the cause ; for, " od the 8th of August^ the inhabiUmtfl of Kdso aa- 
iemhled in their diarchy and with the utmost onanimity mfaacrihed 
the following agreement :— ' We, tabacribert, do, by theae preaenti, 
bind and oblige ourselTea^ by the blcasing of God, to aasast and stand 
by one another in defence of oor lawful aorereign^ ^ng George, the 
succession of the crown happily established by law, and the Protest- 
ant religion, in opposition to a Popish Pretcndef, and all his abet- 
tors.' Next day Mr Chatto, a magistrate^ assisted by the neigh- 
baiiring gentlemen, Mr Raossay, the minister, and the principal in* 
habitants, concerted msasures fcr their mittaal defence. Besides 
those who were already armed, l£0 moskets were given to a select 
number of the inhabitants, under the command of proper oAcsrs, 
auddistributed through the several wards of the towB. Such was the 
resolution of the inhabitants of this place, which was merely a burgh 
of regality belonging to the Duke of Roxburghe, that a hundred more 
offered their senrices than could be supplied with aims They were 
renewed by Sir William Bennet, of Gnibbet, and Sir John Pringle, 
of Stitchel, Barts. Indeed, the whole of Teriotdak dispbyed a gml 
attachment to the prindpks of the ReTolutaoo."— CAarfeff" Trmmi.m 
Scoik/td, rol. 1. p. 224. 


lence befa^ commanded, the tnmipet soimded, and Sea- 
ton of Barns, who assumed the title of Earl of Dim- 
fermline, proclaimed the Pretender, in the following 
terms :— > 

^ Whereas, by the decease of the late King James the 
Seventh, the imperial crowns of these realms did li- 
neally descend to his lawful heir and son, our sovereign 
James the Eighth ; we, the lords, &c., do declare him 
our lawful king over Scotland, England," &c 

Afterwards was read the manifesto of the Earl of 
Mar, and the other noblemen, gentlemen, &c., asserting 
the undoubted right of their lawful sovereign, James 
the Eighth, to the crown, and for relieving the kingdom 
from its oppressions and grievances, arising particu^ 
larly fix>m the union of the two kingdoms, the heavy 
taxes levied, and the large debts imposed for the main* 
tenance of foreign troops; which being finished, the 
people^ with loud acclamations, shouted. No union ! No 
malt! No salt-tax! 

This ceremony having been concluded, the High- 
landers were sent to their quarters, where they remain- 
ed till the S7th, during which time nothing material oc- 
curred except searching for fire^ums and ammnnitimi, 
of which, however, they did not find much, having 
only picked up a few muskets,* some pieces of eannoii 

* The following verj unoommon aoddent happened while the w^ 
beb laj in Kelao^ whidi, from its singuhurity, deserves to be rebovA- 
ed: — ''A Highlander haring taken the lock from hb moakel^ he hid 
down the barrel, &c» across the arms of a chair, whilst he;, at two 
yards' distance, having cleaned, and was.trynig.tlie lock, a iparic of 
fire flew from it directly, and most exactly, to the tondi-liole of the 

82 nimOWY OF KBMO. 

vhidi fbitaerisr bekinged to Hume CasUe, 9ome broad" 
swords, and a small quantity of gun-powder which lay 
concealed in the churdi. 

General Carpenter, commanding the royal troops who 
were sent in pursuit of the rebels, having now arrived 
at Wooler, and purposing to be at Kelso on the 28th, 
Lord Kenmure, on receiving this intelligmice, called a 
council of war to consider the proper measures to be 
adopted, when it being agreed to retire from Kelso^ 
lie marched Immediately from thence to Jedburgh i and 
it being afterwards decided that the army should ad- 
vance into England, they proceeded to PrestoUt where 
they were surrounded by the royal army, and foreed to 
surrender prisoners at discretion. Here the Earls of 
Nithsdale and Wintoun, Locd Viscount Kenmure, and 
•hooA Nairn, were made prisoners.* 

In the year 1718, a General Ciommissioii of Oy^ 
and Terpiiner was appointed fw the trial of those im^ 
plicated in the late rebellion ; the Bight HonouraUe 
the Lord Justioe-CIerk, Lord Pencaitlaad, and Lord 
Newhalli were the commissioners, and th^ were to sit 
at F^rtfa^ DundM^ Cuptr, and Kdso. On the 15th ctf 
September they left Bdiaburgh for Perth» attended by 
• great number of gentlemen and lawyers, to oommenee 
iheir sittings ; and having been detained longer in the 

piece, wkidi wm loeded, and west off and wounded tiiree children 
fitting rbund the file ; aad it was the more strange^ that at 0aA a 
distance* \gy mete dumee, s spark diould direct ita way to tfaetoedi- 
hole, and the ballet ahould wound all the three children whodidnot 
•it in a line*"— -Pattbit. 
* Patten's Hist, of Rebellion, ^ IS, eiseq. 


north dmn they expected, Lord Newhal} was sent from^ 
Cupar to Kelso to adjourn the court for some dajrs, till 
the other judges should arrive. The court, however, 
met at Kelso the 4th of October, when only a single case 
was presented for its consideration, which was against 
a Mr Cranston ; but the grand jury having returned 
the bill, ignoramus, the jury was dismissed, and the 
court adjourned. On the 7th of October, the lords re- 
turned to Edinburgh.* 

Notwithstanding the unsuccessfol termination of the 
attempt made by the Pretender in the years 1715-16, 
to wrest the sceptre of these reakns from the reigning 
family, he still maintained a secret ccnrrespondence wUHk 
the disaffected nobles and others, who only waited a 
proper opportunity to renew the same scenes of blood- 
shed and misery which had accompanied and followed 
the former rebellion. 

This oppcHTtunity seemed to offer itself in the year 
1745, when, from the disputes in parliament, carried on 
with unusual acrimony between the Whig and Tinry 
parties, fordgn powers, but especially France, ccmsi- 
dezed the nation ripe for revolt That power, ever jea- 
lous of the increasing prosperity of Great Britafai, 
judged this period, therefore, most favouraMe for as- 
sisting the Chevalier do St George to rc^n possession 
of the throne of his ancestors, the people being repre- 
sented as groaning under the oppression of a fcnreign^, 
and burdened for purposes destructive of British liberty. 

* Scot! Coiiffaat> 17ia. 


The Frendi ministiyy desirous of distracting the Bri- 
tish councils^ and of fordng King George to withdraw 
liis support from Austria and her allies, concerted mea- 
sures with the Chevalier, then residing at Rome, for. an 
invasion of these kingdoms. 

Tempted by the lavish promises of support in men 
and money, the Chevalier readily fell into their views ; 
but being incapable of engaging personally in the ex- 
pedition, on account of his advanced age, he del^;ated 
this trust to his son Charies, who accepted the com- 
mand with enthusiasm and alacrity. His brave and 
enterprizing spirit, and his amiable and courteous de- 
meanour^ soon secured to him the esteem and affection 
of those who fEtvoured his cause ; and, encouraged by 
the representations of the Highland chiefs, (who consi- 
dered the measures of the existing government in at- 
tempting to dissolve their dans, to be destructive of 
their power and consequence, which they expected, 
should they prove successful in placing him upon the 
throne, to retain,) he resolved to make a vigorous at- 
tempt to recover the kingdom of his ancestors. 

The design of France at first was to land a lai^ 
army on the southern coast of England ; but this force 
having put to sea, and come in sight of a strong Eng« 
lish fleet whidi it was not thought safe to encounter, 
escaped into port» after suffering a consideraUe loss of 
transports in a severe storm. The plan of invading 
England on a large scale was, in consequence^ aban- 

Charles, by no means discouraged at this inauq[iici« 


OU8 comm^eement, persisted in his iq>plicatian to the 
French coort for a vessel to convey him to Scotland^ 
which kingdom being represented to him as totally dea* 
titute of troops, he was led to believe would be an easy 
conquest ; and his request being at last complied with, 
he embarked on the 15th of July, on board a small ves^i 
sel of eleven guns, at the port of St Lazare, accompa^ 
nied by the Marquis of Tullibardine, and some others^ 
and, after a most boisterous passage, succeeded inland- 
ing at Borodale, in Lochaber, in the latter end of the 
same month. 

Here he remained till about the middle of AugiKt» 
when, having collected about 1800 men, he determi^ 
ned to push to the southward. With this force, whidi 
daily increased, he advanced by Perth, Stirling, &c., to 
Edinburgh, the rojral troops retiring on his approadi ; 
and on the 17th of September he reached the capital, 
and fixed his head-quarters at Holyroodhouse. 

General Cope, who, on the first accounts of the lanA* 
ing of Prince Charles, had been sent to the north to 
oppose his progress, having, on his arrival at Inver? 
ness, learned the prince's advance to the south, hastened 
with his army to Aberdeen, where it was embarked for 
the Frith of Forth, and, landing at Dunbar on Uia 
15th of September, marched inmiediately for Edia^ 
burgh. On receipt of this intelligenoe, the prince, o» 
the aoth, marched to the eastward to meet hiln. The 
next day the fatal battle of Prestonpans tMk pkaee,^* 
ter which the prince returned to the capital, where h0 
remained till the 9d of Noirember> wheiit informed of 


the vast preparations making in England to oppose 
him, lie determined to advance into that country by the 
way of Carlisle. 

On the same day the last of the Highlanders de- 
parted from EkUnbui^h ; and next day the rear of the 
army left Dalkeith, accompanied by Prince Charles on 
foot The army advanced in three columns ; the right 
column, amounting to nearly 2000 men, mardied by 
Peebles, Moffat, Sec ; the middle, by Lauder, Selkirk, 
and Hawick ; and the left, amounting to nearly 4000 
men, by Kelso. Prince Charles marched with this co- 
lumn, and entered Kelso on the fourth, in the evening. 
From thence he sent a message to Wooler, to prepare 
quarters fixr 4000 foot, but instead ot i»oceeding thi<- 
ther, he passed the Tweed on the 6th, and took the 
road to Hawick ; from viiie&ce he directed his route by 
Langholm, Cannoby, and Longtoun, towards Row- 
diff, where he crossed the river within four miles of 
Carlisle, and, reaching Murray's on Borougbnude, he 
halted on the 8th, waiting for the arrival of the other 

Many of the Highlanders deserted on the mardi, 
especially at Kelso ; and many of his followers, with 
their arms, were secured, and delivered to the gover* 
nor ci the castle of Edinbui^^ and to the coDunanders 
of his majesty^s ships in the Forth. 

Notwithstanding these desertions, whidi were pretty 
numerous, the prince advanced and laid si^^e to Car- 
lisle, which surrendered tQ him on the 15th of Novem- 
ber, and, leaving there a small ganaaoB^ he mardbed by 


LaiiCB8ter» Manchester, &c., to Derb]r» which plaee he 
entered on the 4th of December^ at noon, with 450 
horse and 2800 foot. 

The approadi cS Charles so near the Capital filled 
the inhabitants with alarm, and every precantion wad 
instantly taken to prevent him from obtaining po n s c s.. 
sion of it. In the meantime the prince, disappointed in 
not finding the English, as he expected, flock to his 
standard, nor the French attempt an invasion of tlie 
south of England, as had been promised; and akb 
finding himself hemmed in by the armies under the 
Duke of Cumberland and General Wade, called a ooim* 
dl of war to determine what ought to be done. After 
mature deliberation, they decided for a retreat, in order 
to fall back on their resourees, and to meet the amjr 
coming from Scotland. The prince was wholly averse 
to this step ; but neither his arguments nor his eii^ 
treaties could induce his officers to alter their opinkm. 
Accoidin^y the army, on the morning of the 6dv ooiBh 
menced their retreat over a country covered with ssMW 
and ice, and ctosely pursued by the Duke and Ifardiai 
Wade. On the 80th of December, the prince arrivedt 
at Carlisle, where he only stayed one night,, and thou 
pursued his mardh toward the noriJi by Dumfries ; atid 
on the 80th he arrived at Glasgow, which dty he treaU 
ed with great severity, quartering his troops ibr 9tsim^ 
ral days upon the inhabitants, and obliging the towll to 
furnish him with necessaries to the amount eiJjhWjOlOO. 
From Glasgow, Prince Charles proceeded to Stirling, 
and laid si^^e to the castle; but hearing of the approadi 


of General Hawlejr, he left a division of Ins army to 
cany on the siege, and with the main body advanced 
towards Falkirk to meet him. The two armies, accord- 
ingly,* met on a moor in the neighbourhood on the 
17th, when a severe action took place, which ended in 
favour of the rebel army. G^erU Hawley being forced 
to leave the field, retreated to Edinbmrgh; and the 
prince the next day marched to Stirling, to press the 
si^e of the castle, which was resolutely defended by 
the governor, General Blakeney. 

On receiving intelligence of the battle of Falkirk, 
government made every exertion to arrest the progress 
of the rebellion ; and the Duke of Cumberland was dis- 
patched to take command of the forces, who, immedi- 
ately on his arrival at Edinburgh, gave orders for the 
march of the army towards Btirlingii On hearing of 
the royal army being near FaUdrk, Prince Charles re- 
solved to march from Stirling to offer it battle ; but in 
this he was overruled by a council of war, and an im- 
mediate retreat to the north determined on. The con- 
sequence was, that the rebel army never halted till it 
reached Inverness. The battle of CuUoden, which hap- 
pened on the 16th ci April, 1746, completely crushed 
this rebellion, which threatened the most serious con- 
sequences, and restored to the country peace and tran- 

Happily for these kingdoms, the complete frustra- 
tion of this infatuated attempt, for ever excluded from 

* Charles' Trans, in Soot vol. IL p. 11> el seq. 


the thought of the expatriated femily the idea of regain- 
ing the crown of their ancestors ; and since that period,^ 
the internal peace of the country has remained undis-^ 
turbed. Of consequence, very little can be supposed to 
have occurred at Kelso that deserves the notice of the 
historian. It is pleasant^ however, to remark, that du-^ 
ring the time intervening, to the very date at whidi 
we write, this town has continued to prosper in e^ery 
respect, and in no small degree ; and from its increased 
size and population, the enlargement of its trade, and 
the respectability and opulence of its inhabitants, it 
now ranks high among the provincial towns of the 
united kingdom. We shall, however, mention some 
circumstances that have happened here, (mostly within 
the memory of the present generati(m,) which may not 
be deemed too trifling for insertion in this work. 

It will be remembered, that about 40 years ago, an 
intense interest was excited in this country by the da* 
ring and hazardous exploits of M. Lunardi, the cele* 
brated aeronaut, who, in the course of the autumn, 
1785, made ascensions from most of the principal towns 
of Scotland. On the 22d of October, in that year, he 
ascended £rom Kelso, in the presence^ and amid the ao* 
clamations, of an immense concourse of spectators ; and 
after an excursion of an hour and twenty minutes, he 
descended in a field near Barmuir, in Northumberland** 

* Of this excursion M. Lunardi published the following aooount 
at the time :— -*' I set off from Kebo at five minutes after 2 o'clock. 
I rose gradually ; bad with me a barometer^ and other instrumentg^ 
for the experiments I intended to make^ besides provisions, and 


One of those strange and unaccountaUe tdienomena, 
a whirlwind or tornado, which are so frequent in hot 
climates, visited Kelso in the year 1788, of which we 
find the following accounts in the journals of the day ; 
— ^^ Kelso, May 28.«— ^Yesterday, about one in the fore- 
noon, a whirlwind for some time obscured the air in 
our wood-market, by collecting in its vortex the loose 
e^rth, dust, and straw, whirling it up to a great height* 
It forced a woman with a child in her arms against a 
wall, and bruised her arm ; it lifted up a cart, and 

eighty-eight pounds of ballast. I kept myself just a mile high from 
the surface of the earth. I went in a cloud with the balloon^ but the 
flag being 150 feet from the gallery, it remained in sight of the speo 
tators. I was two minutes in the doud, when I lowered again, not 
to deprive the people of the sight of my balloon. I kept myself hi- 
therto constantly in sight of the earth: I went, an hour afier my seC^ 
ting off, through a doad, and abore it At haroneter fell to S6, five- 
tenths, when the earth was no more visible to me. 

^' After being four minutes in this situation, I kept myself very 
low, when I perceived the sea to be do forther than six miles from 
me. I then began to come down so low as to bear distinctly the voi- 
ces of the people. I anchored at Doddington Muir, and called peo- 
ple to get hold of the rope, and they came, tnd six got hold of the 
ropes ft om the car ; and aflter having shook hands with Mr Strother, 
who was the first gentleman on horseback who reached me, I order- 
ed the men to carry me to Berwick. They carried me near Barmuir, 
in Northumberland ; but the wind blowing fresher, and the ballooD 
dragging tbem aflter i^ I thought proper to descend in a soft iM, 
where I emptied the balloon. 

" Mr Richard Thomson of Barmuir ordered his servants to take 
care of the balloon and appendages, and, giving roe bis horse, coo- 
ducted me to his house, where he entertained me with every civi- 
lity in his power. 

^' I toudied the ground at twenty-one minutes past three o'clock^ 
and finally descended, and emptied the balloon in the field, at four.'' 

2 • 


twirled a pair of unshod wheels about which lay on the 
ground horizontaUy, like mill-stones in a mllL Some 
children at play on an eminence were carried off to a 
distance^ and a cart was taken up and dashed against 
a bouse with such force, as to drive one of the shafts 
through the wall. Its violence being exhausted, it soon 

Government having selected Kelso as a most eligible 
place for the reception of prisoners taken during the 
late war, who were admitted to their parole, a consir 
derable number were sent thither in the month of No- 
vember, 1810, where they remained till June, 1814; 
when, upon the condusion of the general peace, they 
were sent home. During their stay, they conducted 
themselves with great propriety, and received the most 
dvil and hospitable treatment from the inhabitants, 
which they repaid by contributing not a little to their 
amusement, by their theatrical and other exhibitions, 
to which the more respectable classes were invited. 
The greatest number of prisoners on parole stationed 
at Kelso, never exceeded 230. 




The Town of Kelso is pleasantly situated, imme- 
diately on the northern bank of the river Tweed, at its 
confluence with theTeviot, in 55"* 36' north latitude, and 
in longitude l"" 20' west from Greenwich ; and is dis- 
tant forty-two miles south by east from EJdinburgh, nine 
miles west from Coldstream, twenty-three miles west 
from Berwick, eleven miles east from Jedburgh, and 
nine miles north of the EInglish border. The woody 
hills which surround it on all sides, form, as it were, an 
amphitheatre of exquisite beauty* : 

The town is built much . after the fashion of the 
Dutch and German cities,* consisting of a spacious 
square or market-place, with four streets and some con- 
siderable wynds, diverging from it in different direc- 

The market-place is a square of large dimensions, 
chiefly composed of modem buildings, and containing 
the principal shops. On the east side of it stands the 
new Town-house, an edifice of considerable elegance. 
From this square issue the fom* streets, viz. Roxbiirgh- 
street. Bridge-street, the Horse and Wood Markets,! 
and the Mill Wynd. 

* The towns in Germany and Holland ha?e generally a large 
square used as a market-place in the centre, from which issue all the 


t This street, which was formerly very narrow towards its extre- 


The principal street, which bears the name of the 
county,* is upwards of a quarter of a mile in length, 
and is esteemed the most healthy, as it certainly is the 
most pleasant, in the town, running in a parallel direc- 
tion with the river Tweed. 

Bridge-street, though not equal to Roxburgh-street 
in extent, surpasses it in general appearance; as it con- 
tains many elegant houses. From it run the Ovelu 
Wynd, a lane leading to Ednam House, and the Abbey 
Close, formerly the passage to the old bridge. 


At the Reformation the whole of the lands and re- 
venues belonging to the monastic establishments in the 
kingdom, became confiscated to the Crown. The monks 
of Kelso previously held the regality of Kelso, whidi 
comprehended the town with its pertinents, the barony 
of Bolden, and the lands of Reveden with their perti- 
nents. These the King granted to Francis, Earl oi 

tnitj, has lately been much improved by taking down seyeral old 
houses. It is the public road to Berwick, and by its former narrow- 
ness, the inhabitants were exposed to considerable danger from the 
number of carriages, carts, &c* continually passing along it in con* 
trary directions. This danger is now happily removed. 

• Roxburgh-street was formerly of much greater extent, and it is 
even in the recollection of some of the inhabitants, that it reached as hr 
as tlie middle of the Duke of Roxburgh's garden ; the plan of which 
embracing the ground on which several of the houses stood, they 
were, in consequence, taken down. 


BothweU, Admiral of Scotland, who being afterwards 
accused of high treason, in compassing the King^s death, 
and having not onljr tacBpei from justice, but also ta- 
ken up arms against his sovereign, his estates were, in 
the year 1605, escheated to his majesty, who, the same 
}rear, bestowed the regality of Kdso upon Sir Robert 
Kerr of Cessford, ancestor of the Dofce of Roodmrgh ; 
whidi grant was confirmed by Act of Pariiament in 
1607. This r^fality, with the jurisdictions bekmging 
to it, being, however, considered iacompatitrie with the 
administration of justice and public quiet, was abolish- 
ed in 1747, the Duke of Roxburgh receiving a remu- 
neration ; but the town of Kelso is still a burgh of ba- 
rony, the property of his Grace,, with baronial rights. 

The government of the town is aoooidingly vested in 
a baron bailie, appointed by the Duke of Roxburgh, as- 
sisted by fifteen stent-masters or coundllmv, who act in 
conjunction with him in the assessment of the inhabi- 
tants. Of these stent-masters, his Grace has the nomi- 
nation of eight, who hold their appointment for two 
jrears ; the others are elected annually by the different 
corporations, and consist of the Preses of the Merchant 
Company, a Deacon Convener, the Deacons of the five 
corporations, vi£. : Hammermen, Skinners, Shoemakers, 
Tailors, and Weavers, (one of whom is now elected 
Deacon Convener, which was not the case formerly,) 
and the Deacon of the Butchers, although they are not 
a corporate body. The chief and only duty of these 
councillors is the management of the revenue of the 


town« consisting principally of an assessment which 
they are empowered to levy on the inhabitants for de* 
fraying the current expenses of the year ; such as re* 
pairing the streets, supplying the town with water, and 
any other incidental charges which may occur. 

Previously to the year 1795, the heritors assessed 
ttiCTiBelves with stent for the support of the poor ; but 
since that period, the inhabitants at large are assessed 
for this purpose, according to their circumstances, or in 
proportion to the rent of their dwellings-houses. Pay^- 
ment, however, of this assessment for the poor, has been 
resisted by the inhabitants who are not proprietors, and 
in general successfully, as paymeiut has never been en<» 

It is impossible to ascertain, with any degree of ac- 
curacy, the time when the trades of Kelso were first 
erected into corporate bodies, yet it is evident that this 
took place at a very remote period. About a century 
ago the books of the Merchant Company were destroyed 
by fire, which prevents us from learning the time of its 
oommencement ; and no register of their proceedings 
was again kept till the year 1757. The books of the 
incorporation of tailors commence in the year 1619 ; 
but of the other trades we have not been able to obtain 
any information from which we could venture to fix any 
date to their original institution. The corporations are, 
in general, wealthy, and are able to make suitable pro- 
vision for the indigent, and for the widows and orphans 
of their deceased members. 


The baron bailie holds a court every Saturday, for 
the recovery of small debts within the jurisdiction of 
the town ; and the Justices of the Peace sit here once 
in every month for the recovering of similar debts con* 
tracted within the county, and for other matters com* 
petent to this tribunal. 

Lake most coimtry towns, Kelso formerly suffered 
very much from want of a proper r^ard to cleanliness, 
to which little or no attention was paid by the ruling 
powers ; but latterly a most material diange has taken 
place for the better ; and several customs have been 
abolished, which were not only most intolerable nui- 
sances, but certainly a great detriment to the comfort and 
health of the inhabitants — such as the throwing of wa- 
ter, &c. from the higher windows, to the great danger 
of the passengers ; and leaving their ashes and filth in 
the ifcreets. The former nuisance is now prohibited on 
pain of fine ; and to prevent the latter, a cart with a 
bell goes through the town at an appointed hour, to re- 
ceive whatever the inhabitants may have to put into it. 
Another inconvenience to which Kelso, in common with 
the generality of the towns in Scotland, was long sub- 
ject, and to which, even the metropolis, under its well* 
regulated, though expensive police, is still mudi expo* 
sed, has been removed, by proper and convenient places 
being erected in different parts of the town. 



The increase in the population of Kelso has, within 
the last seventy years, be^i considerable, as may be 
seen by the oflSdaA reports made to Parliament during 
that period. By the return made in the year 1755, the 
number of inhabitants amounted to 2781 ; and by a si- 
milar account taken 1790-5, it had increased to 4S84. 
They were again numbered in 1801, when there ap- 
peared to have been a trifling falling off, the population 
at this period being only 4196 ; but^ upon another ceBf- 
sus being taken in 1811, a very considerable increase 
had taken place, the return at this time being 4408; 
and by the last report made in 1821, the population 
extended to 4860 souls, forming, upon an average of 
sixty-six years, an increase of thirty-one and a half an- 
nually, or 2079 in the whole. 

This increase has been attributed to the vast influx 
cf small farmers, mechanics, and labourers, who, on the 
system of letting small farms being given up, and most 
of the villages in the neighbourhood destroyed, were 
obliged to resort to the town both for employment and 



The mmnsn of the inhaMtants of Kelso in general, 
ate more polished than in most eountrf towns, whidi 
in a great measure may be aetxmnted for by its delight- 
ftd situation^ which ocmstitntes it the resort of all the 
ftshion in the vidnitjr, and of numerous Visitors of the 
fiMt rank in both kingdoms. 

The higher dass are affable and CDurteoos in their 
addtos, and benevolent and liberal in their dispositions. 
The middle dass are polite and oUiging, hospitable and 
fiiendly. The lower class, in general, are sob^, honest, 
afid industrious ; attentive to the interest of their em- 
fiay^n^ with a becoming deportment toward their Stt* 

The u|i^ ranks dress in the first style of fittdiion, 
and the balls and assemblies jHresent an el^^anoe d fe- 
male attire not to be exceeded out of the metn^potiB. 

The merchants, who form a most respectaUe dass of 
the inhabitants^ are just and honooraUe in their deal- 
ings, and are a ct^it to the station they occupy in the 
community. Indeed, it may be said of all ranks, that 
they perform the duties belonging to their diffimmt 
spheres, with the strictest propriety and decorum. 

The community at large are also highly to be com- 
mended for a strict regard to their religious duties. 
Public worship is very generally attended, and the other 


ex^dsed of the Sabbath performed hi a most exempkuy 
manner, so that the eeenee which too often disgrace the 
streets of the metropolis on that holy day, are quite un^ 
known there. 


It was the castom formerly for a dram and bagpipe* 
to parade the town at five o*dock in the mornmg, to 
awaken the inhabitants to their labours, and at ten 
o'clock at night, to signify the propriety of their retiring 
to rest ; but this practice has long since ceased. At pre-> 
sent, the hours of commencing and leaving off wdk^ 
&Te notified by the sound of the beU, which rings at llie 
hours of six in the morning and eight in the evening. 
The bell also rings at ten at night, for the same pur- 

* ThecoBtoraof bafii^regaljur pipen in each of the border txiwii^ 
is of yery long standing, and it is only within a few years back that 
such an officer was considered as an unnecessary appendage. Kelso 
otMitinues to adhere to the tAi practice, and a piper is stiH kept by 
the town, who, however, only officiates on public occasions, aad at 
St James's Fair. LfCyden, in his introduction to the CompUufiU rf 
Scotland, states, that the pipers of the Border ** riralled the &me eren 
of the Htghlandert, aii^ at least in the optnion of their eonntrynielb 
were supposed to excel them in musical skill as weli as graceful cEtt^ 
cution. In the official capacity of town-pipers, they commanded a 
much higher degree of respect from the peasantry than wanderittg 
musicians ; and, trara^ng the country at particular seasons, chiafiy 
in spring, for collecting seed oats from the farmers ; and at autumn, 
about harvest-home, they exhibited the last remains of minstrelsy 
among the borders." 


pose, it is presumed, as the drum and bagpipe were for- 
merly employed, although this was also the case even 
when the former practice was in being. 

A curious custom is still prevalent in Kelso, as in 
many of our country towns, to summon the inhabit- 
ants to the fianeral of their deceased neighbours, by 
sending the bell-man through the town to renund those 
who are invited of the hour of interment. 

The King's birth-day is here observed as a holiday, 
with every expression of loyalty. In the afternoon, the 
Chief Magistrate and council, or deacons, with the most 
respectable of the inhabitants, joined by the Bowmen 
of the Border, assemble in the square, where a table is 
placed, set out with wines, &c. and drink his Majesty^s 
health, and other loyal toasts connected with the day ; 
and about the time this ceremony commences, a large 
bonfire is lighted in the centre of the market-place, 
which is, during the evening, surrounded by a crowd 
of the younger classes, who amuse themselves with 
firing squibs, &c. ; and the bells are set arringing, 
which continue at intervals until the evening doses the 

This is a day of excellent sport for the boys of the 
town, who take care to make sufficient provision for 
this bonfire, by collecting beforehand plen^ of mate- 
rials of a combustible nature ; and they are not very 
nice about the manner in which they obtain them ; con- 
sidering it quite lawful to seize everything of that kind 
which they have an opportunity of laying their hands 


upon, in order to testify their lojralty and joy upon so 
happy an occasion. 

The Kelso St John's lodge of freemasons have a grand 
procession on the 24th of June, St John Baptist's day, 
on which the election of the office-bearers takes place. 

The Society of Gardeners, on the second Tuesday in 
the month of July, the day of their annual general 
meeting, parade the streets, accompanied by a band of 
music, and carrying an. elegant device, composed of the 
most beautiful flowers, which, on the company reaching 
the inn where they dine, is thrown from the window 
to the crowd, who soon demolish it in a scramble for 
the flowers. 

On Michaelmas day, (September 29th,) the difierent 
corporations meet to choose their deacons, and after the 
election, each of these bodies walk in procession through 
the streets of the town. They afterwards dine at dif- 
ferent inns, and in the evening they severally give balk 
to the wives and friends of the members. 

On the Thursday following, the deacons^ &c. meetin 
the Town-house to elect their Convener, on wfaidi oc- 
casion there is also another procession, and after it a 
sumptuous dinner, at which most of the principal in- 
habitants are present, and the evening OHiclttdeB with 
a ball. 



Kdso, though not entitled to rank among the com- 
mercial towns of Scotland, has nevertheless a consider- 
able trade, which affords employment and support to a 
numerous body of the working classes. 

The first and principal branch is the dressing of 
iamb and she^ skins, the tanning of hides and the cur- 
rying of leather, all which are carried on to a Tast ex- 
tent, especially the fSwrmer — the number of lamb and 
sheep skins dressed here annually almost exceeds be- 
lief, amounting, on an average, to not less than 100,000. 

Fork is here cured to a great extent, which finds a 
feady sale in the English market. 

The manufiacture of flannel is pretty extensive, as is 
also that of different kinds of linen. WooU^i cloth is 
likewise made here, but not in any great quantity, 
being principally for private use. 

The taanofacture of hats forms an important branch 
of the trade of the town; and thequantity of stoddngs 
made annually is considerable. 

Boot and sho(Mnaking is carried on upon a very large 
scale, supplying not only the town and neighbourhood, 
but disposing of immense quantities at the different 
fairs and markets in the north of England. 

Candles are also made here, but no^ in sufficient 


quantitjr to supply the oonsumption of the town and 
its vicinity. 

The shop-keepers, or merchants, in Kelso, are nume- 
rous, and deal to a great amount in woollen-drapery, 
haberdashery, hardwares, and other household goods. 
There is also a great demand for the various kinds of 
grass and other seeds* 

The alteration in the law regulating the eommerdal 
intercourse between the two kingdoms, which will allow 
the importation of Scottish spirits into England, upon 
more £avouraUe terms than heretofore, pramises also 
to be ben^cial to Kelso;-— a distillery upon a largis 
scale being commenced, which holds out the fgcsptcbci 
a liberal return tothe proprietcnr, and of employm^it to 
a number of labourers ; as, firom the shortness of the 
distance, and the consequent small expense of carriage 
the places lying on the En^ish border will resort tUb* 
ther for that commodity, instead of bringing it from 
the more northern counties. 

One great and material inconvenience to which the 
town and neighbourhood is subjected, is the distance 
from whence the inhabitants have to furnish them- 
selves with coal. Several attempts have been made to 
procure this valuable mineral in the immediate vicinity, 
but hitherto without effect. Some seams have been dis- 
covered, but they were either too bad in quahtyr or 
some other djpadvantage attended the working of them. 


SO that, after very considerable expense had been in- 
curred, the attempt was not persevered in. The near-^ 
est place from which they are supplied with this indis- 
pensable article is about fifteen miles distant, yet, not- 
withstanding, the price is not mudi higher than in 

This inconvenience, it is expected, will be greatly re- 
moved by the rail-road from Berwick, which will pass 
through, or near to, the places whence they derive 
their present fuel, by lowering the expense of carriage, 
and affording a more r^ular and plentiful supply for all 
the adjacent country. But not only will Kelso and the 
neighbourhood derive essential advantage in this re- 
spect from this grand improvement, but the CEunlities 
it will afford to trade in general, from the cheapness of 
carriage, and other conveniences, will serve as a stimu- 
lus to excite industry and invigorate commerce, and, 
consequently, it will prove the most beneficial underta^^ 
king ever attempted in this part of the coimtry. 

It is in contemplation to extend the railway to Mel- 
rose, by carrying it from the east end of Kelso round 
the back way, to cross the Tweed near the Chalk- 


There are in Kelso branches of the Bank of Scot- 
land and the Commercial Banking Company, the form- 


er placed here in the year 1774, and the latter in 1828^.. 
which have been of much benefit to the trader and 

There is also a Savings Bank» which enables the la- 
bourer and others who wish to lay up any portion qf 
their earnings, to do this with advantage and security. 
It is conducted upon the most liberal principles, and» 
the money can be drawn, with interest, whenever th^^ 
person who deposits it chooses. 


In no part of Scotland is the fanner afforded mord 
frequent or better opportunities, by means of markets 
or fairs, of disposing of his grain, and other produce^ 
or of supplying himself with whatever is necessary for 
carrying on his agricultural pursuits, than in this dia; 
trict, where weekly markets are held on different days 
in every town. 

The weekly market of Kelso is held on Friday, for 
the sale of com by sample, and is the best attended in 
the county, being frequented by the corn-dealers frma 
the northern part of the shire, and the places bordering 
upon it in Berwickshire and Northumberland, and also 
by victuallers from Berwick. The numerous assem* 
blage of people thus collected every week, is of infinite 
advantage, and is, we may say, the principal source of 


gain to the inhabitants. In this maricet, budnen is 
done to a great amount weekly.' 

There are, besides, twelve ** high markets,* in the 
course of the year, four of which are held on the two 
Fridays immediately preceding the terms of Whitsun- 
day and Martinmas, and two on the Friday following 
each of these terms. The maikets previous to the 
terms are for the hiring of servants, of every descrip- 
tion, for the half-year ; and those that follow are for 
the accommodation of servants ohtmgjrig their places, 
by giving them an opportunity of purchasing such ar- 
ticles of wearing apparel, or anything else of which 
they may stand in need. The ccmeourse of people as- 
sembled at the latter markets is in general immense, 
who spend the day in festivity and mirth. On these 
occasions, the gain to the shojdceepers (especially to 
haberdashers and milliners, for ornamental articles of 
£anale dress) is incredible, as scarcely a servant leaves 
the town till the whole of their half-jrear's wages is 
e:i^nded. The other six ^ high markets" are beld» 
four of them in March, for the purpose of purdiasing 
horses for labour during the summer, and two in the 
end of autumn, for disposing of those for which the 
£eurmers have no occasion during the winter, and the 
keeping of which would be attended with too great ex- 
pense. At the first of those in March, hinds and £urm- 
servants for the year are hired. 

There are likewte four fairs held at Kelso in the 
course of the year. The first is on the second Friday 



of May ; Uie second, which is called the Summer Fair, 
on the second Friday in July ; the third, St James's 
Fair,* on the 5th of August ; and the fourth, or Win- 
ter Fair, on the 2d of November. 

When the Summer Fair in July was first instituted, 
it was for the purpose of buying lean cattle to feed them 
during the summer and autumn months, which wei« 
disposed of at the Winter Fair, for the convenience of 
the inhabitants in laying in their winter stock of pro- 
visions, being then fit for the slaughter-house, whither 
they were immediately carried. The custom, however, 
of curing meat for the winter being now generally laid 
aside, these fairs are held for other purposes ; those in 
May and July are for cattle of different kinds, and that 
on the 2d of November for hiring servants, and for 
cattle to be fed on turnips, or kept on straw during 

St James's Fair, the greatest in the South of Soot- 
land, (St Boswell's excepted,) is held on a green abo«t 
a mile from Kelso, the site of the old town of Bm^ 
burgh, and near to the haugh where King James II. 
was killed, during his siege of the castle* 

At this fair the show of cattle and horses to be ftd 
on after-grass and turnip, is generally large, and agreat 
quantity of woollen and linen mam^bctures are sold in 

* The privilege of holding this (air was originally granted to tka 
burgh of Roxburgh ; but owing to the complete extinction of t||b 
town, it is now ranked among the Kelso markets. 


114 History of kelso. 

wholesale ; but the principal business of the farmer is 
the hiring of reapers for the ensuing harvest. 

This fair is looked forward to by the inhabitants of 
Kelso with peculiar pleasmre and anxiety^ as a great 
proportion of certain classes depend npcm it for remu- 
neration for the past year. It is a day of general festi- 
vity, and most of the young people repair to the fair in 
the evening, to regale themselves with their ^ friends 
and favourites." 

From a right which the town of Jedburgh acquired 
(at what time, or how, we cannot ascertain, but sup- 
pose it must have happened at the period when Rox- 
bui^h lost its rank among the burghs of Scotland) 
to a share in the emoluments derived from the privilege 
o£ holding this fair, a great jealousy for a long time 
subsisted between the two towns, which was always 
manifested on this day. It was formerly the cust<Ha 
for the Jedbui^h people, coming on horseback, to enter 
Kelso by the bridge, and to ride through to the top of th^ 
town, where they again crossed the Tweed by the forci^ 
to go to the fair ; which, as it was going at least a mile 
out of their way, the people of Kelso regarded as an in- 
jsiilt, and seldom failed to resent it ; for, on these occa- 
sions, they were often pelted with stones, and frequent 
bickerings in consequence took place between them and 
the inhabitants. Happily these animosities have been 
put an end to by the people of Jedburgh relinquishing 
this custom. 

The custom of the fair being divided between the 


town of Jedburgh and the Duke of Roxburghe, the ma- 
gistrates of that burgh, attended by their officers, come 
regularly to open it, by parading over the ground at 
twelve o'clock. Jedburgh receives one-half of the re* 
venue gathered, and the duke the other half.* 


The butcher-market is a very commodious place, sur- 
rounded by a high wall, and is intersected by another 
nearly in the centre, which divides the space allotted 
for selling, from the slaughter-court.f The stalls are 
constructed much after the manner of those in the 
hi^-market of Edinburgh. It formerly belonged to 
the Duke of Roxburghe, from whom it was lately pur- 
chased by Mr Richard Allan, flesher in Kelso, who 
rents out the stalls to the rest of the trade. 

The business in the market has of late fallen off con^ 
siderably, owing to a number of the butchers having 
opened shops in different parts of the town, where 
they vend their meat 

^ Since that part of this work was printed off which contains the 
regulations of the Border Agricultural Society^ in rt^spect to the 
cattle-markets instituted hj it^ the following information has beeii 
received : — *' That in consequence of the Kelso and Coldstream 
markets being too close upon each other^ the Society hare determi-^ 
ned, that> in future, the Kelso monthly markets will be held on the 
third Friday after the Coldstream market^ which is permanently 
£xed to take place on the last Thursday of each month." 

-f Formerly it was the custom for each butcher to kill his cattle at 
his stall, but, by this plan of appropriating a portion of the area for 
this purpose, that nuisance has been done away. 


A great number of cattle are annually killed here» 
the countiyf for several miles round, being supplied 
from this market, which is considered the best in th« 
south of Scotland, both for the variety and quality of 
the meat sold in it. 


The scenery around Kelso excites the admiration of 
every beholder, and presents an extensive field for poe- 
tical imagination and description. Its appearance is 
beautiful and striking to the stranger, and an object of 
high attraction to the traveller. To attempt even a 
sketch, where such a pumber of charming and delights 
fal prospects crowd upon the sight, is a difficult task ; 
but to do justice to the grandeur, and to point out the 
varied and particular beauties of this ctmp itcM, would 
require the ability of a more skilful pen. 

From the Chalk-heugh, the prospect has a rich and 
delightful appearance. The eye is attracted by the 
Tweed, with the island in the centre, and the surround- 
ing objects. Fleurs, the magnificent seat of the Duke 
of Roxburghe, with i& encircling woods; the pictu- 
resque and ancient ruins of Roxburgh Castle; the 
seat of Sir James Douglas, together with Pinel4ieugh 
and the distant hills, form a most endbanting scene* 
The views from Fleurs and Roxburgh Castle are ^Iso 
very fine ; and that from the bridge is so particularly 


strikulgy and exhibits so mtich of the picturesque, that 
it at once astonishes and de%hts the spectatw. On t&e 
right, the town and Abbey are seen to the best adran^f 
tage, as also the fine mansion of Ednam-house, and itt 
grounds. Opposite to this the Teviot joins the Tweed, 
and forms the broadest part of the river. A little far-* 
ther up are the gardens on theChalk-heugh, Fleurs, &a ; 
and the grandeur of the landscape is much heightened 
by a distant view of Hume Castle, the hills of Meller* 
stain and Stitchell, and the windings of both rivers 
previous to their junction. In entering Kelso from the 
west, the lofty precipice of Maxwell, Pinnacle^hill^ 
Wooden, and the banks of the Tweed, present a scene 
at once beautiful and grand. 

The view from Pinnacle*hill, in consequence of its 
elevated situation, can scarcely be rivalled ; — a scene of 
rich grandeur, rising gradually from the Tweed and 
Teviot, to the dark heath-clad tops of the Lammermuir- 
hills on the north, and the Eildon-hills on the west. At 
the feet of the spectator is seen the Tweed, rolling 
^ dark and deep," Teviot Bridge, Roxburgh Castle, 
Ffeurs, Kelso, environed on every side by beautifui 
villas, the whole surrounded by thrivihg plantations. 
Beyond the woody boundary of this varied landscape 
terraced fields are beheld rising over each other, in all 
the rich luxuriancy of cultivated nature, till the whole 
is crowned by the distant summits. 

In point of picturesque appearance, KthAo^itnotwoh 
rivalled, is certainly not surpassed by any town in Scot- 
land, being so beautiftilly adorned With wood and wa« 


ter. As has already been observed, it is surrounded on 
every side with rich plantations, so that to whatever 
point the spectator turns his eye, the scenery presents 
a delightful and variegated prospect. Few rivers in 
Scotland can be compared with Tweed for the beauty 
of their windings, and very few equal it in grandeur. 
From the number of its tributary rivulets between its 
rise, about thirty miles from Peebles, and its juneti<m 
with the Teviot at Kelso, it gradually assumes a grand 
appearance, which is heightened at every winding by 
the beautifiQ and interesting objects of the surrounding 

Those who are acquainted with Scottish song, will 
find the scenery in the neighbourhood of Kelso justly 
and admirably described for its beauty, in the writings 
of our most celebrated poets. 


There are seven places of public worship in Kelso, 
viz. the Parochial Church, Episcopal Chapel, Belief, 
Burgher, Antiburgher, Cameronian or Beformed Pres- 
byterian, and Quaker Meeting-houses. 


The foundation-stone of this edifice, which is a plain 
modem building, was laid in the year 1771» and on the 
first Sabbath of 177S it was opened £or public worship. 
It is built in the £orm of an octagon, nearly ninety feet 


in diameter within the walls, and» when originally fit- 
ted up, might have contained upwards of 3000 people* 
The dimensions, however, being too large for the com- 
pass of an ordinary voice, and the hearing rendered 
otherwise disagreeable by an echo proceeding from the 
roof, which was in the form of a cupola, or dome, it 
was deemed necessary to make such alterations in the 
interior of the building as would remove these incon- 
vem'ences ; and these, being agreed to by the heritors, 
were carried into effect in the year 1S23. 

The gallery fronting the pulpit is appropriated solely 
to the accommodation of the Duke of Roxburghe ; the 
other heritors have their seats in the other galleries. 
The five incorporated trades have seats allotted to them 
in the body of the church. 

The present incumbent of this parish, the Rev. Ro- 
bert Lundie, is highly and justly respected, and esteemed 
for the urbanity of his manners, his imaffected piety, 
and other excellent qualities ; and his ministry conti- 
nues to be both acceptable and profitable to his parish- 

* The following is a correct list of tbe ministers of Kelso since the 
Reformation :^- 

1575— Paul Knox. 1695— William Jack. 

1605 — James Knox. 1707 — James Ramsay. 

1635 — Robert Knox,t 1750 — Cornelius Lundie. 

1660— Richard Waddell. 1 SCO-Leslie Moodie. 

l6S3— James Lorimer. 1807 — Robert Lundie, the present 

1687— James Gray. minister. 

■f He appears to have been a conmuanioner to tlie General Assembly in 1611, . 
when he preached before King Charles I. and the Parliament 


The church-yard, or burying-ground, is very exten- 
sive, and, till within these few years, was not walled 
in, but lay entirely open, the common resort of the 
sehool-boys for their pastimes, and was crossed by foot- 
paths in every direction. The skinners even made use 
of it as a very good and convenient place to dry their 
hides ; and the cattle of those who were either unable 
or unwilling to go to the expense found tiiere a cheap 
and luxuriant pasture. 

The impropriety, not to mention the indecency, of 
allowing the common reoeptade of the deadt a place 
venerated and held sacred by the most barbarous of aU 
ages and nations, to lie thus exposed to every violence, 
was long felt ; but it was not till the year 1807 that 
it was determined to wipe off this stigma from the efaai- 
racter of the town. In this year a subscription* which 
was soon filled up, was entered into by the principal 
inhabitants, for surrounding it with a wall.* 

^ About forty years ago^ as the grave-digger 61 Kelso was opeiitog 
a new piece of ground, he discovered a stone coffin of very large di- 
mensiousj of which^ without opening it^ he gave immediate notice to 
the minister^ (Mr Cornelius Lundie^) who, having sent for Mr Dou- 
glas, an eminent physician in the town, they proceeded to the pAaoe 
to examine it. On removing the lid, there was found in the coffin 
a human skeleton in the most perfect order, with a rod of about a 
yard long, covered with leather, and gilt over, and some ancient re- 
lics lying by its side. The bones, immediately upon being toadied, 
h\\ into dust. The coffin was afterwards carried to the Abbey, 
where it lay for some time, to gratify the curiosity of those who 
wished to inspect it ; but when this curiosity ceased, it was convert- 
ed to a purpose very different from its original use. It is now laid 



This chapel is a neat Gothic building, erected in a 
pleasant retired situation on the banks of the Tweed» 
and immediately adjoining to the pleasure-grounds of 
£dnam House, and, though small, is constructed with 
great taste. It is furnished with an organ and a tole- 
rable band. The congregation, though not numerous, 
is composed of a respectable class of the inhabitants. 
The late Duke of Roxburghe had a seat in this ehapel, 
where he regularly attended. 

The chapel is situated in the middle of a cemetery, 
where the members are interred according to the ritual 
of the EngUsh church. The Rev. William KeU, the 
present minister, is a highly popular preacher. 


This place of worship, which was built in the year 
1791f is a plain square building, situated at the east 
end of the town. It is very well attended, and many 
of the hearers come from a considerable distance* The 
congregation is happy in possessing so able an instnic* 
tor as the Rev. John Pitcaim for their pastor. 

down at the fountain-head, about a mile froui Kelso, where it 

for leading away the superfluous water, and also as a rery conyenient 

trough fcir cattle to drink out of. 



This meetmg-house is built much after the plan, but 
on a larger scale than the Relief. It is, however, bet* 
ter constructed in the interior, the roof being high^, 
and the gallery not so confined. It is r^ularly attended 
by a numerous and respectable congregation, a great 
part of which come from a distance of seven or eight 

The interior of this house has been lately enlarged, 
by removing the stairs which formerly led to the gal- 
lery, and placing them outside the building, at each 
end. This alteration has certainly tended very much 
to disfigure the building, as the wings do not at all 
correspond with the plainness of the edifice. 

This place of worship is built in a very pleasant and 
centrical situation, being immediately behind the mar- 
ket-place, having a large square green belcmging to it, 
which is inclosed with a high wall. The manse, situa- 
ted within the green, joined to which is a very good 
garden, renders it a very desiraUe and healthy resi- 

This building was erected in the year 1779* The 
present minister, the Rev. Robert Hall, has zealously 
laboured among his flock since that period, and is highly 
esteemed by them. 

* In the month of August^ when the summer sacrament is dis« 
pensed^ if the weather be favourable^ a tent is erected in this green^ 
and the congregation^ here assembled^ bring each their chair^ accord* 
ing to the ancient custom in Scotland. 



This is a very plain fabric. The Rev. Patrick Mac- 
kenzie is pastor. 

There were formerly a considerable number of Anti-* 
burghers of the ^' new light" in this town, but, in con*- 
sequence of the union which has lately taken place be* 
tween the Buighers and Antiburghers, they are mostly 
joined to Mr Hall's church. To this, in a great mea* 
sure, is to be attributed the paucity of Mr Madcenaie's 


This is a building of inferior appearance, and is ad- 
jacent to the Relief meeting-house. The number in 
this connexion is very small, and generally composed 
of the poorer class. For a long time they had no stated 
minister, and it is only lately that one has been ^^ap- 
pointed to this charge. 


A long time having elapsed since this plain buildii^ 
(having merely the appearance of a private dwelling, 
with a small burying-ground in front) has been used 
as a place of worship, the Society of Friends have 
granted the use of it for a lecture-room to the Schod 
of Arts, lately established. It is situated directly be- 
hind the parish church. Vide School of Arts. 



Kelso is not deficient in seminaries, wherein the dif- 
foent branches of education are taught with mudk abi- 
lity, and at a moderate expense. The public schools 
are the Latin and English, which are imder the same 
rotrf, in a house near to the church, having a laige plat 
of ground allotted for the amusement of the pupils. 
Hiere are, besides, several private schools, which are 
well attended. 

In the principal school, which is under the immediate 
superintendance of the rector, and occupies the upper 
part of the house, the pupils are instructed in the La- 
tin, Greek, and French languages. The rector, Mr 
GiUies, is a gentleman of superior ability. He receives 
a pMttjr liberal salary, tc^ether with a house adjoining 
to the school, suitaUe for the accommodation of a num- 
ber of boarders. 

In the English school, which is in the lower part of 
the building, the principles of English grammar, wri- 
ting, and arithmetic, are taught. The teacher, with but 
an indifferent salary, has no dwelling-bouse allowed him ; 
but his classes being generally well attended, in some 
meaBure compensates for any deficiency in these respects. 
He has, besides, an fillowance for teaching orphans, pay- 
able from the interest of legacies bequeathed for this 
purpose by two benevolent individuals of the names off 
Samson and Douglas. 


There are also several schools for female education ; 
and two Sunday-evening schools, where duldren are in- 
structed in the principles of religious education, which 
have been of infinite service to the young of the poor^ 
classes. k;> 

A society, called the ''Kelso Friendly School SodetgrJ' 
was instituted here in the year 1816, for providing in- 
struction to orphans and the diildren of ind^ntr.pih 
rents, which is supported by weekly pajrments of .ow 
penny by the members, and by donations and MJMf- 
sional collections in the different phices of wonhip^in 
the town. • . 


This Society was formed in the year 181S, in aid of 
the Parent Society, for circulating the Scriptures »F"f Hlg 
the poor at home, and sending Ihera to those countries 
destitute of this inestimable treasure. Its annual ^»n- 
tributions to the general fund have been very liberal. . 


The inhabitants of Kelso were among the first in 
Scotland to adopt the plan of eetaUiaUng fiufaMrqplUi 
libraries, by whidi, at a comparatively triiiigr^ 
pense, the members are supjdied with the weaimiitf 
our best authors, and the various periodical publica- 


lions of the day. Of these there are now three esta- 
blished in this town. 

^ Kelso Library/' which is the oldest and most ex- 
tensive, occupies a handsome building, situated upon 
the Chalk-heugh, and commanding a most beautiful 
and attractive prospect. This library, whidi was open- 
ed on the 9th of September, 1795, consists of a collec- 
tion of the most esteemed English authors, ancient as 
well as modem ; and from the principles of this esta- 
blishment, and the manner in which it is conducted, 
there is every prospect that, in a very few years, it will 
become a most valuable repository of English literature. 
It is open three days in the week, viz. Monday, Wed- 
nesday, and Friday, for the purpose of giving out 
books to the subscribers. 

The librarian, besides a salary, has a very commo- 
dious dwelling-house in the lower part of the building, 
and a large garden in front of it. 

The othar libraries, though inferior in extent, possess 
a considerable number of valuable books in the various 
branches of literature. 


An institution under this denomination, similar to 
those in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and many o£ the prin* 
dpal towns in the United Kingdom, has lately been 

by voluntary subscription at Kelso. Like 


them, it has for its object the instruction of the mecha- 
nic, and others, in the philosophical principles <^ their 
different arts, upon a cheap and economical plan ; and, 
from the success it has already met with, promises to 
be of the utmost advantage to those for whose benefit 
it is intended, and who, otherwise, were inadequate to 
the means of obtaining the knowledge here imparted to 
them. ., 

On the 11th of February last this institution was 
opened by the Rev. Mr Gray, minister of E2ckfofd, 
who, in the most handsome manner, offered to deliver 
a series of lectures on chemistry. Dr Douglas of Kelso, 
with equal liberality, has undertaken the superintend^ 
ance of a mathematical class ; and, as soon as the ne- 
cessary arrangements can be accomplished, it is pro? 
posed to have a regular and scientific lecturer on me- 

The donations already received by this institution 
have been liberal^ and the annual subscriptions consi- 
derable. The fee paid by mechanics for the se^aioDi 
is five shillings, which admits them to all the lectures ; 
and a library is now forming for their use, consisting 
principally of books in the various departments of 
science connected with the views of the institution* 
The number of names entered as regular pupils amounts 
to upwards of seventy. .i 

To the Society of Friends the managers are ffWitiif 
indebted for the use of their meeting-house (trUdi, a 
number of years past, had never heea used for a fim^ of 


worship) as a lecture-rooniy for which purpose it is now 
fitted up. 


There are two newspapers printed in Kelso, which 
have an extensive circulation in Roxburgh, and the 
neighbouring counties on the Borders. The Kelso Mail, 
which commenced in 1797> is published twice in the 
week, viz. on Mondays and Thursdays ; and the Kdso 
Weekly Journal, which made its first appearance in 
1809» is printed every Friday. Another paper, enti- 
tled, The Border Ciourier, was attempted in the year 
1828, but from want of support, it was not of long 


The Dispensary of Kelso was founded in the year 
1789> and is wholly supported by voluntary subscrip- 
tion. It fetands in a very healthy and airy situation 
near the head of the town, and at a short distance 
from the Tweed, and is now capable of accompaodating 
a considerable number of patients, who receive advice 
and medicine graiUf and to whom nothing is denied 
that may contribute to the alleviation of their suffer- 

To the late HonouraUe Mrs Baillie of Jerviswood, 
is due the merit ef Imving been the projeetor of this 



institution, and her benevolence imd active exertions 
mainly contributed to the support of this establish^ 
ment, which has been productive of incalculable bene* 
fit to the suffering poor. No sooner had this lady made 
known her plan, than she received the cordial co-ope* 
ration of the humane and opulent in the town and 
neighbourhood, who in a very short time had the satis- 
faction of seeing their laudable design carried into ef- 

Several very considerable additions were made to 
the Dispensary in 1818, and cold and warm baths 
were, among other conveniences, then supplied. 


In Kelso, as in other towns, the trades, by their 
charters, constituted into several persons the power of 
making laws for the better securing of their privi- 
l^es, and the government of their members, and were 
allowed to institute a fund applicable to these, or any 
other purposes beneficial to the corporation. The con-i 
sequence was, that when this fund had accumulated to 
a certain amount, a portion of it was appropriated to 
the relief of decayed members, and to the support of 
the widows of those who had contributed to this fund. 
This was the origin of ^' Benefit Sodeties," which for 
many ages only existed in these corporations. 

The beneficial effects resulting firom such institutions 



were at length so apparent, thai particular classes of 
individuals following the same occupation, (though not 
incorporated,) formed societies among themselves for 
the purpose of contributing to the relief of the aged and 
the widow among them ; and, in the course of time, 
these societies were thrown open to the admission of 
others not at all connected with these professions, thus 
extending their sphere of usefulness, and enabling many 
unconnected with any trade, to lay up a fund for their 
support, when, through sickness or old age, they should 
be rendered incapable of earning their daily bread. 

That the institution of benefit societies has been of 
great importance, and productive of much real and ge- 
neral advantage, every one must allow ; and the suc- 
cess attending them has been such as fuUy to meet the 
expectations of their instigators and promoters, who 
merit the commendation of both rich and poor. 

Kelso, in common with many other towns, has par- 
ticipated in the advantage derived from the establish- 
ment of such societiies, for many years past. Of these 
we shall now attempt to give a short sketch, according 
to the seniority of their institution ; and the first of 
which we have any account, is 


which is composed of the whipmen and ploughmen of 
the town and neighbourhood, and is of very long stand- 
ing ; but the book containing an account of its first in- 
stitution being lost, we are unable to ascertain the ex- 
act time of its commencement. It is supposed, how- 


ever, to have existed upwards of 150 years. Neither 
have we been able to obtain a copy of its rules. This 
society was once very numerous, but has fallen off con- 
siderably within these some years past; its revival, 
however, is again confidently expected. Like societies 
of the same denomination in other country towns, it 
had an annual parade of the members, with races and 
other sports.* 

* The following account of this show is taken from Brand's Po^ 
pillar Antiquities, vol. II. p. 397 : — 

'' There is a society, 6r brotherhood, in the town of Kelso, which 
consists of fanners' servants, ploughmen, husbandmen, or whipmen, 
who hold a meeting once a-year for the purpose of merriment and" 
diverting themselves ; being all finely dressed out in their best 
clothes, and adorned with great bunches of beautiful ribbands, which 
hang down over their shoulders like so many streamers. By the 
beating of a drum they repair to the Market-place, well mounted 
upon fine horses, armed with large clubs and great wooden haromov, 
about eleven o'clock in the forenoon, when they proceed to a com- 
mon field (the Berry Moss) about half a mile from the town, at- 
tended all the way with music and an undisciplined rabble of men, 
women, and children, for the purpose of viewing the merriment of 
a cat in a barrel, which is highly esteemed by many for excelleot 
sport. The Generalissimo of this Regiment of Whipmen, who has 
the honourable style and title of Mi/ Lord, being arrived with the 
brotherhood at the place of rendezvous, the music playing, the drum 
beating, and their flag waving in the air, the poor timorous cat it 
put into a barrel partly stuffed with soot, and then hung up betwcea 
two high poles, upon a cross-beam, below which they ride in succes- 
sion, one after another, besieging poor puss with their large dubs 
and wooden hammers. The barrel, after many a frantic blow, being 
broken, the wretched animal makes her reluctant appearance amidst 
a great concourse of spectators, who seem to enjoy much pleasure at 
the poor animal's shocking figure, and terminate her life and misery 
by barbarous cruelty. 

" The cruel brotherhood having sacrificed this useful and domes* 
tie animal to the idol of cruelty, they next gallantly, and with great 


Kelio United Weavers' Society ^ and Others^ insti- 
tuted July 11, 1766, is in a very flourishing condition^ 
and consistd of nearly 800 members. The funds of 
this society are raised by quarterly payments, and a 
weekly subscription by the members for the suppwt of 
the sick. 

Kelso Friendly Society ofGardeners^ was establish- 
ed in the year 17779 by a number of gardeners, for 
the purpose of establishing a fund for the relief of 
themselves, their widows, and orphans ; and, by their 
rules, others were admitted into the society, under cer- 
tain restrictions and regulations. By their rules, no 
annuity is paid to widows or orphans unless the hus- 
band or father has contributed for ten years to the 
funds; and in case of his death before that time is 
completed, the widow or orphans have liberty to pay 
into the funds the remaining quarterly payments, when 

heroism^ proceed with their sport to the destruction of a poor simple 
gooee, which is next hung up by the heels, like the worst of male- 
factors, with a convulsed breast, in the most pungent distress, and 
struggling for liberty ; when this merciless and profligate society, 
marching in succession, one after another, each in hb turn takes a 
barbarous pluck at the head, quite regardless of its misery. After 
the miseraUe creature has received many a rude twitch, the head is 
carried away." 

The day's sport ended in clumsy races : the usual priaes were a 
riding and cart saddle ; and frequently the company were amused by 
donkeys running for a small sum. The whole concluded with a dinner 
and ball, to which all the friends of the society were invited, aad the 
evening generally ended in peace and harmony. The coitOD of the 
'' cat and barrel" has long been given up, and it ta very uilikily it 
win ever be revived. 


they become entitled to the annuity, which is not fix- 
ed, but regulated according to the stock of the society. 
The widows enjoy their annuities till their death, the 
orphans till they are fourteen years of age. This so- 
ciety is divided into three classes, and the annuities are 
paid in proportion to the classes to which the members 

Keho Friendly Society of Cordwainers, was found- 
ed in August 1785, and is chiefly composed of the 
members of the craft. Its funds are very ample, and 
the allowance to the sick is liberal. 

Kelso Friendly Society of Tradesmen, and Others, 
commenced in February, 1786, but does not appear to 
have ever succeeded ; it is probable it will soon be re- 

Kelso Border Lodge of Gardeners, although yet in 
its infancy, having only commenced in 1821, has every 
prospect of soon being in a very flourishing state. By 
its regulations, the president must be an operative 

Kelso St Crispin Society. This society was form- 
ed by the shoemakers, on the 25th of October, ISSl* 
for mutual relief in sickness, and for defraying funeral 
expenses, &c. ; and the allowance on both occasions are 
very liberal. The formation of this society on the an- 
niversary of their patron, was celebrated by the coro- 


nation of bis representative, on which occasion there 
was a splendid procession, a public dinner, and a ball.* 


There are two lodges of free masons in Kelso, both 
holding their charter from the Grand Lodge of Scot- 
land, viz. 

St John's Lodge, of long standing, and The Kelso 
Lodge, constituted on the 5th of August, 1816. 


The Society of the Bowmen of the Border is compo- 
sed of the noblemen and gentlemen residing in this 
quarter, or connected with the Borders, and was insti- 
tuted in the year 1788, by a diploma from the Royal 
Company of Archers of Scotland. The number of the 

* The procesduns on the anniTersary of this august moDarch, 
which used to be pretty frequent in Kelso, afforded much amuse- 
ment to the inhabitants ; but a great drawback was experienced in 
the difficulty of obtaining a band of music, which could not always 
be procured either on these or similar occasions. To remedy this in- 
convenience, the St Crispin Society resolved to have a band of their 
own ; and having raised a subscription among themselves, they car- 
ried their resolution into effect, «ul have now a band conaisting of 
several musicians, all tolerable proficients on their several instru- 
ments, composing it This baud was formed in the year 1823; and, 
since its institution, has been generally called to peilfom'«t ril the 
public processions and entertainments in the town. 

RACES. 185 

members is restricted to eighty ^ under ^e command of 
a first and second captain. It meets on ^e 10th of 
January, the first Thursdays in May, July, August, 
September, October, and November, and on the king's 
birth-day, every year. 

A society, denominated " The Thistle Club," was 
formed here on the 15th of August, 1823, the umi- 
versary of the King's visit to Scotland, whose primary 
object is to commemorate that event. 

There is also a Cricket Club, which meets once a- 
fortnight during the summer ; and likewise a Skaiting 


Racing, and the sports of the field, forming the princi- 
pal amusement of the nobility and gentry in this neigh- 
bourhood, much of their attention is bestowed on the 
rearing of horses of this description, of the most repu- 
ted breeds. KEiiSO Races have, in consequence, been 
long and justly stamped with celebrity. 

The old race-ground of Kelso, Caverton Edge, a 
most excellent and level course, three miles, or there* 
abouts, in circumference, was at the distance of five 
miles from the town, and, for a long time, had no ap- 
propriate place for the horses, which were generally 
put up at Softlaw, a small farm-house, about one mile 
from the course, with very indifferent stabling. This 
inconvenience, however, was remedied by the late John, 


Duke of Roxburgfae, who built on the ground an elegunt 
stand for the accommodation of the company^ the low^ 
er pert of which contained stables for the running 
horses^ where they were kept during the races.* 

The late Duke, however, having, in the year 1818, 
planted this course with forest-trees, he removed the 
races to Blaicklaw, still farther distant from the town, 
which gave universal dissatisfietction to the inhabitants, 
and shortly after an attempt was made, by some mali- 
cious incendiaries, to destroy ^e whole of the planting 
at Caverton Edge with fire. 

The Duke, not perhaps aware of the great unpopu- 
larity of his removal of the course, till this base at- 
tempt was made, wi^ that benevolent attention to the 
interest and convenience of the inhabitants which so 
strongly marked his character, speedily determined to 
remedy the error he had committed ; and having se- 
lected a spot, preferable in every reelect to either of 
the former courses, measures were instantly adopts fw 
carrying the Duke's intention into eflfoct 

The ground fixed upon by his Grace was the Berrj^ 

^ This stnidur^ whicb wm ao higUj prissd at fini, wss soon 
discovered to be an intolerable nuisance to the surrounding coontry, 
for bands of gipsies, finding it to be a safe retreat^ where they might 
carry on th^ midnight revels without the iear of molestatioii, as- 
sonUed here firom all quarters, and took fiill possession of i^ and 
never scrupled to borrow a sheep^ or some other kind of farm-stock, 
as often as their necessities or their luxury required. They soon, 
however, by their nightly depredatioiis, became so great an aoasy- 
aace to the farmers in the vicinity, that they petitioned the doke to 
cause the building to be taken down, who having granted their re« 
quest, it was removed. 


xno6s> a perfect level, and scarcely a mile distant from 
Kelso. The inhabitants, therefore, sensible of the be* 
nefits that would result to the town from this change^ 
unanimously resolved that every individual should con- 
tribute his share of labour requisite for converting this 
waste into a proper race-ground with all possible expo* 
dition. Accordingly, it was agreed by the incorporated 
trades, that they should lend their assistance in the 
execution of this work, which they did by turns daily, 
till ^e whole was accomplished, when, in honour of 
the noble donor, it received the name of the Duke's 


On the ISth of July, 182S, the foimdation-stone of 
a very handsome stand was laid, on which occasion 
there was a grand masonic procession. This stand is 
now finished, and being erected after ^e model of that 
at Doncaster, is considered one of the most elegant in 
the kingdom, although it is reckoned by some to be 
placed too near the course. The ground-flat of this 
stand consists of, first, an area, fifty-two feet in lengdit 
receding thirty-two feet on the east side, and twenty- 
five on the west, appropriated for weighing the riders, 
a store-house. Sec ; secondly, an inner room, twenty-dz 
feet by twenty ; and thirdly, a back room thirteen feet 
by nine. The principal entrance is from the west. The 
ascent is by a hanging stair of fifty-one steps, whieh 
leads to the main hall, ladies' room, and balconies. The 
hall is a handsome apartment, thirty-two feet by twen- 
ty, and fourteen feet in height, lighted by seven win- 
dows, each eleven feet high. Off from this is the ladies' 


room, thirteen feet by nine. These rooms open upon 
the principal balcony, which is of the same dimensions 
as the area below. It is fronted by a very fine railing, 
and supported by seven arches of rusticated ashlar 
work. Above, is another balcony, thirty-one feet by 
twenty, also fronted with a railing ^e same as that be- 
low. The south and west fronts are of polished ashlar 
work, with a portico to the stair on the west. The 
back part of the building is forty-five feet, and the 
front part, thirty-one feet in height. 

The first races on this course took place in the year 
1822, and afforded excellent sport. The races are held 

twice in the year, viz. in spring and autumn. 
. The Royal Caledonian Hunt meets occasionally at 
Kelso, the neighbourhood of which affords abundance 
of game for the chase. During the week they remain, 
as well as during the time of the regular races, the 
town presents a very gay appearance, from the nimae- 
rous company that resort thither on these occasions. 
Brilliant assemblies are held almost every evening du- 
ring both meetings. 

From its situation, and the fineness of the groimd, 
this course may be considered as not inferior to any 
in the kingdom, and is a great point of .attracticm to 
the fashionables, and others in this quarter, the races 
being always attended by a numerous and genteel con- 
course of spectators. 

Kelso is not without other public amusements, which 


afford frequent opportunities for the display of the 
beauty and fashion of our fair countrywomen ; and 
this is done to much advantage at the different assem* 
blies, &c., which are given duiing the year, as well as 
at the theatrical exhibitions, which generally take place 
diu'ing a part of the summer season. 

Mr Dubbs, of the Theatre-Royal, Edinburgh, as £ftr 
as we have learned, was the first who introduced this 
polite amusement, by appearing with a respectable com- 
pany of actors during the race-week in the year 177*; 
and, shortly after, a house in the Horse-mari<et, built 
for the accommodation of the inhabitants when th^ 
could not obtain the Assembly-Room, at the Cross- 
Keys, for their balls or assemblies, was usually let to 
the manager, who fitted it up as a theatre on his occa* 
sional visits. But, to the French prisoners, who were 
here on parole during the late war, the inhabitants are 
indebted for having this place converted into a theatre, 
which they did at a very considerable expense, for their 
own amusement, performing in it occasionally, and dis- 
tributing tickets of admission gratis ; and at their de- 
parture, as a mark of their gratitude for the polite at- 
tention and kind treatment they had experienced, left 
the whole standing, with all their scenery and decora- 


The communication between Kelso and the capitals 
of either kingdom is daily, and with other towns with 



which it is more immediately connected, as frequent •• 
is necessary for the purposes of business or convenience. 
The Tweedside and Eagle coaches leave Kelso every 
day in the week, alternately, for Edinburgh ; the form- 
er on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday ; the latter on 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, returning next day, 
with the exception of Sunday. 

The Commercial Traveller, from Coldstream, passes 
through Kelso for Edinburgh, and leaves it on the 
same days as the Eagle does. 

The Wellington, from Edinburgh to London, passes 
through every lawful day, about noon, and from Lon- 
don to Edinburgh, every day, about four p. m. 

There is also a coach to Hawick and Jedburgh, and 
one to Berwick, three times every week. 

In addition to the advantages already derived from 
the frequent communication to different places, the mail 
passes through Kelso on its way to London and Eidin- 
burgh. It commenced running in May last, and* it is 
expected will prove to be of much benefit to the town. 
Kelso now enjoys more intercourse with England and 
Scotland than any other country town in this kingdom. 


The inconvenience occasioned by the loss of the old 
bridge, which was swept away on the 26th of October, 
1797,* was so great, and so universally felt, that it was 

* '' On the evening of Friday last, October the S5thj we «z|mieii- 


absolutely necessary to adopt instant measures for the 
erection of another, the only passage across the Tweed 
being effected by boats, a mode of conveyance not only 
tedious, but frequently attended with considerable dan- 
ger, especially in the time of great floods, that are so 

ced one of the most tremendous storms of rain and wind which we 
recollect to have ever witnessed in this part of the country. The 
storm began at six o'clock^ and continued to rage during the night 
with constantly-increasing Fiolenoe. On Saturday morning the at- 
mosphere continued gloomy^ and the rivers were every moment swd* 
ling. The Teviot overflowed the island formed below Maxwellheugh« 
mill by itself and the mill-dam^ together with the public road from 
the new bridge to Kelso Bridge, as well as a considerable portion of 
the adjoining fields. The island in Tweed, at its confluence with 
the Teviot, was so deeply laid under water, that the trunks of the 
trees growing in it were half immersed ; whilst an immense body of 
water, from both rivers, descended with great velocity towards Kelso 
Bridge, rose very high behind the piers of the arches, and over- 
flowed the banks below on both sides, inundating the road and fields 
from the bridge to the bottom of Maxwellheugh-mill — forming alto- 
gether a spectacle truly sublime ! 

" It was observed early in the morning, that the third and fourth 
arches had sunk a little below their usual level ; from which it was 
concluded that the foundation had been completely undermined, and 
that, of consequence, these arches might every hour be expected to 
fall, justness and curiosity, however, induced a great number of 
people, most of whom had been warned of their danger, to pass the 
bridge on horseback and on foot About twelve o'clock, a great num- 
ber of persons belonging to the town, as well as many of the ladies 
and gentlemen connected with the Caledonian Hunt, assembled at 
the east end of the bridge, and on the adjoining ground, for the par- 
pose of witnessing the event, which, from the erident sinking of the 
two arches, was every instant expected to take place. At the time 
two men were rash enough to pass the bridge on horseback. Many 
persons now made signals, and called loudly fbr the return of some 
foot passengers, whom cariosity had led to the opposite end of the 
bridge, and among whom were Colonel Baird of Newbyth, and Colo- 
nel Hamilton of Wishaw. They remained, however, apparently ig- 


common here, and which last for several days. In such 
cases, no other alternative was left for those on urgent 
business, but to pursue their journey by the way of 
Coldstream, taking a circuit of eighteen miles, which 
not only occasioned much delay, but had, besides, many 
other disadvantages. 

The noblemen and gentlemen of the county, in con- 
junction with the opulent of the town, having consult- 

noraot of their danger^ till a young man, whose brother was aiiiODg 
the number, rushed forward, almost to the middle of the bridge, ex- 
claiming, '* The bridge is felling !" His brother and another rela^ 
tiFe were the only two who ventured to return, while they felt the 
bridge shaking under their feet. The rest continued on the other 

'' In less than five minutes the two arches sunk very hat; a rent, 
which was formed at the bottom of the lower side of the pier which 
supported them, widened rapidly ; and some large stones separated 
and tumbled from the top of the parapet into the river. In an instant 
the pier fell to pieces ; the two arches sprang together, and their 
disjointed materials sunk almost wholly beneath the water in the 
twinkling of an eye. The foam ascended to a great height all 
around, and the water was dashed on either shore beyond its former 
limits for a considerable way downwards ; whilst the agitated coun- 
tenances of the anxious spectators greatly increased the awful solem- 
nity of the scene. Fourteen persons, among whom were the two 
gentlemen already mentioned, and five young bpys, now remained 
for three hours at the west end of the bridge ; but were at length 
rescued from their disagreeable situation by the exertions of the 
people of Maxwellheugh. The active interest taken by several gen- 
tlemen of the Caledonian Hunt, previously to the accident, in be- 
half of the people whose curiosity overcame their sense of danger, 
was highly honourable to themselves, and has probably been the 
means of saving lives. Mr Monro Binning of Sofblaw, in particu- 
Ur, exerted himself by rushing to the bridge, and loudly warning 
the people of the impending event, not many minutes bcsfore it hap- 
pened. Providentially not a life was \ost"^Edinburgh Magaune^ 
J797,Tol. X. p. 467. 


ed the most able engineers on the subject, fixed upon a 
place about fifty yards below the site of the old bridge^ 
as a proper situation for the one to be erected ; and ha« 
ving disposed of as many shares as amounted to the va^ 
lue of the estimates, the contract was signed in the year 
1800, with Mr Murray of Edinburgh, and Mr Lees of 
East Lothian, who engaged to execute the work, and 
which they completed in about three years. 

This bridge is constructed according to the most 
approved plans, and, for elegance of workmanship, and 
beauty of design, it has perhaps not its equal in Scot- ' 
land. It is formed after the new mpde of bridge-build- 
ing, with five arches of beautiful polished stone, sup- 
ported by handsome columns and pilasters. A toll-bar 
was placed upon it when it was completed, to which foot- 
passengers were also required to contribute, in order to 
defray the expense of erecting it, and which was only 
to continue until this was accomplished ; but works of 
this description, when once established, appear to ac- 
quire, by every year's standing, a more solid footing ; 
the toll still remains, and at present lets for L.900 per 
annum, so that the revenues arising from this bridge 
are very considerable. 


The natural beauty of the country bordering on the 
Tweed and Teviot, has long been pointed it out as a 
most delightful situation for the residence of the noble 


and the affluent. Kelso is, in consequence, completely 
surrounded by the seats of noblemen and gentlemen, 
generally constructed in a superior style of elegance 
and grandeur, which give additional lustre to the rich 
and captivating scenery of the district, and to Kelso 
itself an advantage over almost every other country 
town in Scotland. We shall, therefore, proceed to no- 
tice the most remarkable in the neighbourhood. 

Fleurs, the palace of the Duke of Roxburghe, is 
situated on the north bank of the Tweed, within a mile 
of Kelso, on a rising ground, with a beautiful lawn des* 
oending to the margin of the river in front, and lofty 
woods behind and on each side of it. This elegant 
structure was built in the year 1718^ by Sir John Van- 
brugh ; and adjoining to it a handsome Conservatory 
was erected by the late Duke, James,* in which there 
is a most excellent collection of rare and valuable 

The old gardens, which are partly in the town, (a 
considerable portion of Roxburgh Street having been 
pulled down for the purpose of extending them,) being 

* The town of Kelso suffered an almost irreparable loss on the 
death of the late Duke of Roxburghe. He was a nobleman possessing 
the most liberal and generous sentiments — kind, afiable, and cour* 
teous ; and his attention to the interests and prosperity of the town 
was unremitting. The present representative of this noble house 
being a minor^ has it not in his power to render the same serrioes, 
although the highest eiqpectations are formed of his Mlowii^ the 
example of his much-esteemed and justly-r^retted progenitor. The 
Duchess, his mother, is a lady of the most amiable and humane dis- 
positions, but her sphere of benerolenoe is also naturally restricted. 



found inconvenient on account of their distance from 
the house^ others have been constructed nearer to it en 
the west side, formed on a grand scale, and laid out in 
the most tasteful manner. 

At about the distance of four miles from Fleurs, on 
the same side of the Tweed, surrounded with fine cM 
woods, is Makerstoun, the seat of the late Sir Henry 
Hay Makdougal, Bart., commanding a very beautifel 
prospect to the south. 

To the north of Kelso, about five miles, and in tlie 
neighbourhood of the village of the same name, is Neii- 
thom, the residence of James Roy, Esq. ; and a few 
miles farther north is Mellerstain, the beautiful seat of 
Greorge Baillie, Esq., placed in a most delightful situa- 
tion, and surrounded with numerous thriving pfainta- 

South-east firom Mellerstain, and about three miles 
north of Kelso, is Stitchel, the family mansion of Sir 
John Pringte, Bart., occupying a fine rising-ground, 
and commanding an extensive and picturesque view «f 
the adjacent country ; and about a mile nearer to Kelaa 
is Newton-don, the residence of Sir Alexander Bon» 
Bart., standing npon an eminence of southern ^cpo* 
sure, having a rich and extensive prospect over tSl Hhe 
country lying between it and the Cheviot HiUs. 8br 
Alexander has lately made consideraUe improvementa 
both on the house and grounds. The canal has A* 
been much eidarged — forming altogether a beMttfU 
and ri^ appearance. 



On the east of Kelso the gentlemen's seats are nu-« 
merous and handsome. On the road leading to Ber* 
wick by Swinton, are Paradise, Dr Stuart — ^Edenside, 
Captain Tait — Woodside, Lady Diana Scott, mother 
to the Laird of Harden, a lady remarkable for her piety 
and benevolence — ^Broomlands, James Innes, Esq., fac- 
tor to the Duke of Roxburghe — and Sydenham, Admi- 
ral Dixon. On the road to Berwick, by Comhill, are 
Tweedbank, Mrs Nisbet — Rosebank, General Elliot — 
and Henderside Park, George Waldie, Esq. On the 
south side of the Tweed, and opposite to Rosebank, is 
Wooden, Mr Walker, remarkable for a beautiful water- 
fell called Wooden-lin, in a very retired and romantic 

Opposite to Kelso, on the south side of the river, is 
Pinnacle-Hill, the property of Miss Elliot, built on the 
top of a lofty precipitous eminence, from which it de- 
rives its name, with woods leading to the water's edge. 
The view from it, as has already been observed^ is de- 
lightful. CJonsiderable improvements have, within 
these few years, been made on the house, by building 
a new bow-front, and making other material altera- 
tions ; a handsome lodge has also been erected at the 
entrance, and the grounds have been laid out with 
great taste. 

Springwood Park, the seat of Sir John Scott Dou- 
glas, Bart., is delightfully situated on the rising-gpround 
opposite to the ruins of Roxburgh Castle, and dose by 
the bridge over the Teviot. The present proprietor 

VriKcipAl seati^. lit 

has of late added greatly to the appearance of his man- 
sion, by opening a communication to it from the south 
end of the bridge of Kelso, which is conducted along 
an elegant archway, with a handsome lodge at the en- 
trance. The avenue has also been laid out very taste- 
fully, and when the trees arrive at maturity, the beauty 
of the scenery will be highly increased, and add much 
to the appearance of the surrounding country. Sir 
John has also beautified the other entrances to Spring- 
wood Park, and built handsome lodges at the different 

Ednam-House, the beautiful seat of John Robertson, 
Esq. stands in immediate proximity to the town, on 
the banks of the Tweed, closely adjoining to the Eng- 
lish chapel. The house is an elegant modem build- 
ing, and the grounds are laid out with much taste — 
the whole forming a great addition to the beauty of 



David, who, during the reign of his brother Alex- 
ander, was known by the title of Earl of Huntingdon^ 
evUiced, at a very early age, an uncommon piety and 
zeal for the church, whic)i he manifested duiing Im 
whole future life by a stript attention to its ritei^ ^bA 
by the erection of numerous monasterieSi which he m^ 
dqwed with immense revenues in landSp grain, and 

* Tbe fint introduction of monaatic oidort in Seotknd, was long 
antecedent to th^ reign of Payid I.^ and everything zecorded of the* 
monks of those times, warrants us in heliering that they were the 
only depositories of learning and the arts ; and fliat the oohnpt prao- 
ticea i^ irhich this cla^s became aftervrardii ^ nolorioii4» wnn in a 
great measure unknown among them in those days, although it ia 
abundantly eyident, the superstitions they practised among their vo- 
taries> even at this time, were grossly repugnant to common sense. 

By means, however, of these superstitions, they obtained a com- 
plete and uncontrolled ascendency orer, not only the weak and un« 
enlightened, but even over the more intelKgent and better informed ; 
and possessed of this power, which they deemed unassailable, they 
exerdsed it for many ages with domineering insolence and cruel ra- 
pacity. In consequence, their conduct became less guarded, and, by 
degrees, they arrived at an unparalleled height of open profligacy, 
and a total disregard of common decency. 

That the Church of Rome has ever been indebted to ignorance and 
superstition for its chief and only support, is an undeniaUa hct ; but 
that, in this enlightened age, men who have the means afforded 
(which they did not possess in the days above referred to) of obtain- 
ing education, the only requisite for dispelling the illutioD of mo- 
nastic priestcraft, should remain the willing dupes of their tricks, 
and mummery, is an astonishing though lamentable reality. 

ABdEY. 149 

Hid pidssessiidns ext^ding frdm eadt to Wedt niMig 
the whcie borders, he was tiMui*ally attached M tbin 
part of thi; kingdom ; and here the first ebullitions of 
bis zeal were displayed, for we find that prerioas to 
his accession to the throne, he erected a monastery at 
Selkirk, about twenty miles distant from Kelso, for an 
order of monks which had become very celebrated in 
France. Having obtained a few members of this dis- 
tinguished order, he brought them to his monastery at 
Selkirk, where they were regularly installed^ agreeably 
to the institutions of the Romish church. These monks 
were denominated Tyronensian, from Tyrone, the name 

Mr Irel^nd^ in his history of " France for the last setren years,** 
-speaking of the bigotry and superstition of French priestcraft^ men- 
tions the following circumstance^ as a melancholy prok>f of the tbkte 
to which that country is reduced^ and the public mind cormpted, by 
that class of bigotted zealots : — 

" However, as a proof that 1 do not advance au assertion upon 
superficial grounds, I will apped to all the popcllatiori of Paris itiid 
its enrirone, whether, at tbe period upon which 1 am now speaking, 
(pis, 1820,) a priest, not seren miles from the capitd, did ncrt gt?«f 
his parishioners to understand, that a spot had been designated to 
him in a dream, where, under a stone, he would find deposited ilie 
shirt formerly worn by Jesus Christ ; a fJEU^ he repaired to identify, 
accompanied by his auditors, which, as may naturally be supposed, 
he took care should be verified ; and, in consequence, the precfomr 
relic was for several succeeding Sundays displayed in procession at 
the villages of Argenteuil, Courbevois, &c. &c. ; during one of witicli 
exposition^ an old woman quaintly remarked, that ihof musi kate 
had excdlent thread in those days. When such farces as these 1^ 
tolerated, let us not be surprised that the baptising of bells dMU 
have taken place, nor wonder if we find renewed all the pantomimfe 
iffusions practised by monks itr the earliest ages of barbHrism and 
confiditag igitorance." 


of the town in France where this order was originaUy 
established by Bertrand D' Abbeville/ a disdple of Ro* 
bert D'Arbrisson, the founder of the monks of the 
Fouterrand order. 

* Bertrand d'Abbevillc was born about the year 1046j in tbe ju« 
riadiction of Abbeville^ in the parish of Ponthieu, of hooetl parenta, 
pkma and eminent nospiTALiBss ; who, aeoording to their abiUty, 
reoeiFed the poor, and with much charity reliered their nrcfwifina 
They were particularly careful in training up Bertrand in the patha 
of Tirtue, and bestowed on him a liberal education, in which he aoon 
made rapid progress. From his earliest infimcy he manifested so 
strong a partiality for a religious life, that he eren wiahed to imitata 
the monks in their dress. This exposed him to the laughter and 
deraion of his companions ; but he withstood all their railleries ; and, 
on reaching his twentieth year, he, in company with three others, 
who expressed the same desire^ left his native plaoe, and went to 
Poitou in order to retire into a monastery where strictness and re- 
gularity were obsenred. 

They remained at Poictiers for some tune, to make themaelres 
acquainted with the ceremonies that were regularly practised in the 
monasteries of that prorinoe. At the age of thirty, Bertrand was 
made pricnr of the monastery of St Sarin, about twelve leaguea from 
Poictiers, upon the Gartemble. And here, from his leal^ mildness^ 
and humility, and his unremitting attention to their comlbita, he 
soon became a great favourite with the monks. So much so, that 
on the death of the abbot he was earnestly solicited to fill his pboe ; 
but his modesty inducing him to decline this high office^ he retired 
into Maine, for the purpose of coocealmentj till another abbot had 
been elected. 

He was very soon after this chosen abbot of St CyprieOj and west 
to rejoin Robert d'Arbrissel, whom he accompanied in his apostolic 
missions. He afterwards went to Rome, to defend the rights of his 
monastery of St Cyprien, when he obtained what he dswsndfd ; and 
refused the dignity of cardinal, which was offered him by Pope Pa»> 
chal the Second. 

Bertrand bebg desirous of returning to hu fonser ntiremciil is 
the Perche, he was dissuaded from this by the mothtr of the Csaat 

ABBEY. 101 

' Bertrand, the founder of the Tyronensian order, is 
represented as a person of great reputation and ability, 
endowed with superior talents, and possessing high ac- 
complishments, an ardent admirer of the fine arts, which 
he patronized and encouraged to the utmost of his power. 
And as this power did not extend beyond the jurisdic- 
tion of his monastery, he made it an invariable rule 
that no one should be admitted a member of his society 
who was not thoroughly instructed in some branch of 
science or of art ; and this, as well to banish idleiieiB 
(the general source of all vice) from their community, 
as to enable them, should occasion require, to procure 
for themselves the necessaries of life, which, at their 
first institution, they did not possess in superfluous 

de RoutroD^ who prevailed upon her son to grant to him and hia 
monks a settlement in the wood of Tyrone. Here he laid the foun- 
dation of a monastery, which gave name to the monks of this order* 
It was at first built of wood. Yres of Chartres befriended this eata- 
blishment very much ; and mass was performed there for the first 
time by Bertrand, on the £aster-day following. 

The fame of Bertrand spread far and near, and the order of which 
he was the founder was adopted and introduced into many parts of 
the world. Thirteen of his monks were brought over to England 
by King Henry I. David, King of Scotland, impressed by reports 
of his piety, undertook a jouril^y to France in order to see him, ba% 
before he reached Tyrone he had died. He, however, brought with, 
him twelve monks belonging to the order, and an abbot. 

According to Souchet, Bertrand died in the year 1116, but Ht^ 
schenius says, that this event did not take place till the year ftiUtir- 
ing. So great an example had this pious man shown while in life^ 
that the number of the monasteries of this order increaaed consider* 
My even after hia death**— Hwf. des Ordres Mamut. ton. VI. 


Itt coo)iequ6Boe ^ his strict adherence to thk nigii- 
laiiem there were found in thia order aitiata and me- 
chavca of every description^ auch aa paiiitecB»8Culptora» 
joinecs, lock-smiths, masons, vine-dressers^ labourers^ 
&e. ; aU wfaidi were subject to the supmor» and their 
eamii^ were placed into a oommon stodc for the ge- 
neral maint««mce of the body. 

By the ndes of this society^ the strictest pover^ 
was enjoined ; aad^ indeed, at its first ooinnienee«ient» 
thqr barely possessed the merest necessaries (tf life. 
Fraquently they were so much reduced as to be obliged 
to divide a pound of bread between two, and not un« 
ftequently among four, of the monks ; and there w&ce 
aone dajrs in whidi they were even destitute of this ar- 
ticle of food, and under the necessity of subsisting on 
herbs and roots. 

They were also debarred the use of Mone, and the 
austerities they voluntarily subjected themselves to, ap- 
pear scarcely credible. Notwithstanding the severity of 
their rules, applications for admission into this society 
increased so rapidly, that in less than three years, Ber- 
trand had under his control not less than 500 monks. 
The 4ress first assumed by this order was cub^daured 
grey 9 but it was afterwards dtenged for hlaelL Their 
original institution was in the year IlOQi, when Ber- 
trand founded the monastery at Tyrone. 

Difference (^ opinion exists as to the exact period 
when th^ portion of this community of monks brought 
ifirom France by David, arrived at Selkirk. Fetrdun 


TflBCM tkcir am?al in 1109> whfle Sanioa of Duriuun 
gtetes a to kave faqipened ia 1118, aod add8» tibat thef 
reoudiMl there .;^^0Ji y^«ir«. Fordnn, however, ap» 
peirs m this iiwtance to be the more ezaet hiatoiriaD ; 
for, had they come to Sdkirk m 1113, and remainad 
theM fifteen years, according to Simeon of Dutfaam, no 
interval could have eUipsed between their removal firam 
SeUdri^ and Aeir setflement at Kdso. Now, we an 
ezpready informed, that David, on his accession to tha^ 
throne in 1124, at the suggestion of his pious courtien^ 
and by the advice of John, Bishop of Glasgow, ^ bnilt 
a religions house at Roxborgh, and had the monka 
brought from Sdkirk to that place.*" And it is certain^ 
ly very probable that David, from his partiality to the* 
monks he had himself introduced into the kingdom^ 
would readily adopt this advice, as, by this transfer- 
ence, he would have them nearer to his person, and 
more under his own observation. 

Roxburgh, at this time the chief residenoe dt the 
raonardi, could not, as may well be supposed, be a very 
fiuitaUe abode for men of such recluse and austere ha* 
bits. The hurry and bustle of camps, and the din #f 
arms, did but ill accord with the privacy and sednsioii 
to which they had devoted themselves ; and David, n# ^ 
doubt, soon aware of this, perceived the neoessilj of t^ 
moving them to a more retired situation, where» fttai 
from disturbance, from the noise of war, tta^r nrigiit 
})eaceably and uninterruptedly perform the sacred du- 
ties of their religion. 


No place appeared more ^gible for this purpose tiiati 
Kelso ; and here David caused a sploidid monasterT^to 
be erected, on which neither pains nor expense were 
spared to complete the elegance of the structure, and 
the conrenience of the building. 

This abbey was finished in the year 1188, and dedi*' 
cated to the Virgin Mary and St John the Eyangelist ; 
and on the second day of May in the same year, the 
monks were removed from Roxburgh and settled at 

This monastery was richly endowed by the ro3ral 
founder ; and the gifts he made to it were afterwards 
confirmed to the church by Pope Innocent II., who 
died fifteen years after the erection of this building* 
From the liberality of David and his successors, and 
the donations of other pious individuals, the revenue of 
this abbey became immense. 

David, high in favour with the Pontifical See, was 
anxious that some particular mark of distinction might 
be conferred by the Pope on this abbey, and he had the 
satisfaction of seeing this wish realised ; for, shortly 
after the death of Innocent IL, his successor, Alexan*- 
der IIL, issued a bull, as appears from the chartulary 
g£ Kelso,* granting permission to the Abbot to wear a 
mitre and pontifical robes, and allowing him to be ad- 
mitted at the meetings of all general councils. 

Pope Innocent IIL granted still greater privUegea 

* This chartulary is deposited in the Adrocaiet' Lihriryi 

ABBEY. 155 

to this monastery. He fireed the Abbot from the con- 
trol of all Episcopal jurisdiction whatsoever ; and he 
also wrote two letters in favour of this abbey^ the one 
to the High Church at Kelso, to prevent its eodesiasti- 
cal endowments from being appropriated to any other 
purposes than those for which they were originally de^ 
signed ; and the other to the churches and other ecd»* 
siastic establishments throughout the kingd(»n8 of Scot* 
land, enjoining them to refrain from all injury to the 
monastery of Kelso. 

Robert, Bishop of St Andrews, also manifested his 
liberality to the monks of Kelso, who were then inda^ 
ded in his diocese, but afterwards transferred to the 
see of Glasgow, by placing them in that independent 
situation that they might be ordained, and take the sa* 
craments of the church from whatever bishop in Soot* 
land or Cumbria they should choose. 


The Abbey of Kelso is constructed in a form quite 
different from any other abbey either in Scotland or 
in England, being in the shape of a Greek cross. The 
architecture is Saxon, or early Norman, with the excep- 
tion of four magnificent central arches, which are d^ 
ddedly Gothic, and is a beautiful specimen of this par- 
ticular style, being r^^lar and uniform in its strqp- 
ture. This monastery, like most others in the king^ 
dom, suffered much from the furv of the Ref orm e m 

156 BISTORT OF K£L80. 

in 1M#> whth many of Hi most betfoctfU onuattttM 
wtrr defftoed, and a grtat part af Um baikUng daatMjr^ 

It is ratfaar aingtdar that this baDdtaig skoidd diffar 
ao mach in ajipearanes finnn aithar tile Abbqr of Jad- 
borgfa or of Mehme, Irhfdi were eiactad hf Urn aaoM 
monarch, and within a hw f ears of eadi olhar. Tha 
ndna of this abbejr are, howaver, in auch a atata of pia- 
aervaCioo, aa to gire to the speatetar a tolerably oonaet 
idea of the original magnificence of tha buikUng. The 
aatre and quiia are wholly demolished ; the north and 
aosth aisles remain, and are eadi nearly twenty paesn 
inkngth. Fake drcular arrhes, intersecting eadi other, 
ornament the walls round about The mina of the 
eastern end present part of a fine open gallery: the pU* 
krs are eluatered, and the arches drmlar. Two aides 
of the central tower are stiQ standing, to the height of 
about seventy feet, but they must have been originally 
much higher. There is an uniformity in the north 
and south ends, each bearinir two round towers, the 

* It h much to be regrettal, tint sfi manf fine bttikNngB and no- 
Ut edificM^ of ridi architectura, skoiiid ha?« \mm 4ntnjtA si thai 
tine. Zeal for the reformed reli^on overpowered reaaoDj and led 
the Reformers to the commiwion of acts of fiolence which« under any 
sMMr fnvieBee, wouM have bees ttspardoiidMe. Whes we ooBsider, 
hepufer, the melancholy stale ef degradatiod to which thh c e a atf y 
was reduced, and the persecutions carried on by the superstitious 
•ad bigotted Church of Rome, we fee! inclined to palliate these rtah 
ptenaiing th&f mtvt csmiiNtted from the idoi^ thsi when tbif 
demoliabing the churcbe.^, tktj were at the same time destroy-* 
iBf the religious system of the Roman Catholics. 

AB3£Y. 157 

Qmtrt$ of whkh sharpen towards the roof. The great 
ioQT^WJ^y is formed by a eyircular arch, with several 
memb^ri^ falling in the r^ar of each other, and support* 
^ o^ fiaiQ pila3ters.^ 

It i9 not certain when this abbey was first used as a 
pariah diurch after the Reformation, but the record 
informs us that it was repaired for the purpose in the 
year 1648 ; and that it is very little more than half a 
century siiioeY on account of ita dangerous state, public 
worship was discontinued in it. f 

The buildings of the abbey must at one time hare 
occupied a very considerable space of ground, as mat 
ma^y years ago they extended as far east as the pre-» 
sent parish school, and, from appearance, they must 
originally have reached a considerable way towards 

* Mr Gillespie^ in his report on the repairs of the abbey in 1822, 
states, '* that ft«om the remote antiquity of the abbey, and the style 
of its architactare^ it stan^ higii oa the list of those eodesiaBtieal 
buildings in this country which form a dictionary o( scieooea to th« 
artists of the present day.** 

f In the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, we find the fbRowing 
prediction of Thomas the Rhyiner : '^ Attother memorable propheey 
bore, that the old kirk at Kelso^ cotfs'tructed out of the ruins of the 
abbey, shouliSt fsdl when * at the fhllest.' At a very crowded sermon^ 
abQi]^t thirty jeajrs ago> a pisoe of lime feu from the foof of the 
church. The alarm for the fulfilmeot of tlia wcwda ^f tlu^ s^tr^ 1^ 
came universal ; and happy were they who wer^ nearer the door of 
the putdestiDed edifice. The church was tn consequence deserted, 
and han never fine? had ait opportunity of tuning apon a Mi 
congregj^tion. I hope^ for the sake of a beautifiil speciincg(^ of $aw» 
Gothic architecture, that the accomplishment of this prophecy is faB 
distent.''— MtJw/reZry, vol. IT. p. 275, edit. ISOe. 


the books of the Tweed, near which it is situated. In 
the three upper windows were hung the same number 
of bells, which are now removed ; and when the old 
town-house was taken down, the clock was put up in 
another window of this building, where it remained for 
several years ; but is now also removed, and placed on 
the front of the new town-house, lately erected. 

The ruins of the abbey were, till lately, greatly dis- 
figured by several modem additions ; but of these, part 
were removed by order of the late Duke William, in 
1805, and the remainder were taken down by the last 
Duke, James, in 1816, by which the ruins were resto- 
red to their original simplicity. By the removal of 
these excrescences, the noble transept, together with 
several windows and side-arches, which were by them 
hid, are now restored to view. 

In consequence, however, of an apprehension that 
the ruins of this beautiful abbey would soon fall into 
a greater state of decay, a meeting of the noblemen and 
gentlemen of the county was held on the 27th -day of 
January, 1823, to concert the measures necessary in 
order to prevent this unfortunate occurrence. The 
following report firom Mr Gillespie, architect, Edin- 
burgh, was presented, and read to the meeting : — 

" 1st, That it appears to him, from minute inspec- 
tion, that unless a very speedy remedy be applied, a 
large portion of the building is in danger of fiEdling to 
the ground ; and that the bells should be immediately 

ABBEY. 159 

taken down, as he is satisfied they have been the cause 
of much injury to the building.^ 

^^ 2d, That as the greatest injury the building in ge- 
neral has sustained, appears to arise from water pene- 
trating through the summit, and passing to the heart 
of the walls, all the loose stones should be fixed, the 
rents and crevices on the top carefully pinned and filled 
up, and then a coat of Roman cement, one inch in 
thickness, should be applied for the protection of the 
whole upper part of the abbey. 

^^ 3d, That many of the arches, and other parts of 
the building, which are in a very crazy state, should 
be strengthened ; and that other repairs, which it is im-^ 
possible fully to specify in writing, should be executed; 
and that the commencement of these necessary repairs 
should not be deferred longer than the month of April 

*' In this report, and also at the preliminary meeting 
of gentlemen held on this business, on the 6th of Ja- 
nuary last, Mr Gillespie, in the most handsome man- 
ner, offered his gratuitous services in personally super- 
intending and directing the repair. The report con- 
cludes with stating, as Mr Gillespie's opinion, that .if 

• " This report having been laid before, and partly considered by, 
a meeting of heritors of Kelso, held on the 28th day of Novembtt; 
1B22, the bells were, by unanimous agreement, ordered to be ta]c^ 
down, and were very skilfully removed from the belfry on the nort& 
front of the abbey, under the direction of Mr W. Elliot, ardiitect, 


his directions be fiuthfuUy carried into execatiuD, our 
venerable abbey will be preserved for another eeatnry. 

** The meeting proceeded to ddiberate on the reportr 
and having fbrnierly ascertained firom Mr Giflaqpier 
that the probaUe expense of these repairs would not 
exceed L JMW sterling, resolved, that a voluntary sub* 
seription should be forthwith entered into for their ac- 
complishment ; and for managing said subscriptian, 
and eondttcting the business, a committee be appoint- 

A subscription was immediately entered into for de- 
fraying the expense of the repairs. The whole build- 
ing has been run with cement, which will preserve it 
as an ornament to the town for a great series of years. 
A handsmne rail now surrounds it, which wfll tend 
greatly to the preservation of this ancient structure. 

The value of the endowments bestowed at different 
periods upon this abbey, and which belimged to it at 
tJbe time of the Reformation, will appear from the fol- 
lowing list of the churches annexed to it, viz. Sel- 
kiri^ Roxburgh, Innerlethan, MoUe, l^rouston, Humer 
Lambden, Greenlaw, Bymprink, KeRh, Makerstcm, 
Maxwell, and Gordon, with some others, with their 
tithes, and also the schools of Roxburgh. And the re- 
venue derived from these was very greatp amounting 
at the same period to L.S501, l6s. fid. in monsgr, with 
9 chaldrons of wheat, 52 chaldrons 6 bolls and S firlots 
of bear, 98 chaldrons 18 boUs S firlots and 1 peck sf 
meal, 1 chaldron and S bolls of oats, I tidder of hay,. 


and 1 pound of pepper. The convent of Lesmahago^ 
in Clydesdale, also belonged to this abbey, being a cell 
of Tironersian monks, founded by Fergus, Lord of Gal- 
loway. Its revenues amounted to L.1214» 4s. 6d. in 
money, with 15 chaldrons 8 bolls 1 firlot and 2 pecks 
of bear, 41 chaldrons 8 bolls and S firlots of meal^ and 
3 bolls of oats. 

From the first foimdation of this monastery till the 
reign of James V., every succeeding monarch vied with 
his predecessor in munificence towards it, so that its 
possessions were immense ; and the reputation of the 
monks for sanctity and purity of manners procure^ 
for them grants and bequests from private individuala 
to an extent almost passing belief, so that the revenue^ 
of this abbey amoimted to not less than 10,000 merksr 
of annual income. 

Besides the monastery at Lesmahago, with its d^ 
pendencies, there belonged to it 34 parish churcheSf 
several manors, a vast number of lands, granges, farmSp 
mills, breweries, fishings, salt works, &c. in the shires 
of Roxburgh, Selkirk, Peebles, Lanark, Dumfries, A3rr, 
Edinburgh, and Berwick ; and even in the distant 
county of Aberdeen it possessed the church of Culte»» 
By these grants and bestowments, the abbots and coBr 
vent of Kelso were in possession of a revenue exceed- 
ing in value the income of all the bishops in Scotland. 

Th(^ abbota of this monastery, besides, held a distbh 
guished rank in the kingdom^ having th^ pi^ecedflnce 
of aU the other ecclesiastics on the rolls of Parliament ; 


the Abbot of Kelso being the first on the list, and next 
to him the Abbot of Melrose* 

The Abbots of Kelso were likewise frequently em- 
ployed on embassies ; and their names appear to many 
of the tmces concluded with England, as commission- 
ers specially appointed for these negotiations. 

King David II., we learn from Robertson*s Index, 
granted to this abbey the privilege of a free market, 
and also bestowed upon it all the ^^)r/indtries of all re- 
bels, &c., within the town and county of Berwick ; 
and, in consequence of the damage it sustained from 
the frequent incursions of the English, he gave to the 
monks liberty to cut, from the forests of Selkirk and Jed- 
burgh, the wood necessary for the repair of these in- 

King David II. also erected Kelso, Bolden, and Re- 
verden, into a regality, the superiority of which he 
vested in the abbot and convention of the monastery, 
who retained it till the Reformation. 


The Abbey of Kelso being fmished in the year 1128, 
King David I. brought the monks who were to possess 
it thither from Roxburgh, on the Sd day of May, the 
same year; and in consequence of the king^s residence 
in the vicinity, the abbot was appointed his chaplain. 

Henry, only son to David, and heir-appar»it to the 
throne, a prince esteemed and beloved for his many 

ABBEY. 163 

virtues and excellent qualities, died at Roxburgh in 
the year 1163, and his body was interred in Kdso 
Abbey with great funeral pomp. His death happened 
about the middle of June. 

A dispute having arisen in the year 1202, between 
the monks of Kelso and Melrose, respecting the division 
of some lands to which both laid claim, the Pope's le- 
gate, John of Salerno, was appointed umpire between 
them ; but, after spending a considerable time in inves- 
tigating the matter, and receiving large pres^its of 
gold, silver, horses, &c., from both parties, he departed 
the kingdom, leaving the dispute und^;ermined. 

The above-mentioned dispute, which related to the 
division of the lands between Mole and Clifton, being 
still undecided, both parties agreed to leave it to the 
judgment of Pope Celestine, who, in the year 1208, 
enjoined King William, with a promise of the forgive^ 
ness of his sins, to undertake the adjustment of this 
weighty matter, commanding, at the same time, the 
abbots of both monasteries to abide by his decision. 
The king, in consequence, repaired to Melrose, where 
he summoned both parties to appear before him ; and 
having minutely examined into the claims of both, he 
pronounced his decision with great solemnity, which 
was clearly defined, and particularly narrated in a char- 
ter executed by him this same year at Kelso. 

In the year 12S8, the Bishop of St Andrews, with 
others of the nobility, being sent to Yoik to witness 
the sdemnization of the marriage of Alexander IIL, to 


Margnrety daughter to Hcimy III. cS England, he wis 
there taken ill <tf a fever, of which he died. His body 
was Immght to Kelso, and inteired with great sokni- 
nity in the Abbey Church there. 

David of Bemham, lord chancellor ci the kingdom, 
and bishop of St Andrews, a rapacious and wicked 
character, died at Narthanthira, in the year 1S58, and 
his body, contrarj^ to the protest and prohibition of the 
church of St Andrews, was interred at Kdso. 

Edward I. of England having, in the year 1S96, 
seised and confiscated to his own use all the lands, 
houses^ and other property belonging to the ecdesiaa* 
tics in Scotland, summoned a parliament to meet at 
Berwick, which was attended by a great number of 
all ranks from Scotland, who there renewed their fieal'^ 
ty to him, and renounced all connexion with France ; 
he then issued orders to all the sheriffii of the different 
counties to restore the whole property of the church. 
Letters of restitution were accordingly at this time 
granted to the Abbots of Kelso, Jedburgh, and Melrose, 
for the restoration of all their property. 

In consequence of an article in the treaty between 
Edward III. and King Bobert Bruce, by which the 
rights of the church in either kingdom were dedared 
inviolate, Edward, in the year 1328, issued orders fior 
the restitution of all the lands and pensions wliicfa the 
Abbeys of Kelso, Jedburgh, and Melrose, hdd in Eng- 
land, and which had been seLeed by his father during 
the late wars, and which were still pomsmoi by Sd« 

ABBEY. 165 

ward III. The Scottish king, at the same time, order* 
ed restitution to the monasteries in England, of all 
property of the same denomination which they held in 

During the repeated wars upon the Borders, the 
Monastery of Kelso was subject to frequent dilapida- 
tions, and its inmates often reduced to great distress 
from scarcity of provisions, which the neighbourhood^ 
from its being generally occupied by either the Scots or 
English army, could not supply. In the reign of Ed- 
ward III., (when he nominally held the sovereignty 
over this kingdom,) permission was frequently granted 
to the abbot to send to England for the purpose of pur- 
chasing provisions. The following is a copy of a pro- 
clamation issued by him in the year 1S68, giving them 
this liberty, and providing for the safety of those who 
should be employed in this service, and is addressed to 
the governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and to all other 
governors of castles, &c. : — 

'* Know ye, that as in behalf of our beloved in Christ, the 
Abbot and Convention of Kelso, in Scotland, who are in 
our faith and peace— it is made known to us, that the said 
Abbacy, its lands, tenements, and possessions, as also those 
holding of them, are very much wasted, and almost annihilup 
ted, by varioos losses through the war, as also by various mch 
lestations, inquietudes, and other losses which the;|r are dailv 
visited with ; for that reason, the Abbot and Convention, by 
themselves, or their servants, ought to have liberty to puiv 
chase in England provisions for their own 8U]q[Kirt and that 
of their fiunily, which they have frequently been prevented 


from doing.^ — ^We, therefore, takiiig iheee prmniBes into cor 
consideratioii, and graciously wishing to regard thdr seourity 
in this matter, have giyen to the said Abbot and Convention 
liberty that they, by themselves or Hhdi servants, may seek 
for and purchase in England, or wherever they please, pro- 
vinons for the support of themsdives and thdr fiunily, and to 
carry them to the said Abbey, at their own proper charge^ 
without hindrance or contradiction of any sort, taking under 
our special protection and defence, and also into our safe and 
secure conducting, the said Abbot and Convention ; also their 
said Abbacy, men, afiairs, revenues, and all their possessions, 
within our realm, being either in England or Scotland; and 
also the servants of the said Abbot and Convention, on their 
coming into our Idngdom of England to seek for or purchase 
provisions at the proper expense of the said Abbot and Con- 
vention, and of their servants and friends, in conducting the 
same to the Abbey. 

<< We are unwilling that they should be molested in any 
manner, either in their persons, provisions, or anything else 
belonging to them, (provided they conduct themselves pro- 
perly and feithfully towards us,) by us, our asristants, or any 
of our subjects, whosoever they may be, as is generally wont 
to be in other letters of safe conduct." 

In the year 1420, the Abbot of St Andrews disputed 
the right of precedency claimed by the Abbot of Kelso 
over all the other abbots of the kingdom, in conse- 
quence of the privileges conferred upon them by King 
David I., the Holy See, and others, the dignitaries of 
the church, and brought the question before Parlia^ 
ment, when it having undergone a full and elaborate 
discussion in presence of King James I., he decided in 
favour of the Abbots of St Andrews, assigning to them 
the precedency of all the abbots of the kingdom, on ac- 

ABBEY. 167 

count of the Monastery of St Andrews being the fixst 
that had been erected in Scotland. 

On the night following the fatal battle of Floddeo, 
in the year 1513, the Abbey of Kelso was seized by 
one Carr, a friend or dependant of the Lord of Hume^ 
who turned the abbot out of the monastery, and took 
possession of it. 

In the year 1516, John, eldest son to Alexander, 
Earl of Huntley, died on his passage from France to 
Scotland, and his body was brought to Kelso and inter- 
red in the Abbey. 

The English, in the year 1523, having taken pos- 
session of Kelso, reduced the vaults of the abbey, the 
houses adjoining, and the Chapel of the Blessed Vir- 
gin Mary, (in which some beautiful Episcopal seats, or 
stalls, were constructed,) to a heap of ruins. They also 
burnt all the cells and dormitories ; and, what is stall 
worse, they unroofed all the houses of the monastery, 
canying off the lead with which they were covered ; 
and, from the interruption to all kind of work arising 
from these repeated inroads, the walls fell into a state 
of decay, and for some time continued to fall down 
piece-meal. During the time the abbey continued in 
this state, the monks resorted to the adjoining villages, 
where they celebrated divine worship, and were redu- 
ced to a state of great poverty and want 

At an assembly of the nobles of the kingdom, held in 
the year 1537, much time was occupied in an inquiry 
as to the efficiency of the king's (James V.) revenue to 


support him in that splendour which his exalted niik 
required ; and it being found inadeyiate, they eame to 
the resolution to increase it» bjr additional grants of 
land to the crown ; and, to give him a still farther ad- 
dition to his income, they bestowed upon his four ille- 
gitimate sons the ridi Abbeys of Kelso^ Mehroee, Cold- 
ingham, Holyrood, and St Andrews, the revenues of 
which were to be paid to the king during his life, and 
appropriated to his use. ** By this measure," says Le^ 
ley, *' there came perhaps no less numey into his coffers 
than did arise of his kingly inheritance ;'' or, according 
to Maitlandf '* the revenues of these monasteries were 
iitUe inferior to the revenues of the crown.** 

The abbey suffered greatly from the invasion of 
Scotland by an English army under the command of 
the Duke of NorfDlk, in the year 1542, who wantonly 
set it on fire, and almost totally consumed it. 

The same calamity befel the Abbey in the year 1545, 
when it was again set fire to by the English army under 
the command of the Earl of Hertford. At this time 800 
men, who had obtained possession of it, defended it 
with great bravery and resolution for some time^ but 
were at length forced to jddd to an overpowering force, 
after a great proportion of them had been slain. The 
remaining few surrendered as prisoners. 

James Steuart, ill^timate son of King James V^ on 
whom his &tfaer, or rather the Ck>nvention of Nobles, 
had bestowed the Alheys of Kelso and Melrose, having 
in the year 1558, the queen-regent omferred these 

ABBOTS. 16^ 

benefices oil the Cardinal Guyse, her brother ; but it 
does not appear that he was ever inducted into them. 

Lesley mentions, the monks being expelled the mo- 
nastery in the year 1560, it was cruelly plundered by 
the reformers. What they termed the heretical remain 
c^ the great altar, they consumed by flames^ and de-t^ 
stroyed all the sacred images. 

About the 2Sd of August, 1666, William Kerr, Ab^ 
hot of Kelso, was killed by a kinsman and relation of 
his own, the Laird of Cessford. 

The 3rear 1580 was famous for the destruction of 
almost all the monasteries in the kingdom ; and, in the 
number, that of Kelso, an ornament to the country, and 
the admiration of every beholder, fell a prey to their 
frenzied zeal. At this time the el^;ant and highly- 
finished Monasteries of Melrose and Dimfermline suf- 
fered the same &te. 


When King David brought over the monks of the 
order of Tyrone, from France^ and settled them at Sel- 
kirk, one of their number, named Ralph, was appoint- 
ed abbot, who, on the death of Bertrand, the founder of 
the order, in 1115-6, was elected to succeed him, whe^ 
another of the monks, named William, was appointed 
to this situation. Ralph dying soon after, this same 
William was appointed in his place, and was 

J tk..:,' :.»[:» 


as Abbot of Selkirk, by Herbert, who held this oflke 
when the monks were finally settled in the Monastery 
of Kelso, in the year 1128. This Herbert, the first 
Abbot of Kelso, was a man of great learning and ta- 
lent, and filled the office of chamberlain of the kingdom 
in the reigns of Alexander L and David I. In this ca- 
pacity he appears as witness to the deed, or grant, made 
by the first of these monarchs to the Church of St Ken- 
tigem, of Glasgow, of the lands of Govan, which be- 
came afterwards an endowment for a prebend in that 
cathedral church. He also appears as witness to a 
charter granted by King David to the canons r^;ular 
€i the Priory of St Andrews, ^ de Ecdesia de Linli- 
dew, cum Capella et terras suas, tarn infira Burgum, 
quam extra f" and to the donation of this devout prince 
of the Church of Totham, '' Ecdesis Sancti Trinitatis 
de Loudon, pro salute anims suae, et pro anima Matil- 
dis Reginse, sororis suae Matildes, Matildas uxoris suaB,** 
&c. This eminent person was promoted to the Episco- 
pal See of Glasgow, in 1147, to which he was conse- 
crated by Pope Eugenius, on St Bartholomew's day, 
and which he held till his death in 1164. He was suc- 
ceeded as Abbot of Kelso, by 

Emold, or Arnold, who kept the situation till the 
jrear 1160, when he was elected to the Episcopal chair 
of St Andrews, where he was consecrated in the . Old 
Church, with great pomp and splendour, by William, 
Bishop of Murray, l^ate of the Apostolic See, in pre- 
sence of King Malcolm ; the bishops, abbots, and nobi- 

ABBOTS. 171 

lity of the kingdom assisting in the ceremony. (Walter, 
Abbot of Mehx)se, had been previously elected to this 
see, but he declined it, on account of his weak state of 
health, and died shortly after.) This same Arnold was^ 
in the fdllowing year, 1161, made legate in Scotland^ 
but being soon after deprived of this office by Pope 
Alexander, who had appointed him to it, he seeam to 
have been so deeply affected by this as to occasion his 
death, which happened in the year 1162. We find 
Emold to have been a subscribing witness to a charter 
granted by King David in favour of the monks of the 
Isle of May, and to the donation of Rindolgros. On 
his promotion to the See of St Andrews, he, with King 
Malcolm, founded the Great Church there. Upon his 
removal from Kelso, he was succeeded by John, for- 
merly a canon of the same monastery, who was elected 
on the evening of St Andrew's day, 1160 ; and, on the 
day of Epiphany next following, was consecrated in the 
Episcopal Church of Glasgow, by Herbert, bishop of 
that see. In the year 1165, he arrived from Home, 
being mitred, and enjoyed his office till the year 1178, 
(or, according to some, 1180,) when he died. In the 
year 1 176, a dispute arose between him and Walter, 
abbot of the Tyronensian order, respecting superiority, 
or, as the phrase may be literally rendered, " who should 
appear the greater ;" but this dispute was undecided at 
his death. John appears as witness to a confirmation of 
several gifts made by King David to Dunfermline. 
Father Hay, in his " Scotia Sacra," says, he is of opi- 


nion that one Henry succeeded the above-mmtioned 
John as al>bot» as he finds his signature to the duuter 
of the foundation of the Monastery of Aberfarothwick, 
(executed by King William, at Selkirk, on the 85tii day 
of February, 1178 ; and this is very probable, if the 
date (1176) which he assigns to the demise of John 
be correct ; for, in the year 1180, we find that 

Osbert, a prior of St Maud's, was made Abbot of 
Kelso, who, being an eloquent man, was sent, along 
with Jocelyn of Glasgow, and Emold c^ Melroses, and 
other honourable men, to transact the business of the 
king and kingdom, where, through God's assistance, he 
cautiously and prudently executed his commission ; and 
having obtained the absolution prayed for, he returned 
to Scotland.* By these ambassadors the Pope, Lucius 
III., sent William d golden rose, with his paternal be- 
nediction. Osbert died in the year 1208, and was suc- 
ceeded by 

Gaufiried, prior of the same monastery. About this 
time, John, Prior of Kelso, was made Bishop of Aber- 
deen, who only enjoyed this dignity one year ; and, a 
short time previous, Walter, Prior of Kelso, and Solo- 

• King William, having incurred the displeasure of the Pope, 
(Clement III.>) by consecrating his chaplain Bishop of St Andrews, 
instead of Joannes Scotus, who had been appointed to that see by 
him, and having refused to oomply with the order of the Pope to 
eject him and induct Joannes Scotu^ he and his kingdom were oZf 
communicated. It was to have this awfiil curse removed, and to ob- 
tain absolution for the offimce committed agabst the Pope, now de- 
ceased, that this embassy was sent 

ABBOTS. 17s 

mon, Dean of Glasgow, were appointed assistants to 
Angelramus, Archdean of Glasgow, and chancellor to 
King Malcom IV., in the debate with Roger, Archbi- 
shop of York, at Norham, upon the question of his ju« 
risdiction over the Scottish church.* 

Lord Richard de Kane (or Caen) appears to have 
been next in succession to Gaufried. He was made 
abbot in the month of April, 1206, and died in the 
year 1208, being succeeded by 

Henry, prior of the same house, who, in the mcmth 
of July, in the same year, was, by order of the Lord 
the Pope, inducted into that office. He was called, 
along with the bishops, to attend a general council with 
respect to the affairs of Scotland, held at Rome in 1215. 
The business before the council being finished, he re« 
turned home, and died in the month of October, 1S18; 
and to him succeeded, on the 14th of November fol- 

* Roger, Archbishop of York, an ambitious prelate, was desirous 
of gaining the supremacy over the Scottish church, and had in some 
measure obtained it, the Bishops of Glasgow and Whithorn having 
yielded obedience to his metropolitan see in the time of his predeces- 
sors. In order to enforce the subjection of the whole, he obtained, 
in an under-hand manner, from the Pope, the appointment of Legate 
in Scotland, and forthwith he repairs to Norham, and issues a sum- 
mons for the Scots clergy to meet him there, to do him that homage 
which their predecessors had been accustomed to pay to his. This 
they refused, denying that the Church of Scotland had ever admow- 
ledged the supremacy of the Church of England, but sent this depu- 
tation to reason the matter with him. Not being able, however, tb 
settle the dispute in this manner, it was referred to the Pope, who, 
to the disappointment and disgrace of Roger, declared the Church of 
Scotland to be independent of all supremacy whatever, the Holy See 


Richard, prior of the same Abbey, during whose in- 
cumbency it appears that Pope Innocent IIL wrote the 
two letters in favour of this monastery, mentioned in 
the description of the Abbey. Of the continuation of 
Richard in this office, or of the time of his death, no 
mention appears on record ; but the next abbot in suc- 
cession seems to have been 

Herbert, who, in the year 1 2S6, resigned his office 
on the day of the nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, ■ 
in the most solemn manner, by placing his staff and 
mitre on the great altar, and thus taking leave of his 
pastoral charge. Ridpath, in his Border History, on 
the authority of Fordun, says, that ^^ Otho, the papal 
legate, being at Melrose in the year 1287, obliged Her- 
bert to resume his charge, which he had laid down 
without assigning any sufficient reason. We find, how- 
ever, no further mention made of Hubert; and the 
next abbot appears to have been 

Hugh, a monk of the same monastery, who died in 
the year 1S48, and was succeeded by 

Robert of Smalchame, also a monk of the same house. 
The next abbot we find mentioned is 

Henry, who, in the year 1275, exchanged a mortal for 
an immortal life, and appears to have been succeeded by 

Richard, who, in the year 1296, took the oath of 
fidelity to King Edward I. of England. The next ab- 
bot on record is 

William, who, in the nineteenth year of the reign of 
Robert I, (1325,) is witness to several charters granted 

, ABBOTS. 175 

by that monarch. Here a great chasm occurs in the 
succession of the abbots, for we find no mention of any 
who filled this situation till the year 1493» when 

Robert, Abbot of Kelso, was appointed by the Estates 
of Parliament one of the auditors of causes and com- 
plaints. In this same year mention is made of one 

Henry, Prior of Kelso, an acquaintance of Politianus 


and Marcilius, whose writings are voluminous ; and 
Jacobus de Kelso, Benedict, reformat, ord. Tyron. (a 
monk of the reformed order of Tyrone,) is mentioned 
by Dempster as one of the most celebrated writers of 
our nation, in the year 1475. He appears to have been 
a man of considerable talents and learning. He trans- 
lated into Scottish rhyme the thirteen books of Ruti« 
lius on Rural Affairs ; and wrote a panegyric of the 
Virgin, in Greek verse, to Lorenzi de Medici. The 
next abbot of whom we find mention made, is 

Thomas, who, in the years 1517f and 15S1, was a 
commissioner for concluding truces or treaties with 
England ; and in the year 1526, he was appointed to 
deliver the ratifications of the peace concluded the pre- 
vious year, to King Henry, or his commissioners, and 
to receive the ratification of the King of England. In 
the year 1517, Andrew Stuart, Commendatory of Kelso 
and Feme, died. The next and last abbot on record is 

James Steuart, natural son to King James V., who 
was appointed abbot in 1537^ and died in 1558 ; and al- 
though on his death the office was bestowed, on Cardi- 
nal Guise, yet he never entered upon the duties of it 


Soon after this period^ the reformation having %eai 
hr snooessful that the Protestant reUgion was estai« 
fihed in the kiBgdom, die iinmeiise property bdcmg. 
I to this monastery was confiscated to the crown ; and 

in the year 1594, it was parcelled out among the &• 
Tourites of the king. 

In the year 1587» we find Sir John Maitland of 
Thirlestone, Secretary to James VI., Commendator of 
Kelso Abbey, and in this capacity authorized to grant 
leases, feus, &c., of the lands belonging to this monas- 
tery, in consequence, as the deed bears, of the monks 
being all deceased. The following is a transcript of the 
Act of the Scottish Parliament, conferring this power 
upon him :*- 

Aciettiikorixandthe Stibscripikmsi^C^^ 

thatuHmiis Conventis. 

^* Fonamekle as the haill monkit of the Monaaterie of the 
Abbay of Kelso ar deeeittait, sua that presentUe thair is na 
convent thairof, quhairby the tennentis and takkismen of the 
said Abbay ar vncertane in qubat maner thai sail prouide 
the seenritiies anent the taUds, fewis, and rentallis, qnldlk thai 
hare tane^ or may tak heirefter, of the said place and Abbay 
of Kdao : Thairfoir oar Souerane Lord and thre Estaitts of 
this present Parliament, presentlie declairis Sir John Mait- 
land of Tfairlstane, knicht, his hienas secretair, and present 
Commendatair of Kelso, to haif had fall ryght in his persoon 
of setting of all fewis, takld% and rentalUs» sen his prooi- 
noan thairto, and deceis of the aaids moulds, and convent of 
landis and teyndis belonging to the said Abbay and patri- 
mony tbairof ; and that the takkis and fewis sett be him sen 
the deeds of tbe saidis monkis, is and sal be as valide and 


ABBOTS. 177 

siifB<dent vnder his subscriptioun and commoun seall of the 
said Abbay, as gif the samin had bene sett with consent 
of the convent, and subscriuit be tbame. And likewayes de- 
clairis the said Commendatair to haue fall rioht, in tyme cu- 
ming, to sett takkis of the teynds of the said Abbay, for schort 
space or lang; als frelie as gif the haill convent were sit on 
lyve, and the samin sett with thair ccmsent, as onie vther ab- 
bot or convent may sett within this realme.''* 

* Acts of ParliaaeDt» vol. III. p. 454. 



, I 


Notwithstanding that Kelso is considered the capital 
of the district, yet it is remarkably deficient in , many 
things which appear to us absolutely necessary to give 
it that stamp of respectability so requisite in a town 
which is the resort of all the rank and fashion in the 
quarter wherein it is situated. We shall, however, 
notice only the following, in the hope, that by thus call- 
ing the attention of the inhabitants to what are obvi- 
ously great defects, they will adopt measures to remedy 

The appearance of the town, in our opinion, would 
be greatly improved, and the comfort of the foot pas- 
senger much increased, by pavements being laid on each 
side of the difierent streets, or, where the breadth is not 
sufficient to admit of this, to have one on the side most 
convenient for this purpose. This, we consider, should 
entail no expense on the town itself ; for, were such a 
measure once proposed, we have no doubt that the dif- 
ferent proprietors, sensible of the advantage that would 
accrue to their property by its adoption, would readily 
defray the expense (as is done in other towns) of lay- 
ing it down along the whole front of their premises, and 
of keeping it in repair. 

The appearance of a town is greatly improved by 
the number and elj^nce of its public buildings, and it 


suffers in an equal proportion from a deficiency in this^ 
respect Kelso has nothing of the kind to boast of,- 
with the exception of the Town-house. The church/ 
especially, instead of being an ornament, is rather the 
reverse ; and it is mudi to be r^retted that the heri* 
tors of the parish, when they i^reed to the repairs lat^ 
ly made on this building, did not accede to the wishes ' 
of the late Duke of Kozburgfae, who^ at this iime^ ge^' 
nerously offered to ocmtribute a large sum, either to' 
build a new church, or to add an degant spire to ihk^ 
present edifice, in place of the ^ lantem,"* (as Hutdiin^' 
son Bppropnately terms it,) which, instead of adding to 
the beauty, only gives additional deformity, to this hum- 
ble structure, whidi, as it at present remains, reflecta' 
little credit on the public spirit of the town. 

The general aspect of the town would be greatly im^ 
proved, if any of the places of worship, which wfw 
stand in remote situatiims, were removed, and built oa* 
a neat plan in some of the principal streets, thus giving 
a relief to their present humble and naked appearanee. 

Kelso, although possessed of many advantages, can 
boast of no commercial business, and the want of some 
public works tends to make trade in general dulL 

It is certainly surprising thi^ the public spirit of 
the town and neighbourhood of Kelso is so frigid in 
regard to enterprise : No place is better calculated for 
manufactories of any kind, and few better supplied 
with water, and every convenience necessary for audi 
purposes. In this speculative age, and when Kelso has 


become such a thoroughfare of communicatioii be- 
tween the two kingdoms, it is wonderful that none 
have thought of establishing some commercial factory 
in this place, for which it is so well adapted. The be- 
nefits which such an establishment would derive from 
every local advantage, are too obvious to cause the 
smallest doubt as to ultimate success. And as under- 
takings of this nature are not only the means of afford'* 
ing employment to numerous classes of labourers^ but 
also hold forth to the capitalist a sure and certain re* 
turn for the money vested, it woukl, at the same time, 
give a stamp to the celebrity of the town ; and the be* 
nefidal effects of such an undertaking would be felt by 
a great proportion of the inhabitants. 

We anticipate the hope, that some enterprimng indi^r 
vid^al, profiting by these remarks, will make the expe- 
riment, and we have no doubt our cKpectations will be 



Thb histoTf of Rozbatgfa, prior to the twelfth ^m^ 
tmjf 18 enreli^ied in obecarity ; aod it is not tHl the 
time of David I. that it makes any figm*e in the amiab 
of oar country^ although it is evidenti from the short 
notices by various liistorians concerning the town^ thai 
long previous to this period it was a place of conaidei^ 
aUe note. 

Early in that eentnry, however, the town and oastie 
are mentioned as appanages belong^g to this Frinos^ 
at that time Earl of Northumberland ; and the towii 
am)ear8 to have been so floorishingt that it was not 
snflki^itly large to contain the inhabitants^ and» in Cod* 
sequence, a new town Was builty but whether bf hin^ 
or befiire his time, is quite uQcertain.* 

The Old Town, or city of Roxburgh, was sitMei 
over against Kelso^ on a rising ground, at the west end 
of a fertile plain, whidi was formed into a peninsula bgr 
the confluence of the rivers Tweed and Teviot The 
New Town was built a little to the eastward of tiat 
Old, and hence in history is called the Easter Rox- 

In the time of King David, the town was fortified 
by a wall and ditch, and was even then fomous for its 

* Bid|Nith, p. 7& Chslmer^ VuL IL pp. 104, 106, 107. 
t Betoun, VoL IL (807,) 


schools, which were under the superintendance of the 
Abbot of Kelso. It was also one of the first royal burghs 
erected by that celebrated monarch , and was governed 
by a provost or alderman, and bailies ; and had a burgh 
or city seal. Here there was likewise a mint, far coins 
are still to be seen of William the Lion, strode there ; 
and also some of James II., which are su^^Kised to have 
been executed at the time he laid siege to the Castle^ in 
J 460* 

Near Old Roxburgh, on the Teviot side, there was a 
convent for monks of the Franciscan order, of w4rich no 
remains are now to be seen ; but on its site stmds a 
hamlet, which is called Friars. There was also in the 
neighbourhood Maison-Dieu, or hospital, for the re- 
ception of pilgrims, the diseased and indigent^ to which 
King David was a liberal benefactor. 

Roxburgh, it appears, enjoyed the privily of a 
weekly market so early as the reign of King William, 
who granted to the servants of the n>onks of Kelso 
licence to sell fuel, victual, and other matters in that 
town (f. e. Kelso) on any day in the week except the 
day of the King's statute fair in Roxburgh-f It had 

* In this year Roxburgh, in consequence of its Magistrates ha- 
ving sworn fe^ty to Edward III., was erased from the list of Scots 
burghs. — See Ancient History. 

t Confirmation of Ring William to the churdi and monks of i 
Kelso^ viz.— 

" I also grant to the said church of St Mary of Kelso, and to the 
monks of the same place, that their vassals dwelling in Kelso, shall 
have liberty of selling every day of the week, the day i^pointed for 


also the jNrivilege of an annual fair at a vety early pe- 
riod ; but when Ibis was granted we are unable to as^ 
certain. This fair was called St James's Fair, who ap« 
pears to have been the patron saint of Roxburgh, to 
whom the church was dedicated in 1134 ; and, at pre- 
sent, this fair is held on the site of the Old Town, or^ 
as some authors say^ on the site of the church. 

That Roxburgh was considered as a royal bui^h of 
Scotland by the English kings, is evident from a char- 
ter of Edward III. granted in 1368, confirming to the 
burgesses of Roxburgh all the privileges bestowed upon 
them by the kings of Scotland ; and, in the year follow-* 
ing, we find the same monarch directing the chambei^ 
lain of Berwick to pay, as a gift from him, 40 merks, 
towards the expense of repairing the bridge of Rox« 

Authors are by no means agreed as to the origin or 
etymology of the different names by which it has beien 

my fair or market at Roxburgh excepted^ in that tovo, fudL huikb 
iDg materials^ and corn ; and strangers shall have the same libertj of 
6t;lling the same things to them. Also their vassals shall have liberty 
to expose for sale in their windows breads ale^ and meat ; and if they 
have brought fish in their own carts, or on horses, and wish to s^l 
it, it shall also be lawful for them to expose the same for sale in their 
windows ; but a cart coming from another place, and passing in Kke 
manner, lihali neither unload nor sell there, but they ndst come to 
ray market ; and, on the day appointed for my fair or market at Ro:^-* 
burgh, it shall not be lawful for them to buy anything in that town, 
but they must come to my market or fair, and there, in common with 
ray other burgesses, buy whatever they 'pleaae^^^Chariularf^ of Kel-^ 
so, MS, p. l6. 


known at different periods. Camden calla it Bostmvi^ 
but mentions, that it had been called at a preceding pe^ 
nod M archidun, (a tow& on the Marche8» oiv as a kann 
ed author of modem date ezplaina it» -^ the towering 
fortress,"*) Fordun designates it Maxcheaiont» ^and Boe» 
thius, Marchmond,* the ^* Mount on the Handles.*' Ho- 
Unshed calls it Marchen ; and, in Baxter^s OlosBary of 
British Antiquities, we find the name of Mavoo Saxon, 
or Marcotazon, given to it. Froissart writes it Rose* 
burg ; but the most ancient name by which it is known 
in public records, is Rokesbui^h ; for so it jseallad in 
the charter granted by David, when Sari of Northum* 
berland, to Selkirk ; and, in later diarters granted by 
the same Prince, it is written Rokesbnre. 



A FEW j&xigments of the wall, which seems to have 
formed the exterior defence, are all that remain of this 
celebrated fortress. The extent of the interior cannot 
now be ascertained with precision, from the number of 
tall trees with which it is overgrown, whose wide- 
spreading roots are completely intermixed with the 
ruins. It was built on a lofty eminence rising about 40 
feet perpendicular from the level of the plain, of an ob- 

* A vestige of this name it still preserved in the ** MavduBont 



IpDg figure, between the beantifiil rivers Tweed aad 
Teviot; the latter runniiig with a rapid current oft 
the south, immediately^ at the foot of the mount. 

The. elevation on which this Castle stood, was 8ur» 
rounded on the north and west sides by an outward 
rampart of earth, and a deep fosse or moat, (the remains 
of which are still visible,) which was filled with water 
from a dam formed in an oblique direction across thd 
Tweed, and which again was discharged into the river 
upon the east. Some years ago the remains of a dram* 
bridge, which extended over this fosse, were removed* 
The Castle is said to have communicated with both ri-» 
vers by means of subterraneous passages, at the extre- 
mity of which light bridges were thrown over them ; 
and it is also thought, that there was a like commimi- 
cation witli the Abbey, but this has never been properly 

History affords no data whereby to ascertain die pe*- 
riod when this fortress was first erected ; but it^is eon- 
jectured, (and with much probability,) that it was hoSH 
by the Saxons while they held the sovereignty of tiie 
Northumbrian kingdom, oi which Roxburgh was lat 
that time a province. 

This Castle, during the reign of Alexander I.^ was 
the residence of his brother David, then Earl of Nortlki- 
umberland, who, upon his accession to the throne, oonstiU 
tuted it a royal palace, which it continued to be duiii^ 
the r^gns of several successive monarchs. Like the 


Other castles of the kingdom, Roxburgh had a contla- 
ble, an office of great trust and importance. 

The situation of the Castle of Roxbui^h upon the 
borders of the two kingdoms, rendered the possession of 
H of the first importance to eadi of the contending par- 
ties during the continued war&re, whidi for so many 
centuries devastated both countries* It therefore in ge- 
neral formed the first place of attack on the breaking 
out of hostilities, and thereby often changed masters, 
being at one time in possession of the Soots, and at 
another in possession of the English. 


• Roxburgh Castle was at this time (1125) the resi- 
dence of King David ; and in that year he received a 
visit froak Cardinal Crima, the Papal legate in England, 
conmiissioned by the Pope to settle a dispute that had 
kMig existed, respecting the supremacy whidh the Arch- 
Inshop of York (Thurstin) claimed over the Scottish 
churches, which the bishops in Scotland refused to ac- 
knowledge. He brought letters from the Pope (Hono- 
rius II.) to King D&vid, recommending a Gounci) of the 
Bishops to be called^ wherein the question should be 
debated ; but anticipating, perhaps, from their former 
resistance to this claim, that their determini^ion would 
still be unfavouraUe, he reserved to the Papal See the 


power of finally deciding the question. No deddoa 
seems to have been given by this council ; but it' is 
mentioned, that, in consequence of this controversy, the 
consecration of Robert, who had been elected in the 
preceding year to the See of St Andrews, had been de- 
ferred ; and that, in the year following, he submitted to 
be consecrated by the Archbishop of York, without, 
however, acknowledging subjection to that See. That 
the question did not come before the Pope at this tiikie, 
or that he did not pronounce any decision, is evident, 
as we find, at a future period, when the same claim was 
renewed by the same See, that Pope Clement III. de» 
clared the Scottish churches independent of all supre^ 
macy, the Roman See excepted.* 

King David, who, about the close of the year 1146, 
had gone to England in order to swear fealty to the 
Empress Maud,f daughter to Henry I., (who, previous 
to his decease, declared her heir to the throne, and re^ 
quired all his vassals and chief barons to render her 
their oaths of allegiance,) and to do homage for his 
lands of Cumberland, Northumberland, and Hunting- 
ton, returned the following year (11 27) to Roxbur^^ 

* ChroD. MaU. p. l65 ; Wilkin's Con. Vol. 1. p. 40?. Ridpath, p. 
7^5. Chalmers^ Vol. II. p. 108. Hailes^ Vol. I. p. 75. . 

f 1127' — Henry s only son William having been lost in a storm at 
sea, he resolved on settling the succession to the kingdom oa Mand, 
his only remaining legitimate child. She having been married to the 
Emperor Henry V. obtained the title of Empress ; and having diil- 
dren to the Emperor, she, after his death, returned to her fittber't 
court. — Ridpath, p. 78. 


Castle^ acoompanied by Thurstin, Archbishop of Y<Hdc» 
Ralph, Bishop of Durhanit and Algar» Prior of St Cuth-» 
berths Priory in Durham, when Robert, Bishop of St 
Andrews, at the request of the King and the two Pre- 
lates above-mentioned, and also of the Bishop of Glas- 
gow, in their presence, at the door of the Church of St 
John the Evangelist in Roxburgh, presented a charter 
to the church of Coldinghame, and to all the churches 
and chapels that should henceforth belong to the church 
of St Cuthbert* 

Although the kingdom, at the accession of King Da- 
vid, (and during the reigns of his two immediate pre- 
decessors, Edgar and Alexander,) enjoyed peace with 
England, yet it was not free from internal commotions^ 
which kept it in a state of ferment and turmoil ; and 
scarcely was David seated on the throne, when an open 
and daring attempt was made to deprive him of his 
power and sovereignty. About the year llS6,f Angus, 

* itidpath^ ^ 75. Gnme, Vol. I. p. lid. 

f HaUes places the rebellion of the Earl of Angus and his death 
in 1130; and Ridpath^ on the authority of the Chronicle of Melrose^ 
says it took place tvfo yean after the foundation of the Abbey of Kelso^ 
which^ if it refers to his placing the monks there^ brings this occur- 
rence to the sane date ; but if he calculates from the year in which 
the building of the Monastery was commenced, this calculation will 
bring it to the year 1186 or 1127> an opinion which is supported by 
the authority of Maitland and Abercromby, the former stating di»* 
tinctly that it happened in 1 1S6 ; and the latter, that it ooconrcd 
two years after the aooeesion of David to the throne.*— HaiubBi VoL 
J. p. 76; RiDFATH, p. 77* Maiti«ani>, VoL I. p. 849; AnMBOMr- 
»Y, VoL I. ,^97. 


£arl of Murray, was the chief pocomoter of a refaellioii, 
which threatened the most serious consequences ; but 
by the prompt measures of the King it was soon redu* 
oed» and the Earl, with many of his adherents, fell Tie- 
tims to their own rash and iniquitous design, in a con^ 
flict at Strickathrow, in the county of Forfar. The em- 
bers of this rebellious spirit, though stifled, were not 
extinguished, for, in the year 1134, Malcolm M^Heth; 
or M*Beth,* a pretended son of the above-mentioned 
Earl, stirred up the people to new commotions, and hat 
rassed the country with rapine and plunder, but being 
at length taken prisoner, he was conveyed to Roxburgh, 
where he was confined in the tower of the Castle ; and 
tranquillity was again restored to the kingdom.f 

On the demise of Henry I., in the year 1135, his 
daughter, the Empress Maud, became heir to the crown; 
but Stephen, Count of Boulc^e, nephew to the Ia<e 
King, (who had also sworn fealty to the Empress,) ta? 
king advantage of her absence, seized upon the throne, 
and summoned all his nobles to take the oath of alle^ 
giance to him. To David, King of Scotland, he sent a 
herald, charging him to appear before him and give his 
oath of fidelity, and do homage for the lands of Cum- 

* 1134 — This M*Heth, or M'Beth, is designated by Lord Hailes 
'f Wimimd," an English monk of obscure birth, but possessed of con- 
siderable talent. The particulars of this strange occurrence are givea 
from his Annals ; see Appendix, No. I. 

t Chron. Mail. p. l65. Buchanan, Lib. VIL p. 120. Maitland, 
Vol.1, p. 349. Fordun, Vol. I. p. 448. Ridpath, p. 77* ChakMerr, 
Vol. II. p. 108. 


berland, Northumberland, and Huntington ; and, in 
case of refusal, to threaten an immediate invasion of 
his kingdom. To this message and threat King David 
replied, that he would meet the forces of the English, 
rather than violate his oath to the Empress Matilda, or 
Maud. Stephen, incensed at this answer, immediately 
dispatched the Duke of Glocester with a powerful army 
into Northumberland, which he laid waste, most cruel-* 
ly slaughtering the inhabitants. To revenge this ua-- 
int>voked assault, the Earls of Angus, March, and Men- 
teith, were instantly sent, with a very large force, into 
England, -and encountering the enemy at Allarton, a 
most desperate battle ensued, in which the Scots came 
off victorious. The slaughter was immense, and the 
commander of the English army, ^vith many of the no- 
bility, were made prisoners. These, King Stephen 
shortly after ransomed, and likewise agreed to cede all 
pretensions to the counties in dispute ; but no sooner 
had the nobles been released, than he repented of the 
terms he had acceded to, and again prepared for war. 
David did the same, and taking advantage of his proxi-^ 
mity to the borders, and before Stephen could reach 
them, he, early in the year 1136, attacked and took 
Carlisle, Wark, Alnwick, Norham, and Newcastle, but 
was prevented from penetrating farther by the approach 
of the English army. Stephen having established his 
head-quarters at Durham, while David occupied New- 
castle, a treaty was concluded between them, by which 
Cumberland was ceded to the Scottish King, and North- 


umberland waa retained by Stephen ; and as David re^ 
mained firm to the oath he had taken to the Empress' 
Maud, as the rightful Queen of England, it was agreed 
that his son. Prince Henry, should take the oath of 
allegiance to King Stephen, for the Earldom of Hunt- 
ington, to which, as appendages, the towns of Carlisle 
and Doncaster were added ; with an express underr 
standing, that, if ever Stephen should think proper ta 
create an Earl of Northumberland, then Prince Henry'& 
claims by his mother's side,* should be taken into con* 
sideration, and decided by King Stephen's judges. 

These terms, although submitted to by David, diil 
not by any means satisfy him ; he regarding this coun 
cession of King Stephen as merely an evasion of what 
he considiered his son's just and undoubted right Tbisf 
treaty was accordingly of very short duration, for in 
the course of the ensuing year, 11S7> Stephen being in 
Normandy, David levied a powerful army to take pos- 
session of Northumberland. The English nobles at 
the same time collected their forces at Newcastle, to de-' 
fend the frontiers ; but Thurstin, Archbishop of York, 
though now extremely old, hasted to Roxburgh,! to 

* 1136 Maltida, or Maude, daughter of Waltheof, Earl of 

Nortliumberland^ by Juditli^ niece to William the Conqueror, given 
in marriage, by Henry I. of England, to David before his accefision 
to the throne of Scotland, with whom he received as a dowry, North- 
umberland and Huntington — Ridpath, p. 79- 

f 1137. — Considerable discrepancy appears in regard to the data 
of this transaction, both in the older and more recent authors. Ha-« 
linsbed, and from him Pennant and Hutchinson, place it in 1132; 


hold a conference with David and his aon Henry^ wfacsi 
he prevailed upon him to agree to a tmoe until tiie 
King of England should retam from the continent* A 
truce was accordingly concluded for four montha, upon 
condition that Northumberland should be deUvered np 
to Prince Henry. Immediately on the arrival of Ste- 
phen in his kingdom^ King David demanded the fuIfiL* 
ment of thia contract, which he altogether refused; ac- 
cordingly, early in the ensuing year» 1188^ Khig David 
advanced into England, and laid siege to the CbmQb ii£ 
Wark, which was so gallantly defended^ that be was 
obliged to abandon it. He then sent part of hia army, 
under the command of his nephew, WHliam, into North-* 
umberland, and shortly thereafter followed himself with 
the remainder ; but learning the approach of Stephen, 
(who, on receiving intelligence of this incursian, haati* 
ly collected a large forces with which he proceeded to 
the scene of action,) he retreated into Scotland in order 
to protect his own territories. Stqphen followed him 
as far as Roxburgh, from whence David withdrew his 
army, and took a strong position in the ne^hbourhood, 
having previously given orders to the governor to 8ur«- 
render the castle and town to him on his first summons, 
hoping thereby to draw Stephen into a snare, his in- 
tention being to attack him while shut up there, and 

Jvord Hailes, and from him Cbalnere, in 1136» The true date, as 
appears ftrom several ancient authors of indubitable authority, is as 
9^Ye stated. See Haou8tau», p. 959. Chroo. Mail. p» 165. Sir 
J. Balfour's Annals, Vol. I. p. 11. 



by the co-operation of the inhabitants^ togethw with 
that of some of Stephen's nobles, with whom he is said 
to have been in correspondence, he fully expected to 
get him into his power. Stephen, apparently aware of 
his design, did not set down his army before the place, 
but contented himself with pillaging and laying waste 
the adjacent country ; and when his provisions faUed, 
he retired into England, crossing the Tweed by an** 
other passage. Shortly after, a peace was concluded 
between them, through the influence of the Papal Le- 
gate, and the Queen of Stephen, (David's niece,) whidi 
continued during the remainder of the reign of David.^ 
In the year 1153, David and the kingdom sustained 
a severe loss in the premature death of his only soUt 
Prince Henry, Earl of Northumberland, and heir-ap* 
parent to the throne. He was a prince remarkable for 
his virtues ; and, possessing the most amiable and eur 
dearing qualities, he was beloved and esteemed by both 
nations. On this occasion, the nobles of the kingdom 
came to the aged King, at his palace in Roxburgh, to 
condole with him in his affliction ; when, having par- 
taken of a royal entertainment the King had provided 
for them, he, assuming a serene and placid countenance, 
addressed them in a speech of the following tenor, full ^ 
of piety and resignation to the will of Providence— He 

* Major, p. 109-110* Boetius, r. IL p. 302. Twpden, p. IISS. 
Abercromby, v. I. p. 282-4. Maitlandi r. I. p. 351. Ridpath, 
p. 78-85. Hailes, t. I. p. 79-80. 



^< That no new ibiiig had happened to him or hia aon; that 
he had h>ng since learned from the oonveraation and sermons 
of good and learned men, and more particularly from the ez-» 
amples of his father and mother, that the world was govem- 
(di hy the providence of Almighty Grod : That Proiddence 
^iras not to be resisted, and that he ever observed a ray of it 
in the darkest night of Ids afflictions. That, convinced (as 
he ever was) that the powerful worker of all things does no- 
thing but for a good cnd$ thoogh hidden from the weakness 
of Our ooneeptions, he could not grieve for ought that eouM 
happen, but that he rather found joy in the midst of sorroWy 
and comfort in troubles : That Heaven had been pleased to 
bless him with many afflictions of the same kind ; £orf ooa- 
tinued he, my &ther, when I was but an infant, paid his last 
tribute to nature. He was the father of his people, especiaUy 
of the poor, as well as mine ; and could tears have preserved 
him, he had never been cut oiF. Death, to execute the decrees 
of its soverdgn, did also seize my mother. I speak nothing 
of her virtue ; the world knows it. My brothers, who loved 
me with a peculiar tenderness, were snatched from me, one 
after another. My wife, whom I honoured and cherished 
above all things on earth. Was likewise taken from me by 
death. The son has now followed his mother, and no won* 
der, since he, as they, was born on no other terms, but that 
he behoved to die, and by dying, pay that debt to God and 
Nature, which he contracted before he was bom. This is 
our case, and 'twas his, and if we are, as we ought to be, al- 
ways ready to pay our debts when craved, 'tis no matter how 
soon our creditor, God Almighty, shall call on us for it. 
If only wicked men were subject to death, then we might 
justly grieve at the loss of our kindred ; but we see that good 
men die as well as the bad, and often sooner, because sooner 


ripe for these joys laid up for iheam in Heaven. All Chri#« 
tiaiuB ongbtt therefore^ to be thoroughly settled in this per* 
suasion, T^at no evil can happen to the goo^ whether 4ead <r . 
alive* As for my spUs if he has been called upon before ii8| 
that so he might the sooner visit and enjoy the fellowship of 
my parents and brethren, those precious souls the world was 
not worthy of, why should I regret or envy his happiness t 
since I cannot do it but out of a principle of self-love ; and 
should I mourn for him, it might be thought that I grudge 
at' nothing but the loss I mjrself have sustained. To oonelude^ 
X have more reason to rejoice that God gave me a soed^ i^Iki 
(in yom: judgment, and consequently in ih^i of all my p99k 
j^le,) deserved to be loved while alive, and jus now lam^t^ 
whei^ dead. Since 'tis so, (as ye, by your many good officecf 
of respect, both to. me .and him, have abundantly shown,) I 
ought not, cannot r^ret the loss of a treasure, which I have 
possessed so short a time, nor so many fair hopes tliat are 
now evanished, nor that dear part of my heart torn from me ? 
Neither can I complain of injustice ; God has re-demanded 
what I held of his goodness : I think to follow him, and hofjm 
tp. be quickly delivered from the miseries, angmsh/Qs, and dili 
gracesi tiiat are inseparably mingled amongst thq greatest 
pleasures of the world, to begin an eternity oi pleasure ill 

Notwithstanding the pious resignation of David, the 
loss of a sou so deservedly dear to him, (ureyed madl 
upon his mind, and in a great measure weaned him 
from earthly pursuits. He did not, however, neglect 
to provide for the future government of the kingdom, 
which he took the earliest opportunity of securing to 
his grandson Malcolm, (Henry's eldest son,) by requiring 


his nobles to give him their fealty, and causing him 
(after the example of David with Solomon, as Fordmi 
alleges) to make a tour through the realm, under the 
direction of the Earl of Fife, a nobleman in whom he 
reposed the most entire confidence, and to whose care 
he intrusted him. Having thus, as it were, solemnly 
closed his business with the world, and feeling sensibly 
the approach of the last enemy, he retired to Carlisle, 
patiently to await the hour of his departure. This 
tobk place on the 24th of May, 1153, when he resigned 
his crown and earthly honours into the hands of that 
God whom he had so studiously and zealously served, 
with these words : — ** Jesus, my Saviour, I render thee 
the kingdom wherewith thou didst intrust me; put 
me in possession of that, whereof all the inhabitants 
are kings.** * 

Scarcely was Malcolm seated on the throne, when 
Sumerled, Thane or Earl of Argyle, with his grand- 
children, the sons of Malcolm M^Heth, (5th Nov. 1 1 58,) 
who still remained prisoner in Roxburgh Castle, where 
he was confined by King David in 1184, broke out in 
open rebellion, and by their predatory incursions greatly 
distressed the country. Soon after, viz. in the year 
1154, Donald, one of these grandchildren, was token 
at Whithorn, in Gralloway, and conveyed to Roxburgh 
Castle, where he was confined in the same tower with 

* See Appendix^ No. II. Abercromby^ vol. I. p. 402. Maitlaiidj 
Tol. I. p. 357. Ridpath, p. 89. 


his father. Sumerled still contiiiued to infest the weat^ 
em parts of Scotland, and, refusing to submit, the king 
was in the end obliged to come to terms of accommo- 
dation with him.* 

William, sumamed the Lion, ascended the Scottish 
throne on the death of Malcolm, in the year 1165, and 
for several jrears made fruitless application to Henry U. 
of England for the restoration of the county of Nor«- 
thumberland, of which he had been deprived. Tired 
of thus soliciting what he considered his undoubted 
right, he took the opportunity of the unnatural war 
which King Henry's son had entered into agltinst his 
father, and joined him, under promise of having this 
<x>unty restored. Accordingly he levied an army, with 
which he invaded England in the month of April 1 17^ 
He first laid siege to Carlisle ; but that fortress holding 
out much longer than he expected, he left a part of hiB 
army to carry on the siege, and employed the remainr 
der in la3ring waste the neighbouring lands of ..this 
English king and his barons. Having attadced .the 
Castle of Pmdhoe, belonging to O'Donel o£ UmfratOh 
▼ille, he miet with a gallant xesistance ; and an army 

* 1154.— -Somerled after thb engaged in another irdNslUon, mfi 
in the year 1164 inyaded Scotland^ and landed at Renfrew wit^ a 
large force. The inhabitants rose in a hoAy, and defeated ihis anby 
with great ahiughter. Somerled and his son GiQeo^ane ^. i^.^tiw 
battle. — Hailss^ vol. I. p. 1S6. 

Chron. Mail. p. l67- Chr. S. Crucis. vol. I. p. l6l. Foi^uii, 
Tol. I. p. 448. Ridpath, p. 90. Chalmers^ vol. IL p. 'lOg. Halles, 
YoL I. p, 12& 

J ' • • 


bdag wlleeted to <^>pote bii fiitnre operatioiit, fc» 
n Smd the Biege, and retired towaidB ScotUnd; bat 
etopping to lay siege to Alnwidr, he ins» etrlj one 
morning, while attended by about only 60 h€ne» eorpii* 
•ed by a party of 400 English caTahy, aent ezpreesly 
lor the poipoee of way-laying him^ by the Bnglish con^ 
mander at Newcastle, who had been made aoqoainted 
with the ungaarded manner in whidi the Soottish King 
eiQxwed his person. WiUiam, mistaking them at first fisr 
ioflBe of his own parties returning with plmdert saCher 
vdvanoed; but when he diseovered his erfor, instead of 
attempting to escape, he boldly gave them battle, wiMB, 
Sifter a diort but desperate conflict, he was taken pri» 
aoner with the whole of his attendants. He was car^ 
ried to Newcastle that aame night, and afterwaeda €0»- 
veyied to N<Hrthamp«on, where he was deliTered up to 
Kfaig Henry. Tht English King shortly after going 
^er to Normandy, and not judging it safe to toave 
William a prisoner in England, carried hiai tUther, 
and confined him fint at Gam, and afterwards at Fiu 
Use ; ^ which place, in the end of the year, a tnaty 
Wne concluded between them, whereby WiUiam regain- 
ed his liberty, but at the expense of the sovereignty of 
hb kingdom. By this treaty, William was to do ho- 
mage to King Henry for his kingdom, in the same 
mamier as all King Henry's other subjects did, and to 
oblige his nobles to do the same : his bishops were to 
admowledge the supremacy of the English church; 
and he was likewise to pay, as a ransom, the sam 


of L.100,000 Sterling, <me-liaif 4own ; for the pay-^ 
ment of the other half» and to insure the folfilment of 
the treatjr, the castles of Bozburgh, ^EJdinburgh, and 
Btuiingy were to be delivered up to him, to be maiat 
tained by the King of Scotland, according to the plea* 
sure of King Henrjr ; and, for further security^ Davids 
the king's brother, with twenty earls <x barons, were 40 
be given as hostages. It was also agreed, that if King 
William should swerve from his fealty, then the nobkto 
of Scotland were to join King Henry, or his heiiBf t# 
force him to return to it. Such were the humiliatiQg 
terms to which William, at the earnest solicitationa .of 
his subjects, and by the ocmsent of his nobles and clergjr^ 
submitted, to obtain his enlargement ; and, the trealir 
being signed, he was immediately set at liberty.* , r 

In the year 1177, King Henry dianged the go9a> 
non of the castles in Scotland, and gave the keepings 
of the castle of Roxburgh to William de StutevillcfL i 

Henry IL of England having died in the motttltef 
July, 1189, his son Bichard, aumamed Coeur de Lioq, 
succeeded to the throne, and immediately began jto 
make preparations for an expedition to the Holy Land ; 
but finding his finances insufficient to defray, the ex- 
pens^ he had reeourse to the eiq^edient of restoring 

• Eyner, torn. I. p. S9> Holiaslied, toL I. (SooC) p. ISa Bm^ 
dua, fol. L p. 473. Wjstoa, roL I. p. SSt$. Jdtijor, p. im B»- 
chanaD, lib. VII. Baker, p. 55. Abercromby, vol. I. p. f^U MM- 
land, FoL I. p. 86$. Bid|iatb> p. 97. Hailw, wA h p. IM^ <• 

t TyireU, wd» II. p. 4ia Aidpafthj p. lOa ... 


estates^ add other immiuiities forfeited to the crowns 
to their former possessors, on die payment of certain 
snms of money. He accordingly invited King William 
to his conrt at Canterbury, when, by a deed bearing 
date the 5th of December, he restored Scotland to its 
independence — gave up to him the castles of Boxbui^ 
and Berwick, (the castle of Edinburgh haring formerly 
been given to him by King Henry, as part of the por- 
tion of Ermengarde,* a relation of his, whom King 
William had married in 1186)— restored to him his 
own fealty for the kingdom, and the fealty of his sub- 
jects ; and likewise granted him an acquittance of 
all obligations which his father had extorted Jrem 
iim by new inettumetUs, in caneequence of hie en^di* 
vity. He also bound himself to put Williami in foU 
possession of the county of Huntington, and his other 
lands, to the same extent as they had been enjoyed by 
his predecessors, and to exact only the same homage 
which they had paid to the Kings of England tar these 
possessions.! And to evince his sincerity in this act, 
he delivered up such of the evidences of the homage 

* 1 189>— Ermengarde, whom King WiUiam married at Woodstock 
on the 5th of Seftember, llSfij was^ daughter to Richard, Viaooont 
of Beaumont, whose grandmother was a natural daughter of Henry L, 
and who, in the hmguage of those times, was called the King^s ooa« 
sin. Her dower was the castle of Edinburgh, the feudal services of 
ferty knights, and an yearly rerenue of L.100 Sterliogw^-JiAiUM, 
Tol. I. p. 15S. t 

f 1189.— Pnelerea quietarimus et omnes pactiones quas bonus 
pater noster Henrieus, Rex Anglia, pgr novas atrial, wi per ct^ptuh- 


done to Ms fiither by the barons and dergy of Scdt^ 
land, aa were in his possession ; and he declared, that 
all evidences of that homage, whether delivered or not> 
should be considered as cancelled. The remnneraticm 
which Bichard required for this act was 10,000 merks 
Sterling ; which William, with assistance from his sub-* 
jects, and especially fix>m the clergy, was enabled to 

The generous conduct of King Bichard in the abovi^ 
mentioned transaction, produced a friendship betweoa 
the two monarchs that preserved the nations in peayfe 
during the remainder of their reigns. Scotland, how- 
ever, was not free from internal commotions, which 
kept the kingdom in a continual state of alarm, and 
required the utmost power and ability of the monaroii 
to repress. In the year 1196, Harold, Earl ci Caitk- 
ness, had taken up arms against his sovereign, (from 
what cause is not known,) with a force sufficient . to 
overawe the king; who nevertheless raised an army, mai 
went in person to that county in order to subdue ham. 
He did not, however, at this time prove successful ; but 
in the following year, 1197f he had the good fbrtime 
to take him prisoner, when he carried him to Roxbui^h 
Castle^ and put him in dose ccmfinement till he should 

■ . • * ■ •» 

■• » • 

nem guam, extonit; ita, fidelieet, at wMb faciat JDtegre et pleiiliie 
quioquid Rex Sootie Malcolmus frater ejus antecessoribus noatris 
de jure fecit, et de jure faoere debuit.— Rym er, vol. I. p. 64. 

* Rjmer, torn. I. p. 64. Stow, p. 111. Neubrig, p. 443. Rid- 
path, p. 106. Hailea, r^L I. p. 155. 


nMke bto pMioe with th^rkiiig; fatviiigi6& 
htted, laid 401 obtaining! his liberty kd deliyeved uphk 
tmk Torphia, as surety for his. iuture. loyal^^ He, Ui 
eoosequepce of the subsequent pecfidy: d .his fiitharv 
heesme a sacrifioe to the wralh of the<kiilg^ wikd im- 
dered that his eyes Should be put ont^ anid inflkted on 
2dm other excruciating torturest ^ 

History records a very serious calamity whichbofd 
ihe town of Roxbuigh in the^ year ISOT^t when aliout 
«ie4ialf ij( it was destroyed by a fire that look' jdace 
by/acddentf ■:.. -r\ ■ ■ 

' Richard L being IdUed at the siege of Ae jcasHeiof 
JUmogesp in France, in the year 1199^ aad his bratber 
John haying* with some difficulty, obtained .possession 
tf the throne, he summoned William, King of Seol- 
lindf to take the oath of fidelity, and to do hoou^ fir 
his lands in England, whidu notwithstanding his treaty 
Widn Ridiard, had not yet been delivered up to him* 
aUs, William, on account of the unsettled state of £ng. 
Jand, evaded, but fit the saate time demanded j i es s e s - 
Bion of the comities of Northumberland, Cumbeilaai, 
and Huittiflgtmi. To this demand J<dm replied, that, 
being engaged with ;the wars in Nonnlaidy,: he. couU 
not devote time to etMnine into WiUiam's fright;; - but 
being anxious to obtain the King of Scotland's fealty, 
he prevailed upon him to meet him at Idncoln, (Dee. AS, 

i • ■ f 

* Chroa. Kail. p. ISl, 182. Fordun, vol. I. p. 612. Bidpaftb, 
p. 110. Clnlmeri, vol. XL |k 108. 
t Sir Junes Balfour, ?<d. L p^ M. Chaltr^, roL IL p^ 149^ - 


ISOO,) wben he eonsented to do this service^ upM 
King J(Ati*i9 promise that he would settle ev&eydsibag 
to his mind. John having so far obtained his ok 
ject) thought no more of performing his promiseyilMDit 
adopted measures for surprising Berwick, ahdi seeiUi 
ring to hims^ a passage into Scotland, by ertetihg^d^ 
f<M*t at Tweedmouth. Ttm work William twice astetk 
rupted, and rased it from the foundation. An iiiterb 
view, therefore, took plaee between the two kingdai 
Norham^ in the y«ar 1204, in whkfa King William 
urgently renewed his demands, and defended his eoai^ 
duct in destrojring the fort From this interview Jbiai 
departed not well satisfied ; but his f orsign and deaaes^ 
tic troubles prevented him from taking any actiM 
measures atthat tune c^gianst Sootland. These brii^ 
so for settled) he, in the year 1S09> rttiewed his Mii^ 
tention with William, by charging him with- afilkifii^ 
jn^eetion and aefi^tance to the subjeets of EngliudL 
who had escaped from jastioe; and wider ^ this vagub 
aeeasation he levied an army, and proceeded as for aik 
Norbam> on his way to invade Scotland. In the mettt- 
time King WiUiam assemUed his forces at Roxburgh^ 
hut throagh the mediation of tiw noUes on either 6id% 
the acmies were diabanied^ and the two kings haldsdv^ 
other conference at Norham, (or, as some say, at Ywk^ 
tn which, foom William being taken sudden^ HI, *n<^ 
thing decisive was effected. A truce, however, was 
agreed to till his recovery, which soon taking rplaoe, 
he caUed a parliament of his estates to meet at Pertii, 


who fitrenuously advised him against engaging in war 
with John, to whom ambassadors were sent to prevent 
a rupture. To their representations John replied by 
making demands so extravagant, that they were at 
once rejected ; he accordingly advanced towards Soot- 
land with a numerous army. King William, who was 
in the north part of his kingdom when this intelligence 
reached him, marched rapidly to Melrose, when, at the 
instance of the nobles, negotiations again commenced ; 
and at last a peace was concluded on the following 
terms : — ^That the Castle of Tweedmouth, which John 
had erected, should remain in its present state, the 
Scots paying him L.4rOOO sterling as a recompense for 
the expense and disgrace it had cost him ; that Wil- 
Uam should deliver up Cumberland, Northumberland, 
ipid Huntington, to John, in order to their being con- 
ferred on hiB (William's) son Alexander, who should 
hold them of the crown of England ; and, finally, that 
William's two daughters, Margaret and Isabel, should 
be married to John's two sons, at the expiration of nme 
years from the date of this contract ; and if either of 
these princes or princesses should die^ the surviving 
princess was to be married to the heir to the crown 
of England ; to whom William was to give a proper 

This year, 1209, the Bishop of Rochester, who fled 

* Chron. Mail. p. 18S. Fordun^ vol. I. p. 524. Ridpath, p. 116^ 


from England on account of the interdict under whicir 
tbe kingdom had been laid by the Pope, sought refuge 
in Roxbur^, where he was munificently treated by 
King William, as is more particularly noticed under the 
** Ancient History** relating to Kelso.* 

The oppressive and tyrannical measures of King 
John had created such a spirit of discontent in every 
class of his subjects, that nothing else than a general 
revolt seemed to threaten him.- In these drcumstances,' 
having been reconciled to the Pope, he surrendered to 
him his kingdoms of England and Ireland, to hold 
them from the Papal see, on the payment of a certKl^ 
annual tribute. His nobles^ indignant at this conducity 
determined to rescue themselves andtheir country from 
such d^radation, and to provide against the exerdse 
of such tyranny in future ; they therefore took up aim8» 
and forced Kinlg John to come to their terms, by the 
signing of Magna* iCharta, June 15, 1215, the great 
charter of Engli^Jiberty ; and to secure the fulfilmdit 
of this obligatioif, constrained him to deliver the dty 
of London into their hands. John, however, soon re- 
pented of this concession, and made application to the 
Pope to have this act cancelled. This was readily 
granted, and a bull was published, disannulling the 
whole transaction, and requiring the nobles to renounce 
their claims, on the pain of exconununication. To this 
fulminatory threat they paid very little attenticm, but 

* Chalmers^ vol* II. p. 109* 

266 RISTOaY 0¥ K£L80« 

pMoeeded to carry tbe chaitsr into effect, by appoint- 
iog govemors in the different ooontjes td act as joati-* 
diaries for the good and safety of the people. In this 
dilemma, Jdm resorted to the aid of foreign mereena* 
ries, which enabled him not only to fortify the castles 
in bis possession, but to attack and destroy Ihoae be- 
longing to his nobles. This he did with the moat ie« 
lentless fury, sparing neither sex nor age ; inflicting 
on his Tictims the most cruel tortures that could be in^ 

. In this posture of affairs, the barons in the northern 
piffts of England applied to Alexander, King of Seot^ 
land^ for protection, to whom they took the oath of fide- 
lily at Felton and at Melrose, in the month of October 
1215. Alexander thereafter raised an army, and adi- 
vaacmg into England, laid si^e to the Castle of Nor^ 
ham, which, however, he was not able to reduce ; and 
King John puling forward, in the depth of winter,^ 
with a powerful army entered Scotland, carrying de< 
stmction along with him. He arrived at Roxburgh an 
the 17th of February, 1216, and burnt it ; he also burnt 
the towns of Berwick,* Alnwick, Mitford, Dunbar, and 
Haddington ; his soldiers, in all these places, putting 
the inhabitants to the torture^ to force them to discover 

* 1215-16. — King Jobn himaelf is said to have set the example 
In burning Berwick^ having fired with his own hands the house in 
which he lodged. — Hailbs, toL I. p. 172. 


their valuaUea. Jcta Jhaying thus wreaked 'hid Ten* 
geaiice, ratacned to England** . . : 

The difierences. between Alexander II* and Henrgr 
IIL with regard to the fiiJfibnent oC the treaty conr. 
duded by William and John, the fathers of theae moh 
nareh8» having been referred to the. ftoal dedaion of .the 
Pope» he conferred on his legate ampte powec9 to dft*. 
oide the qitestiout after a full hearing of the partioiu 
The legate, in consequence, summoned the partiea to 
appear before him at Norham in the year 1S19. At 
this meeting Alexander appeared in person, Henry by 
his procurator^ Stephen de S^prave ; which not bcSng! 
satisfiEMrtory to the legate^ he did not eater into the bok 
siness, but ordered the two Kings to meet and adjust 
their dispute^ within three months from that period. It 
does not appear that any meeting for this purpose took 
place within the time specified ; but in the month o£ 
June 1820, they met at York, when, to settle their d]£^ 
fetences, and to fitfm a doser and more intimate cam^ 
nexion between the two kingdoms, Henry engaged to 
give his eldest sister, Jane, in marriage to Alexander,' 
so soon as he could recover her from the Counte de la 
March^ in whose custody she had remained since dio. 
was ten years of age, with the view of his manying: 
her, but who, in the meantime, had married her mother 

• Fonkm, t^I. IL p. 35. Chran. MaO. p. 190, Maitlaiid, wAL 
p. 378. Sir J. Bdlbiir, T<d. I., p. 39- Ridpntb, p. 1S3. tUOetp 
vol. I. p. 171-2- Chalmers, ?oL II. p. 109. Grtm, roL L p. IIS. 


the widow of Kiog John. Through the interfierence of 
the Pope this was effected, and on her return to Eng- 
li^d, Alexander married her at Yoric, on St John Bap- 
tist's day 1221 ; and in the month of August following 
brought her to Roxburgh.* 

About Whitsuntide, 1227f King Alexander confer- 
red the honour of knighthood on several young noble- 
men at Roxburgh Castle, among whom were John the 
Scot, Earl of Huntington, son to his uncle David, Earl 
of Carrick and Angus.f 

Jane, Queen of Scotland, being in a declining state of 
health, obtained leave to go to England, when, in hopes 
of a miraculous interposition in her behalf, she under- 
took a pilgrimage to the shrine of St Thomas a Becket, 
in which she was accompanied by Eleanor, Queen of 
England. In this hope she was disappointed, as she 
died on the 4th of March, 1238 ; and on the 4th of 
May, in the following year (1239») Alexander was mar- 
ried, at Roxburgh to Mary, daughter of Ingelram de 
Coud, Earl of Dreuxe in France, who is said to have 
been very beautiful. The rojral nuptials were celebra- 
ted with great pomp and festivity ; and in the 44th 
year of Alexander's age, and 27th of his reign, viz. 
on the 4th day of September,:]: 1241, she brought 

* Sir J. Balfour, toI. I. p. 42. Ridpath, p. 129. 

t. Sir J. Balfour, toI. I. p. 45. Ridpath, p. 129, Note. 

X Chron. Mail. p. 204. Fordun, toI. II. p. 75. Wynten, toL I. 
p. 374. Holmshed, toL I. (Scot.) p. 197* Ridpath, p. 185. Chal- 
mers, vol. II. p. 108. Sir J. Balfour, toL L p. 52. 



forth a son in Roxburgh Castle, ^o was named Alex* 
ander, and who succeeded his father in the kingdiom.* 
In the year 1248, the burghs of Roxburgh, Hadding'* 
t(ni, Lanark, Stirling, Perth, Forfar, Montrose, Aher^ 
deen, and Invemess, were almost totally consumed Vy 
fire. In some of than it happened by accident ; bat 
others are said to have been fired by Alexander Budt* 
an and J(^ Read, friends and adherents of William 
Bisset, Lord Aboyne, who, haying been accused of being 
either principal or accessory in the murder of the Eari 
of Athote, at Haddington,f in the eiu^ly part of the 

« ChroD. MaiL p. 906. Haik^ i^l. I. p. 18a 3ir J. Balfour, 
vol. I. p. 48. 

t 1243.^ — ^The occasion of this murder is thus related by Lord 
Hallesy in his AmuJs }— '' Isabel^ tfaa eldest daughter of the Eari of 
Athole, married Thomas of Oalloway, brother of Ahui, Lord of Gal* 
lovay. Patrick^ the only child of Isabel^ was a youth of distinguish- 
ed accomplishments^ in the opinion of that age. At a tournament on 
the English border^ he chanced to overthrow W. Bnset* Hence i| 
fetal animosity arose ; the Earl of Atbole was murdered at Had» 
dington. That the murder might be concealed, the assassins fired 
the house in which he lodged. The suspidon #bM on Bhset. The 
Scottish BobiUty flewtts arms, an4 sought his lift* Bisset demanded 
the protectipn of the king ; he urged that he was fifty miles distant 
from Haddington at the time of the murder, and offered to maintain 
his innocence by single combat. The youngqueen oflered to make oath, 
' that Bisset had never derised a crime so enormous.' A trial by jury 
was allowed, but he rejected it, ' on account of the mttl^volence of the 
people, and the implacable resentment of his enemies.' All that the 
king could obtain for him, was, that he should forfeit his estates, and 
be banished from Scotland. Aifter being three yeani concealed by 
the king from the fiiry of the nobles, who still sought his life, he es- 
caped to England, where he S€ii|;ht to embroil the tw^ nations by 



yeak- 1242, was banished Scotland, and his estates for* 
feifced * 

Alexander III. sncoeeded his fother in the year 1249, 
being then only in the eighth year iff his age ; and in 
the year 1251, on the 26th day of December, he was 
married with great pomp, at York, to the PrinceBS Mar- 
garet, daughter to King Henry III. of Eng^iand. Short- 
ly after the ceremony, he returned with his queen to 
Scotland, and took up his residence in the castle of 
Edinburgh. During the first three yeais of their mar- 
riage, the royal pair suffered much from the arhttrary 
measures of the governors of the kingdom, who kept 
them as prisoners, and debarred them that social inter- 
course which their union sanctioned. King Henry, in- 
formed of this, sent the Earl of Oloucester, in the jrear 
1255, with an army to Scotland, who, being assisted by 
the Earl of X)unbar and his vassals^ surprised the castle 
of Edinburgh, where he found the king and queen con- 
fined to separate apartments. Having procured their 
liberty, he forthwith conveyed the royal pair to Rox- 
bm^h Castle, under a strong escort, where they re- 
mained for some time ; and where, in the course of the 

means of his own quarrel ; and again appealing to his sword in proof 
his tnnooence^ he made a tow for the salvation of Atbole's soul and 
and his own, to repair to ike Udy Land, and never to return. A sin- 
gular TOW to be made hy one whose conscience was clear." — ^Hailb^ 
Tol. I. p. lSS-90. 

* Fordun, toI. II. p. 7^ M^or, (1244) p. 149. Sir J. Balfour, 
vol. I. p. 54. Hailes, (1244) vol, I. p. 370. 


same year^ King Heniy, father to the queen^ paid them 
a visit, which lasted fifteen or sixteen days, during 
which he was treated with princely magnificence. In 
the course of this visit, an agreement was entered into 
between the two kings, that the present governors and 
ministers should be deprived of their offices, and others 
appointed in their place, at the head of which party was 
the Earl of March or Dunbar, to whom, on the recom* 
mendation of King Henry, was conuDitted the care- of 
the king and queen's persons, as well as the manage- 
ment of the government ; and this arrangement was to 
continue for seven years, or until Alexander had reach- 
ed the full age of twenty-one years.* 

This change, which Henry had effected in the coun- 
cils of Alexander, was not productive of peace to the 
country ; each party still contending for possession of 
the king's person, and likewise for the government; 
but in power having incurred the displeasure 
of the Pope, and refusing to submit to the terms dictaf 
ted by the Holy See, were, after some fruitless nq;ot 
tiations, excommunicated nominoHm.j^ Proposals, with 

* Ridpatb, p. 145. Chalmers^ toL II. p. 108. Grose, vol. I p. 117. 

t 1257. — " Gamelin, Bishop-elect of St Andrews, and chaDoellor 
of the kingdom, and William de Bondington, Bishop of Glasgow, in 
the change of regents made by the advice o£ King Henry, had been 
deprived of their secular offices ; and in consequence the new regen« 
cy prohibited the former being inducted into his see ; the Bishop (tf 
Glasgow, nevertheless, consecrated him about the latter end of the 
year 1255 ; upon which the regents seized and plundered his ]gp6ses« 


a Ttoir to reeencile the different perties, and thenbyio 
rastiae tranquiUily, were forwarded to King Henry by 
Comyn and his party^ witha letter from the king, dated 
at Hoxbargfa the 4th of February, ISflTt reqneeting a 
letter of safe eoncbict to Robert StuleviUe, Dean of 
Donkeld, and Andi«w Moriiam, the bearen <rf H, idbd 
were eent to know his pleasure on this point; b«t 
these proposids not reoeivk^ his approbation, tUs party 
res^ved to seise upon the king^s person, and tinis to 
pat themselves in possession of the goT^ernment. They 
aecordiagly flew to arms, sdBed (he king and qoeen 
while in bed at Kinross, editing in thcte defenee, the 
danger of the whole country being laid under an in« 
terdiet, from the goTemment being in the httids of per- 
sons excommunicated. Immediately <m obtainkig pes* 
session of the king, they conveyed him to Boxbuigh, 
wiiere, early in the year^ 1258, he assembled Ml aimy 
to proceed against the excminmnieated nobles ; baton 
their promising to appeasr on ae»*tain day at Forfhr to 
stand trial, he desisted. In this, howerer, they Ciiled ; 

tions. Gamdin appealed to the Pope« who tried the canae, and not- 
withstajidiDg the defence the^ made^ pronouDced in favour of the 
bishop^ declaring him Innooent'of the allegations brdof^t forward 
Againit him, and moat worthy of his bishoprick. He also excommu- 
nicated his accusers, and the invaders of the see (tf St Andrews. The 
crime of Gramelin, was his opposition to the measures of the new re- 
gentry and hb refusing to purchase his bishoprick."— Hailem vol I. 
pp. 205, 4. 
* Rymer, tom. L p. 6l8. Ridpath, p. 14^. 

hut, in the raaaatimey appMed to King Henry for hia tdU* 
viee. I%e oraaequenee w«9f that the agreement piade* 
aft Roxburgb in l£5d/ was tlirown aside, and ^ iMfw re- 
gefie^ foittiedy which indaded Hm chief men of hothQaft^ 
tiest tcigether with the ^iieen dow^erw^ 

In aie3p«ar 186^ PrineeEdwaid, aftefwardaEdn 
watfd L Of Enghmd^ paid a visit to Alexander uid th0 
qoeeta, hia aisfar, at Rot3tbUrgh» where he waa magniil- 
oentiLy treated foi some daya ; but eoiraaoti^is hreafci 
ing oAt in £i^;land» the prineewas ordcoed home, when 
be solicited nnd obtained firom his btt>ther«4n*law a num^ 
ber of Seottith auxiliaries^ to asfiist in the reduetion of 
the WngHah rcMs^f 

The King and Queen of Seotiiand nceived at ISUrn^ 
bnrgfa, another visit, in they«ar 1968^ from the Prineei 
Edward and Edmund of Enf^an^ on the oceaision «f 
their having taken the Holy Croas, on engaging im aa 
expedstSen Co the Hk^ Land* King Henry aqd: hie 
qoeee at this time came to Yerli^whera Alpwsder 
and liii 4meea went Co pay theiir dntifid vespeete ta 

Sahg Makolm III., With his ddeat soni hayii^^iiq;: 
kiUed at the siege of Alnwick, in the year lO^QSji m^ 
his other children being nqaera, his brother !]Dk>na)dji er 
Dcmald Babe, who, dnring the ueorpati<m of Macbetipr 

* Ridpatb p. 150. Hailes, toI. I. p. 206. 

t Fordmi, vol. II. p. 104. RUlpfttb, p. 10& Chalmers/ ^-'iL 
p. IDS. .Groae^ Tol» IL p. U7« v;^/.. 

X Fordunj Tgl IJ. p. 109. Ridpatba p. 1$5. Chalmers, toL IL 
p. 108. 


had taken refiige in the Hebrides, (where he appears to' 
have remained during the whole of his brother^s reign,) 
laid claim to the throne ; in which he was supported 
by the inhabitants of those islands, at that time inde* 
pendent of the kingdom of Scotland, and only nominally 
subject to the King of Norway. Donald, to obtain this 
aid, is said to have undertaken to confirm to the King 
of Norway the possession of those islands ; and there 
does not appear to have been any dispute r^parding 
them, till the reign of Alexander II., who entered into 
a negotiation with the King of Norway, by which it 
was agreed that they should be redeemed by the King 
of Scotland ; but this arrangement not being completed 
at the time of his death, his son, Alexander III., on his 
coming of age in 1263, determined to take them by 
force ; and for this purpose sent a large fleet, with a 
considerable body of troops, and wasted and destroyed 
several of the islands. On receiving tins intdligence, 
Acho (or Haco) King of Norway, prepared a large ex- 
pedition, to maintain what he deemed his right, and 
appearing on the western coast of Scotland, with a fleet 
of 160 ships, reduced the Cumbras, and obtained pos- 
session of the isle of Bute by treachery. Alexander, on 
learning this, raised an army, and proceeded to defend 
his western coast. On arriving in the neighbourhood 
of Largs, proposals for an accommodation were made, 
and Alexander agreed to allow the King of Norway to 
retain the Western Isles, but that Arran, Bute, and the 
Cumbras, should be attached to the Scottish crown. 


To these terms Haco would not listen, and he accoid^' 
ingly detached part of his fleet to lay waste the towns 
on the coast. But a storm coming on, a number of his 
vessels were lost, and a great part of his troops who 
liad been landed were killed by the Scots. In order to 
protect or bring off the remamder, Haco disembarked 
the fUlowing day with the whole of his men at Larg^ 
where a serious conflict Uxk place, which ended in the 
complete defeat of the Norwegians. Haco himself with 
difficulty escaped ; and having reached Orkney, he fell 
a prey to grief for the loss and disgrace he had in- 

Magnus, eldest son of Haco, on receiving intdHg^ice 
of his father's death, and the destruction of his fleet 
and army, immediately sent ambassadors to Alexandelr 
to treat for peace, which was granted on his renoun^ 
cing all claim to the Western Islands, receiving 4000 
merk9, in four different payments, and 100 merks to he 
paid yearly to the King of Norway for ever ; and folr 
the purpose of making this peace more permanent, it 
was agreed to betroth Margaret, the daughter of Ale:£« 
ander, then an infismt of about four years, to Eric^ eldest 
son of Magnus, also an infant 

On the 4th of May, in the year 1281, Hke wnAvMt 
for this marriage was executed at Roxburgh, and Eric, 
who at that time was King of Norway, was married jby 
proxy to the Princess Margaret, who shortly after was 
sent to Norway with a splendid retinue ; but she only 


gurrived h^ marriage about twenty monthg^ ktviitg 
issue <xie daugfater, who also died in her iu&ncy.* 

The nuptials of Prinee Alexander With Afaigiareti 
daughter of the Earl of FlanderEf^ were ioknuiiad on 
the 9ih of .^nril, 1289, at BoKburgh, with princely 
magnificence, in the pretence of many d the prelatee 
and nobles of both kingdoms. The fiestivitiea continued 
for fifteen dajrs, during which erery Jdnd of amusement 
was devised for their entertainmrait. This joy, how* 
ever, was of short duration, as the prince died in the 
fioUowing year at Londors, in the SOthyear of his age.f 

On the death of Alexander III., who was killed by a 
&11 firom his horse while hunting in the neighbourhood 
of Kinghorn, in the year 1286, the government of the 
kingdom was vested in six guardians chosen by Par- 
liament ; and the queen being, as was supposed, in a 
state of iw^^nancy, no heir was declared to the crown 
till her ddivery should take place. These expectations 
being disappointed, Margaret, daughter of Erie, King 
of Norway, by Margaret, daughte r of Alexander III., 
was recognind as heir ; but it does not appear that 
any measures were adopted to bring her to Scotland, 
till, in the year 1S89, Eric himself applied to Edward, 
King of England, for his assistance in placing his 

* Rymtr, torn. XL p. 1079- Wyntown^ toL I. p. 305. Maitlaod, 
ToL I. pp. SOUS* Ridpath, p. l6l. 

t Rymer^ torn. II. p. S09. Fardim^ vol. IL p. 124. Ridpstli^ p. 
l6l. ChaimerBi toL IL p. MB* Grot^ toL I* p^ il7« 



daughter <hi Ate thfone oi Seotiap^ and' fer his prolw^ 
tton of her, during her tender yearsy i^niuet the ^iiik 
rent tmtioDB which existed ia this unhappy counbry ;: 
atidf about the same time^ the Scottish Parliament, sank 
sihie of the evils irhidi resulted firom the cEdstcnGoiif 
sudi fiEietions, had tfecottfse to Edward for his advieflj 
and aid in reeondliug thesi. The consequence of theaa 
applications was the placing in the hands of this aikib»4 
tions tnonarch all the iminunities of theSoottidi natiioiyi 
who was so well aware of the power thus gitnen tit 
him^ and the use he could make of it» that the knli^ 
dom, fbr some oanturies^ had to Mpent I2ie pnsteed* 
ings which took place at this time. Edward^ widt 
the Tiew of securing the crown of Scotland in hia ^wtt 
fiunlly> proposed a marriage between the infmt Queeii 
Margaret and his son, Frinoe Henry, which was ipf 
proTedof by the Scottish guardians^ who tent amlMM 
sadors to notify the same to her father, thaiKii^ ei 
Ifdrwa)^. H(^ from the friendship ha hadaqpnaeiMed 
Ob the part of £dwnid^ gi»re hia opnaslit } aaid^ i»<p 
pioper escort being sent, to Noiiray, «o(KUiiitted Us 
danghter to their case* The JBeet, on it* ^passagi^ la 
Scotland, toashed at the QrioEiey Islea, Ii^Imm the queen 
landing, she fell ill of a fever, which terminated her 
life m the year 1290. The throne having thus beoome 
vacant, a number of competitors laid daim to it, tbi 
principal of whom were John Baliol, and Robert Braee^ 
The King of Norway, as heir to his daUghMT, antf 
many nobles nearly related to the royal family, apn 


peared in the list ctf candidates. Such, however, was 
tihe intricBcy of this case, from the Tarions and diveis 
Gofied pretensions of so many daimants, that the Scot- 
tish Parliament was unable to come to a proper deci- 
sion, and therefore agreed to refer the question to the 
judgment of King Edward, who, having accepted the 
oi&ce of umpire, required that all the rights bdonglng 
to the Scottish crown should be immediatdy jpnt into 
his possession, in order, (as he said,) that he might de-^ 
liver them into the hands of the successful competitor^ 
This being done^ he removed all the puUic records to 
Bozbnrgh, where his auditors fur Scottish affairs .hdd 
their sittings ; and on dedding, in the year 1202, in 
£EiVour of John Baliol, many, (but it is generally be- 
lieved not all,) of the revenue accounts, but none of the 
public writings and records, were delivered to Alezan* 
der Balicd, Chancellor of the Kingdom, for the use of 
the Scottish kmg.> 

It appears, from the Rotuli Scotia that Edward I. 
spent the greatw part of the month of December this 
year, (1S98») at Boxburgh, where he issued a number 
of oflkial-orders, and arrai^ments.f 

John Balid being crowned king of Scotland in No- 

* MaiUand, rol. I. p. 429* Ridpath, ppw 165*IS5. HaUob, foL I. 
pp. 258-6$. 

t The principal of these were orders recommending to the King 
of Scotland to permit dcpotiea appointed by King Edward to collect 
rents and dues^ with arrearages which fell due in Scotland at tlic 
term of Martinmas this year. They all bear date between the 8th 
and 18 th of December. 


vember 1998^ he, next mcmth, did hcmuige for his 
kingdmn to King Edvrard, at Newcastle ; and, in the 
foUowing year, was snnunoned, as his li^^man, to apm 
pear before him to answer to a charge preferred by 
Macduff, Earl of Fife, for the recovery of certain lands 
which he nnjnstly withheld from him. To this charge 
Baliol refused to give any answer without consulting 
his people; and Edward r^arding this as an act of 
disobedience and contempt, he, according to some wri> 
ters, seized upon the Castles of Roxburgh, Berwid^ 
and Jedburgh, till satisfoction for this insult shocdd be 
given; they also assert, that the English court of 
King^s Bench sat for some time this year in Roxburgh 
This, however, does not appear to be correct, for we 
find that Baliol obtained time from Edward to answer 
the charge made by Macduff, and that it was not till 
the year 1295 that he demanded the Castle of Box- 
burgh and the other two^ and this on pretence of seca« 
rity to his own kingdom during the war in whidi he 
was engaged with France, and in which the Scots had 
taken part with his enemies, notwithstanding the fealty 
sworn to him by King John ; and even then he came 
under a promise to restore them immediately on the 
conclusion of a peace. He sent at this time the Bishop 
of Carlisle, as his commissioner, to receive possession of 
them upon these terms, and appointed Robert Hastings 
captain of Roxburgh Castle ; but, according to Trivet 
lus,* the Scots refused to put such pledges in his hands, 

"* The following is the passage in Trivctus :— '* The King (rf Eng- 


md, in tbe following yew,* 1896, agreeably to 
txmty entered into with Fraiiee^ Baliol made two 
fisrent inroada into Ekigland, which were att^ided nei- 
<hier with honour noir advantage^f Edward, in the 
meantime, advanced with a large and m^ell^liadidined 
army to Berwick, which he took and aaeked, apacilig 
neither age nor sex ; and pushing forward, eoeowMttod 
Baliol at Dunbar, whom he completely defeated* Pro* 
cteding immediately to Boxburi^ James, Stewand of 

kmA,igo»tanit id Am tcemiifesry 

tlie King of Sootlukd in his wars ; and his reply being of a very du« 
bums nature, he suspected what was going on, and therefore de- 
sbsd htm, ftr the sake of security, to put into his p oss es siop, du- 
ring the oontiinuuioe of the war, three castles^ ni., the GastM ef 
Bozburgh^ Edinburgh^ and Berwick, which he would restore on the 
conclusion of it, prorided he found the Scottish nation £uthftil to 
l5iB. Thb the Scots refusing to do, the king, now assured of their 
traaichery, marched with an army towards Scotland, determined to 
subdue it by force, unless they were able to excuse themselyes from 
the things reported of them, and which now appeared tobegomgon.** 
•— Taiv* p. S86. 

« Liilan4» vol. UL p. 7* Maitknd. roL I. p. 459. Ridpath p. 19S. 
Chalmer^^ toL II. p. 109. Kerr, tqI. I. p. 62. Hailes, toL L p. 184. 
Rotun Sootifl^ ToL I. pp. 21-t. 

t The fint immlef the SooU wan into Cvmberland, wheva they 
wasted the oountry, but laying siege to Carlisle they were repulsed 
by the inhabitani^ and foh»d to make a dishonourable retreat. The 
next inroad was into Northumberland, where they bamt the Nnn« 
nery of Lamelay, and the Monastery of Corebridge ; but in an at- 
tempt to storm the Castle of Harbottle, they were oUiged to retreat 
in disorder. Previous to this, Baliol, by the advice of his parliament, 
had solemnly vsnounced hia aDegianoe and foalty to Edipird» but he 
had not an opportunity of delivering to him the deed ef hia renun- 
ciation, until that monarch had taken possession of Berwick. A 
copy of that interesting document forms No. III. of the Ajqiendix. 


SooUand^ wbo at the time commanded in the caide, de- 
livered it np to him, on condition of safety to the Uvea 
and property of himsdf and the garrison. He also 
svrore aflegiance to Edward,* and renoonoed the treaty 
entered into with France. The town, at the eame tim^ 
sttfamitted to the Engfirii king, when the mi^^strates 
and burgesses took the oath of fidelity; ithe officers of 
dw crown did the same, and were continued in the per- 
fbrmanoe of their seneral duties. ESdward remainei 
here for smne days, when, having finished his arrange- 
ments, and made Walter Tonk governor of tiM town 
and castle, he departed, and coming to Edinburgh, he 
took the castle after a slight resistance. He then w^nt 
to Stirling, and found the castle abandoned, and, preu 
ceeding northward, made an easy capture of Perth. jB^ 

* Th6 kXkfwing is m exact copy of the umtnunent ddBferei fo 
King Edward, by Janes, on this oocasioiiii*- 

*' A tov£ ceanx qui oestes lettres verront <m onontj James, Seae- 
sehal d'Esoooe, Salus. P<mr oeo qe neus sanies Tenrts a la frf e a la 
Tohnte da tvesooble Prince nestte chier Sifoewr Sire Edirard, par 
1« fpraee Dieu, Roi d'Engfeteire, Signeur d'Irland, e Duca d'Aqiai- 
taigae, noos promettons pur nous e par nos heirs, sur peine de con * 
edafsoir, e sar quantqoe nmispenssons enconre, qe nona seiTODs enaa 
«ide, e li serTiroBS bks e leaHment centre totea gents, ^i parrDnt Ti« 
vre etuMMrir, totes ]esfouE<{enons serronsrequisea garnisde par nos- 
tre Signew k Roi d'Engieterre aTantdit, on ie par ste heirs; e qe 
nofos Ifliir dammage neecanons qe nons yel destorheens s tet nostre 
poer, e le leur laseons asaa^oir, e a cestes choses tenir e garder ehli- 
geons nons et nos heirs, e tons nos biens, e outre oes awmsjuret ntr 
weiniet Evangdin. faleiMio^^niriu^deqaexiiosenoasaronsfbitftire 
cestes letlres ouertes scales de nostre Boi* Donees a SaMm^ le 
treziBM jour de Majr; I'an du regno nostre Seigneur leRofd^Engie- 
terre avantdit Tintisnie quart." 


this time his army being greatly increased by the ar-- 
rival of 30,000 foot, and 400 horse, from Ireland, ha 
intended to carry his conquests still fiEurther north ; 
but, when at Brechin, he received messengers from Ba- 
liol suing for peace. Edward, however, would agree 
to nothing short of his renouncing the kingdom ; and, 
accordingly, by a deed, bearii^ date, Kincardine, July 
8,* he wholly resigned the crown to him, acknow* 
ledging the offences which, through evil counsel, and 
his own weakness, he had committed against his sove- 
reign lord, the renunciation of his homage. Sec &a, and 

* Itissaidby Fordun^ t1iat> on presenting this disgraceful instru-i 
ttent to Edwwd, Baliol appeared divested of his royal omamentSy 
with a white rod in his ]iand. " He confessed, that, by eril aad 
felse counsel, and through his own simplicity, he had grievously of- 
fended his liege-lord. He recapitulated his various transgressions 
in concluding a peace with France, while that kingdom was at war 
with England ; in contracting his son with the niece of the French 
king; in renouncing his fealty ; in attacking the English territories, 
and in resisting Edward. He acknowledged the justice of the Eng- 
lish invasion and conquest ; and therefore he, of his own free oon- 
sent, resigned Scotland, its people, and their homage, to his li^;e- 
lord, Edward." The authenticity of this document, is, however, 
doubtful ; as the Scottish envoy at Rome, Baldred Bisset, denied 
that Baliol made any such resignation ; on the oontrary, he asserts 
tliat Edward forged the instrument, and appended the great seal of 
Scotland to it« Be this as it may, Balid's conduct has been defended. 
His attempt to shake off a fnreign yoke, say his advocates, speaks 
him of a high spirit, impatient of injuries. He erred in enterpiiiing 
beyond his strength ; in the cause of liberty, it was a meritorious 
error. He confided in the valour and unanimity of his subjects, and 
in the assistance of France. The efforts of his sulyeets were languid 
and discordant ; and France beheld his ruin with the indifference of 
an unconcerned spectator^— 'FossuN, vol. H. p. 1&7 ; HAiussti vol. 
I. pp. 292-4. 


rendered np his son a hostage fbr the fulfilment of this 
contract Shortly after, Baliol, with his Bon, were seat 
to London by sea, where they were detained more than 
three years in custody.* Edward, nevertheLess, pro* 
ceeded as far as Elgin, without, howevw, committing 
any enormity, receiving the homage of his new subjects 
as he advanced ;' and, on. his return south, he ordered 
the famous stone on which the Kings of Scotltmd were 
crowned, to be removed from Scone to Westminster. . 
During the interregnum that followed die resigna^ 
tion of John Baliol, the kingdom was in a state of the 
utmost distraction. The oppressions exercised by tfae 
deputies of King Edward, (more studious of their ow& 
interest than of the peace and quiet of the country,) 
became altogetheir intolerable. At this time. Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace, a hero well known in Scottish histoiry^ 
appeared ; and, indignant at the subjection of his cofm,* 
try to the mercenary deputies oi a foreign despot, hf 
essay ed to recover it from this d^rading bondagi?. Har 
ving collected a few partisans, he proved so suocessfvd 
in his. inroads upon the English border, that a number 
of the Scottish nobles who professed an equal abhor- 
rence of the English jroke, were induced to join bin|. 
In a short time, the force thus collected became very nu- 
merous ; but an army composed of so many men attach- 
ed to different chiefs, without a common head, and where 

* Midtland, vol. I. pp. 435-7- Rjmev^ tom. II. pp. 707-14. Bid- 
path, pp. 196-199- Hailes, vol. I. p. 29^- Kerr, vol. I. p. 51. Ro- 
tuli Scotue, vol. I. p. 23. 


every chief oonralted his own interesty could not besup- 
poeed tobe available, even in flie hoar of danger, and so 
it happened in this instance. An expedition to the west 
was determined on, and their army assembled at Irving 
In very considerable force ; but, owing to the want of 
nnion in the commanders, nothing conld be attempted, 
nor would they even consent to figbt, retire, or treat by 
common consent. In this state of confusion, the Earl 
of Warenne, with the ^glish army, came upon thenu 
<Jnly, 1297) when most of the nobles, convinced of the 
impossibility of eflfecting any good when they were ao 
discordant ammig themselves, submitted to treat with 
King Edward, and made their peace. This treaty was 
ne|[otiated by Wisheart, Bishqp of Glasgow, who, at 
the same time, along with Sir William Douglas, be- 
came security for the younger Bruce, who had taken 
an oath to Edward> but afterwards joined the Scottish 
army. In consequence of this conduct of Bmoe, they 
both delivered diemsdves prisoners to the English, 
when Sir Williem was ccmfined in the Castle of Ber- 
wick, and the bish<^ in the Castle of R(»cbufgb. 

Wallace, despising submission, would by no means 
become a party to this treaty ;* and conceiving it to be 

* This remarkable iaatruaaeat, whidi is termed a txmij, ia of tim 
foIWlDg tenor :— ^^^ Be it known to all men«— Whereas we, with the 
commons of our country, did rise in arms against our Lord Edward, 
and against his peace, in his territories of Scotland and Galloway, 
did bum, slay, and commit divers robberies, (Jait arsons, homicides, 
et divers roberies ;J we theretbre, in our name, and in the name of 
all our adherents, agree to make erery reparation and atonement tint 



the effects of treachery or pusillanimity in Wiseheart^ he 
attacked and spoiled his house, and carried his family 
into captivity. 

Having collected the associates of his former exploits; 
Wallace, along with Sir A. Moray of Both well, the only 
baron who adhered to him, retired to the north, where 
his army daily increased ; and, while laying siege to 
the Castle of Dundee, being informed that the Engr 
lish drew near to Stirling, he immediately left the 
siege to be carried on by the citizens, and hastened 
with all his force to that place, to prevent the ene^ 
my from crossing the Forth ; and having taken a fa*- 
yourable position, he waited till a considerable part of 
their army had crossed the narrow wooden bridge over 
that river, when he attacked and cut them to pieces. 
The consequence was, the total rout of the English^ 
who fled with precipitancy to Berwick, whither thjey 
were pursued by the Scots, who also took possession ai 
that town, the English evacuating it on their appear- 

Shortly after this Sir William Wallace made inroads 
into the northern counties of England, with the view of 


shaU be required by our soyereign Lord ; reseriring always what ia 
contained in a writing which we have procured from Sir Henry Per- 
cy and Sir Robert Clifford, commanders of the English forces ; At Ir^^ 
vine, Qih July, 1297* To this instrument these words are subjoined : 
Escrit a Sire Willaume. The meaning is, as I should presume, that 
the barons had notified to Wallace that they had made terms of ^ 
commodation for themselves and their party." — Hailes^ voK L p. 


obtainiiig provisions, (Scotland being at that time tlureat- 
ened with famine,) and obtained a considerable supply, 
besides a good deal of booty ; and, on his return, he 
laid siege to the Castle of Roxburgh,* in order, as some 
say, to release the Bishop of Glasgow ; but hearing of 
the approach of the English in great force, under the 
command of the Prince, the Earl of Surrey, and other 
noblemen, he abandoned the siege and retired, without 
being pursued by the enemy. The arrival of this army 
was fortunate for the garrison, who, in consequence of 
the siege, had been reduced to great distress. Edward 
himself was in Flanders at this time, and had transmit- 
ted orders to his son to procure the assistance of his 
nobles to drive the Scots from the Borders, but not to 
enter their country uAtil he himself should assume 
the command of the army. Having concluded a truce 
with the King of France, he returned to England with 
all possible haste, where he arrived in the month oi 
March 1398 ; and having collected his army at Rox- 

* '' William Wallace had for several days besieged the Castle of 
Boxburgh, but hearing of the approach of the En^^iah, fled in great 
confusion. The £arl of Warenne, (at that time governor of Scot- 
land for the King of England^) with other English nobles, having 
come to Roxburgh, relieved Uie Castle, and encouraged the be- 
sieged, advanced as far as Kelso, and from thence returned to Ber« 
wide, which they found deserted by the Scots. Whilst they remain* 
ed here the king ordered them to be silent concerning the truces 
concluded, and his return ; commanding them also not to attempt 
anything whereby danger might be incurred previous to his arrival, 
the taking of Berwick excepted. Therefore, dismissbg the greater 
part of the army, and retaining what would be necessary for the 
guarding of the town, they waited the king's arrivaL"— Tbzvxtub, 
p. 311. 


biirgh, amounting to 3000 horse, or men-at-arms, 4000 
light horse, and about 80,000 foot ; he, after leaving a 
sufficient garrison in Berwick, rapidly advanced to the 
west of Scotland, trusting there to put an end to the war ; 
and also expecting to receive a plentiful supply of pro- 
visions by a fleet he had ordered to the Clyde with ne- 
cessaries of every kind for the army. Disappointed in 
this, the fleet having been delayed or dispersed by 
storms, he returned eastward ; but when in the neigh- 
bourhood of Linlithgow, hearing that the Scottish ar- 
my was assembled near to Falkirk, he instantly march- 
ed to attack them ; and although the Scots possessed 
every advantage of ground, as well as of numbers, yet, 
from the want of union in their leaders, and the rash 
and misguided impetuosity of the troops, the English 
obtained a complete and decisive victory.* • 

King Edward assembled a very numerous army at 
Roxburgh in May 180S, with which he proceeded to 
the north of Scotland as far as Brechin ; where, after 
twenty days' siege, he took the castle, at that time com- 
manded by Thomas Maule, who defended it with the 
most determined bravery, but being killed by a stone 
thrown from an engine, it was next day surrendered. 
Edward pursued his conquests as far north as Caith- 
ness, and returning south, he wintered at Dimferm- 

* Ridpath, pp. 206-211. Hailes^vol. Lpp«308-17- Hemiagftrd, 
voL I. p. 145. Trivetus, p. 310. 

f Maitland^ vol. I. p. 465. Ridpath, p. 220. RotuH Scotis, vol. 
I. p. 52. 


Edward having now, as he conceived, effected the 
complete conquest of Scotland, proceeded to devise some 
plan for its future government. He accordingly sum- 
moned a parliament to meet at Perth in the year 1805, 
which was to choose ten commissioners, to be invested 
with full parliamentary powers, who were to repair to 
London, there to meet with twenty English commis- 
sioners, to establish regulations for the government of 
Scotland, and the administration of justice to the peo- 
ple. These commissioners agreed that the ancient forms 
were to be preserved so far as consistent with the de- 
pendent state of the nation ; ** that sheriffs should be ap- 
pointed in the different districts of Scotland, of either 
nation, at the will of the Guardian and the Chamber- 
lain ; that four pairs of justices be established, a pair 
for each quarter of the kingdom, viz. two for Lodonia, 
(the Lothians,) two for Galloway, two for the district 
between the Frith of Forth and the mountains north of 
it, and two for the district norih of the mountains. The 
jCastles of Roxburgh and Jedburgh to be conunitted to 
the care of the Guardian, John de Bretagne ; Edin- 
burgh, to Peter Luband of Linlithgow ; Stirling Castle, 
to William Bisset ; and Dunbarton Castle, to Sir John 

Robert Bruce was crowned King of Scotland at 
Scone, March 25, 1306; and, on intelligence of this 
event, Edward sent Aymer de Valence with a large 

* Ridpatli, p. 225. Hailes, vol. I. p. 549. 


4twce into Sootkmd, who» siurprisiiig Robert at Meth- 
VBD, in the neigfaboorliood of Perth, obtained a com- 
plete victory ovar him. After this battle, the friends 
and rekitions of King Robert, who fell into the hands 
of the English, were treated in a most cro^ manntr, 
with the excepticm of his Qneen, who^ on account ef 
being daughter to the Earl of Ulster, was merely ceo- 
fined to the manor of Brustewick, ha ving a suitaUe €•• 
tablidiment provided for her, and allowed the liber^ of 
walking and hunting in the parks. His daughter was 
immured in a nunnery ; and his sister. Lady Mary 
Bruce, shut up in an iron cage at Roxburgh Castle 
The same punishment was inflicted on the Countess ef 
iBttdum in Berwick Castle, for assJBting at his coroba- 
tion.* His brothers met with a more severe finte^ beiag 
cruelly tortured and murdered.! 

Eidwaid U. ascended the throne of England in the 
year 1807, his £rther having died on the 7th of July, 
at a small town on the shore of the SfAwny Frith. B^ 
ing at Carlisle when this happened, after giving direo^ 
tikms concerning the funeral of his fiither, he came to 
Dnmfiries and Roxburig^ to receive the fealty* of the 
Scottish cfaiefii and noblest 

The adverse fortune which attended the arms of Ro- 
bert Bruce during the first two yean of his feign, had 

• Appendix, No. IV. 

t Maitbuid, toL I. p. 47& Hyner, torn. II. p. IWk BUftA, 
p. 229-30. Ken, vol. I. p. 248. 
t Ridpath, p. 252. Kerr, toI. I. p. 521. 


never induced him to despair of ultimate success ; and 
his poliqr in a steady perseverance to avoid general ao* 
tk»is, and at the same time his vigilance and activity 
in seizing every opportunity of cutting off the enemy 
in detail^ now became manifest in the establishment of 
his government, and the dread with which his adver- 
sary was inspired of losing his kingdom of Scotland, 
which at best he held by a most precarious tenure. H^ 
therefore prepared to invade the country with an over^ 
whelming force ; and, in order to distract the Scottish 
king, he intended to send one part of his army to re- 
conquer the north, while with the other he should sub- 
due the south and west Accordingly, he summoned 
his nobles to assemble at Berwick with their men, and 
also the levies he had made at an early period in the 
year ISIO '^ but his nobles, averse to the war, or rather 
(as is said) discontented with his government, did not 
appear with that alacrity or willingness he anticipated ; 
and the season being far advanced before any consider- 
able force had assembled, he was obliged to abandon 
the idea of sending any troops to the north ; but he 
himself proceeded from Roxburgh through the forest of 
Selkirk towards Biggar, and from thence as far as Ren- 
frew, without achieving anything worthy of notice ; 
and making no stay in those parts, he returned by the 
way of Linlithgow to Berwick, where he passed the 
This same year, on the ISth of March, King Ekiward ■ 

* Haiiesy vol. II. p. 44. 


agreed to exdumge Lady Mary Brace for W^ter Co- 
myn^ then a priscmer in SooOaiid.* She wu aeeotdiogu 
ly rdeaaed from her barbarooa oonfinement bi Bok* 
borgh Caade.f 

Edward IL ordered Robert de Umphnvill^ Bail of 
Anglic to collect all his forces at RozbiirglL on the nac 
tivity of St John Baptist, in the year ISll, which or- 
der was enlaiged till Lammas, when all his barons in 
the north of England w«re sommoned to appear with 
their followers, in order to proceed against Robert 
Bruce ; bat he does not seem to have attempted any- 
thing of consequence with all this force. On the coo^ 
trary. King Robert entered En^and by the Solway 
Frith, and, after laying waste the northem counties 
the inhabitants of Northumberland purdiased a tmee 
till the ensuing Candlemas fiv L.StOOO sterliiig; wfaidi 
ihey paid him down.t 

The opening of the campaign ISIS, was glorious to 
the Scottish arms. Sir James Dou£^ having been 
commanded to lay si^e to the Gastle of RojArargfa, sM 
down before it ; bat aware of its capabilily of a ptb? 
tracted defence, he determined to attempt by stratageni 
what he could not ei^peet to obtain for a long time by 
the regular method of attadc. 

Aware of the fostivity in which the English induct 

* Appendix^ No. V. 

t RyBMr, t4im. IIL p. S06. IfaiOM^ nO. L p. 483. 
t tLjmtrrUmL 111. p. 271. BidpgUi, p. 239- H«ile% foL IL p. 
44. RotuU Scotiv, ToL I. p. 104. 


on certain holidays, he fixed upon Shrove Tuesday, or 
Fasten*s Eve,* for carrying his design into execution, 
when he expected the garrison would be drowned in 
revelry and mirth. 

Having selected sixty of his most resolute followers, 
he disguised them with black frocks, that the glitter of 
thdr armour might not betray them, and desired them 
cautiously to draw near to the Castle. Having himself 
advanced sufficiently near to ascertain that all was 
quiet, he ordered his men to fall flat on the ground, and 
on their hands and feet approach the walls. This could 

* That the English were not singular in celebrating this day with 
mirth and festinty, appears by the following paragraph, o^ied from 
an Edinburgh newspaper of an early date« which mentions the 
sports of Shrore-Tuesday as being at that time revived : — 

" Edinburgh, Shrtwe^Tuesdaj^, Feb. 26, I66I.— Our old Carnival 
sports in some measure revived, for, according to the ancient cut- 
tome, the work was carried on by cock-fighting in the schools, and 
in the streets among the vulgar sort, tilting at cocks with faggot^ 
sticks. In the evening, the learned Firtowosi oi the Pallat, recreate 
themselves with lusty candels^ powerful! Gock->broath, and natural 
crammed pullets^ a divcrtiscmcnt not much inferiour to our neigh- 
bour nations ; fritters and pancakes. This is one of the five Eve^ 
that's so (amous among femals. And at the last parliameat of Uio^ 
pia, it was debated. Whether the number of Eves was meant sterling 
account or no, viz. five score. But some prudential husbands got the 
business suspended till the first general assembly of mankind ; and 
here it is to be disputed, Whetlier it be either Discretion, or Jure 
Humano ? 

*' The same day the Lord Commissioner was highly entertained by 
our noble Lord Chancellour, where there was a banquet contrived 
with admirable auriosities and enigmatical figures, representing the 
royal cognizances of the kingdom, and honors of Scotland."— Af^cu- 
7IMJ Caledonius. 


not be effected without being observed by those who 
kept watch upon the battlements ; but the night being 
dark, they from their disguise were mistaken for cattle. 
Ladders of rope having been prepared, one of the com- 
pany, Simon of the Lead-House, was the first who 
ventured to scale the wall. The sentinel perceived a 
man ascending ; but as he had no idea that what he 
had looked upon as cattle was a band of warriors, 
and seeing no one following, he gave no alarm, but 
waited quietly till he should reach the top, when he 
would thrust him over the wall. Simon, however, by 
his intrepidity and agility, had no sooner gained the 
summit, than he sprung upon the sentinel, stabbed him, 
and threw him over the wall among his comrades. This 
served as a signal for them to follow, but before any of 
them had time to ascend, Simon was attacked by an- 
odier of the watch, who also fell beneath his sword. 
At this instant his companions having joined him, they 
rushed towards the interior of the Castle, and present* 
ed themselves in the hall before the English, who wete 
thunderstruck with terror and amazement A dreadful 
carnage ensued ; the English being without arms, the 
greater part of them were slain. A few, however, esca- 
ped in the midst of the confusion, and with the gover- 
nor, Oilleminge de Feni^es, a brave Burgundian 
knight, retreated into the great tower, where they 
made a desperate resistance for nearly two days. The 
governor, who had been mortally woimded in the fSEu:e 
by an arrow, now surrendered, entreating that their 


migfat be spared, and their persons safely conduct- 
ed into England. With these entreaties Sir James com- 
plied; but the governor only survived a few days. The 
Castle was shortly afterwards demolished hy order of 
the Scottish King.* 

Edward IL, notwithstanding the severe chastisements 
he had received at the hand of Robert Bruce, whose 
government was now fiilly and completely established^ 
still refused to acknowledge him King of Scotland; 
he nevertheless applied to the Pope to use his authori- 
ty in bringing about a peace between the two countries. 
His Holiness acccHrdingly sent two l^ates into England 
in July 1S17, with full powers to this effect ; but these 
legates not choosing to proceed to Scotland until as- 
sured of a safe conduct and protection, sent messengers 
to King Robert to obtain this, and intrusted them with 
letters from the Pope, and also firom themselves to the 
King, stating the conditions on which they were to 
make the peace. These messengers, with considerable 
difficulty and danger, reached Roxburgh, where Robert 
at the time resided ; he received them very gracious- 
ly ; but the letters from the cardinals being sealed, and 
addressed to Robert Bruce, Chvemor of Scotland^ he 
would not suffer them to be opened ; the letters from 
the Pope, and other letters from the cardinals, being 

* Fordun^ voL II. p. 245. Buchanan, lib. VIII. Major, p. I90. 
HoliD8hed> vol. I. (Scot.) p. 206. Leland, vol. II. p. 55^. Gods- 
croft> p. 31. Maitland, vol. I. p. 484. Ridpath, p. 241. Kerr, vol. 
I. p. 408. 


open, he gave penniaBian for these to be read, but ra^ 
fused any answer till he had consulted his barons. Ha- 
ving done this, a notice was sent to the cardinal legates, 
that oa no account would they be suffered to enter 
Scotland, till they, or their master the Pope, acknow- 
ledged (as all other kings and princes had done) his 
title to the crown of Scotland. This resolute denial to 
receive them, enraged the legates, who immediatd]^ 
sent a friar with the Pope's bulls, to read them before 
the Scottish King, and, at the same time, on his autho* 
rity to declare a truce between the two nations ; which 
having been done. King Robert said that he would 
pay no attention to any mandatory or bull of the Pope^ 
so long as he refused to acknowledge him King of 
Scotland; and having dismissed the £riar without t 
letter of safe conduct, he was waylaid and robbed of aU 
his papers and clothes.* 

War having brdcen out between the two kingdoms 
in the b^inning of the year 1822, the King of Eng- 
land invaded Scotland, without, however, doing much 
damage ; and, on his retreat, the King of Scotland 
(Robert I.) invaded England, and coming up with the 
retreating army at the abbey of Byeland, obtained a 
great victory. The King fled from the field of battle 
and took refuge in the City of York, whither he was 
pursued by the Scots. A truce was afterwards conclude 
ed, during which the King of Scotland held his court at 

* Ridpath, p. 255. 


Roxbui^h, Edinburgh, Berwick, and the different dties 
and buigfas in the kingdom as necessity required.* 

On the death of Robert Bruce in the year lS29f 
his son, David II. ascended the throne, then in the 
eighth year of his age. Immediately on his accession, 
Edward, son of John Baliol, came forward to daim the 
crown, and with the assistance of Eidward III. of Eng« 
land invaded Scotland, and in the year 1382 obtained 
a complete victory over the Earl of Mar, governor of 
the kingdom for David II., at Duplin, in the neighbour- 
hood of Perth. After this he immediately proceeded 
to Scone^ where he caused himself to be crowned by the 
Earl of Fife, taken prisoner at Duplin, and the Bishop 
of Dunkeld. From thence he went to the Borders, and 
having encamped in the neighbourhood of Roxburgh, 
be took and burnt a castle commanded by Robert de 
Colville, and made preparations for the siege of Ber- 
wick, which it does not appear he undertodc ; for ha^ 
ving obtained possession of Roxburgh^ he by his letters 
patent, dated on the 23d November, at this place, ac- 
knowledges the supremacy of Edward III , who, << as 
rightfnl King of Scotland and the Isles, had bestowed 
them on his father John Baliol ; but the said John ha- 
ving been deprived of ihem on account of some excesses 
committed by him, and Edward I. being unable, in 
consequence of Robert Bruce having seized upon them, 
to obtain possession of them again ; and he (Edward 

* Abercromby> vol* II. p. 150. 


Baliol) having, with the assistance of Edward lit.. 
King of England, his sovereign, been put in possession 
of his inheritance, and crowned King of Scotland and 
the Isles, declares his having paid homage to the King 
of England in these words : — ^ I Edward, by the grace 
of God, King of Scotland, and the Isles thereunto be- 
longing, become your liege-man for the said kingdom 
and isles, against all persons whatsover/ " And by the 
same letters patent he agreed, in order to reimburse 
the King of England for the services and assistance he 
had received from him, to grant to him the sum of 
L.2000 yearly revenue in lands ; and also obliged him- 
self to accompany King Edward in person, into the pro- 
vince of Gascony and elsewhere, at the head of 200 
men, and his heirs and successors at the head of 100 
men, at their own expense, as often as this might be 
required. He also agreed to take Joan, sister to Ed- 
ward, in marriage, provided her marriage with David 
Bruce were not consummated ; and to provide her a 
jointure of L.BOO Sterling per annum ; or in case, of 
non-performance^ to pay to him the sum of L.10CKI 
Sterling towards the marriage or entertainment of. 
said sister ; and also to provide a maintenance for 
David, as an amends for the loss of his crown and con- 
sort; and in case of failure as to the supply of the 
men above specified, he bound himself and his heirs to 
pay to the King of England L.2000 Sterling when re- 
quired ; and again in failure of this payment, he im- 
powered the King of England to take possession of 


tlie Castle of Roxburgh, and all the other fortresses in 
the kingdom, till by the profits arising from them, this 
sum should be liquidated. And further, in consequence 
of Edward having bound himself and his heirs to pre- 
serve Baliol and his heirs in possession of the throne of 
Scotland and the Isles, he, by another deed, bound him* 
self and his heirs to assist King Edward with the whole 
force of Scotland, in any part of England, Wales, or 
Ireland, as often as required.* 

The Governor of Scotland, Sir Andrew Murray, hal- 
ving learnt that Baliol was at Roxburgh, or in the 
neighbourhood, sent Archibald Douglas, Lord of Gal- 
loway, with 1000 horse, who surprised Baliol and his 
men while asleep, at the village of Annan, whither he 
had gone to spend his Christmas, (or, as some say, to 
receive the fealty of the nobles, &c. in that quarter,) on 
the night of the S4th of December ; and after a severe 
struggle, in which many fell on both sides, BalioFs 
force was discomfited, and he himself, in a state of nu- 
dity, fled to Roxburgh, on a horse without either saddle 
or bridle. He immediately passed over to Carlisle^ and 
from thence to Westmoreland.f Early, however, in the 
following year, 1338, he returned to Roxburgh to 
await the arrival of the King of England ; and shortly 
after, the guardian, Sir A. Murray, in an attempt to 
take the town and castle by assault, was, in' crossing 

* Maitland^ toI. I. p. 512. Ridpath^ pp. 299, 300. Hailes, roL 

n. p. 191. 

t Lesley, p. 239. Maitland, yd. I. p. 509. 


over the narrow bridge which led to the town, in the 
act of rescuing one of his squires (Randulphus Grolding) 
who was overpowered by the enemy, himself surround- 
ed and made prisoner. He would not, however, sur« 
render himself as such, till he was brought to King 
Edward at Durham, where he acknowledged himself 
his prisoner.* 

Edward, as appears from Maitland, left Roxburgh 
in the month of February, 1334, to meet Baliol at 
Edinburgh, where his parliament was at that time 
sitting. This parliament, it would seem, ratified the 
agreement previously entered into between Baliol and 
him ; for we find that, on the 12th of June following; 
Baliol attendedEdward at Newcastle, wherehe again did 
homage for his kingdom, and delivered him a letter, spe« 
cifying this ratification, together with the ceding to him 
the town and Castle of Roxburgh, and fortifications, 
&c. as mentioned in that letter.f Immediately on recei* 
ving this letter, Edward took the regular legal measures 
to put himself in complete possession of those places, and 
issued orders for their future government, by appointing 
officers over them4 He also gave orders to repair th^ 

* Forduo, Tol. II. p. S09. Holinshed, toI. I. (Scot.) p. 231. 
Godaaoft, p. 56. Ridpath, p. 308. 

f See Appendix^ No. VI. 

X 1354. — On the cession of the county of Roxburgh^ and Tarious 
other counties in Scotland, by Edward Baliol to King Edward, (see 
Appendix^ No. VI.) Galfrid de Moubray made application to have 
the office of Sheriff of that county, and Keeper of the Forest of 
Selkirk bestowed upon him in right of Isabella, Countess of Mar, his 


Castle of Roxburgh, and appointed William de Felton 
governor. And in consequence of the Earl of Dunbar 
and March (who, on the surrender of Berwick in the 
preceding year, had renounced his allegiance to King 
David, and transferred it to Edward) having deserted 
his standard, which inspired him with fears of new 
disturbances, he came to Roxburgh in the month of 
November, and having made an excursion as far as 
Glasgow without doing anything of importance^ he 
returned and passed the winter in the castle.* 

By a letter, bearing date Newcastle, 26th December, 
13S5, King Edward delivered to Edward Baliol all his 
possessions, which belonged to him by patrimonial 
right in the county of Roxburgh or elsewhere,! and 
which had been included in the concessions formerly 
made, and ratified by parliament.:): 

This same year the young Earl of Namur, with 
100 men-at-arms, and a number of volunteers, landed 

wife^ whose anoettora had long possened both. King Edward ac- 
cordingly caused examination to be made into the validity of this 
dsdm^ which being fully established^ these offices were conferred 
upon him ; and we find from the Rotuli Sootiae, that^ in the year 
1347> William Carseweli, husband of Isabella, Countess of Mar, is 
made Governor of Roxburgh, also in her righU— Rymer, vol. IV. p. 
6«2. Rotuli Scoti«, vol. I. p. 698. 

* Rymer, tom. IV. pp. 6l5, 6l6, 6l7. 6l8, 622. Maitland, vol. 
I. pp. 519, 523. Fordun, vol. II. p. 323. Major, pp. 231-2. Rid« 
path, p. 314. Chalmers, vol. II. pp. 109, HO. Rotuli Sootis, vol. 
I. pp. 297—321. 

t See Appendix^ No. VII. 

t Rymer, tom. IV. p. 681. 



in England to ikssist Edward in his re-conquest of Scot- 
land. The governor, the Earl of Murray, apprized of 
their having left Berwick for the purpose of joining 
the King at Perth, determined to prevent this junction. 
Accordingly, he encountered them on the Burrow-moor, 
in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, (their forte being 
much increased by the English tlmt had joined them,) 
and after a short but severe conflict forced them to re» 
treat, which they did in an orderly manner to Edin- 
burgh, where they took post on the Castle Hill ; but 
beli^ destitute of necessaries, they surrendered next 
day at discretion.* The JBarl of Murray, desirous of 

* l385,^Of this battle, Abercromby, in bis '^ Martial Atchie?w 
memta," g^ves the following account : " The onset made by the Scota 
was sudden and fierce^ and the resistance made by the Namurois was 
resolute and strong. They stood their ground with undaunted bm* 
?ery, and it was hard to tell for whose side rictory would dedans 
till, by the arrival of Sir WOliam Douglas^ who hasted from the 
Pentland HRlls to the assistance of his countrymen^ she fixed on tbiit 
of the Scots; yet not so fiillyy but that the foreigners made an or* 
derly retreat to Edinburgh ; — ^they fiiced about several times as ooc»* 
non offered, or necessity required, particularly as they entered St 
Mary's Wynd ; and here a Scots knight. Sir David Annand, a mail 
of iscrediUe strength, and no less ooorage^ havii^ received a wound 
from one of the enemy, was thereby so much exasperated, that at 
once exerting all the vigour of his unwearied arms, he gave his ad- 
versary sudi a blow with an axe he had in hfs hand, that the shai^ 
and pondax^UB weapon cdove both man and horse, and fiJlii^ with 
irresistible force to the ground, made a lasting impression upon the 
very stones of the street.** He allows that this story may appear 
incredible ; but being given upon the authority of Fordun, an annal« 
ist of great respectability, who flourished in the year 1360, he had 
no reason to doubt its truth.— >Abbbcromby, vol. 11* p. 47. 


showing favonr to the young Earl, because of his 
affinity to the King of France, restored him and his 
followers to liberty without ransom ; and in order to 
ensure his safety, undertook to convey him to the bor*- 
ders. Having effected this, he, on his return, fell into an 
ambush laid for him by the garrison of Roxburgh, and 
was taken prisoner and carried to England, where he 
remained for about two years.* 

Anthony de Lucy, this same year, was appointed 
Keeper of the English Marches, of Roxbuigb, and the 
neighbouring places on the borders, by King Edward.f 

In the following year, 1836, the troubles in Scotland 
breaking out with redoubled fiiry, Edward, who had 
summoned a convention of his nobles to meet at North* 
ampton, to take into consideration this new war, judg- 
ed his presence so necessary in the north, that, leaving 
his brother, the Earl of Ck>mwall, to superintend their 
deliberations, he hastened to join the army at Perth ; 
and proceeding northwards, he raised the si^re of the 
Castle of Lochindores, in which the Ck>untess of Athole 
(sister to Lord Henry Beaumont, Earl of Buchan) was 
confined ; and having liberated her, he continued his 
route to Murrayshire, where he laid waste the posses- 
sions of the Guardian, and burnt the town of Elgin^ 
sparing only the church, the bishop's seat, and the 
house of the canons. On his return south he laid Aber* 

• Abcrcromby, vol. 11. p. 47- Ridpath, p. 3lY- 
t RotuH Scotiae, vol. I. p. SgS, 


deen in ashes, and, arriving at Perth, he rebuilt the 
fortifications of that town at the expense of the Abbeys 
of St Andrews, Dunfermling, Lindores, Balmerino, Ar- 
broath, and Cupar ; and also gave orders for putting in 
a complete state of repair and defence, the Castles of 
Stirling, Edinburgh, and Roxburgh, in the latter of 
which he placed a strong garrison.* 

This year (1888), King Edward gave orders to Wil- 
liam de Felton, governor of Roxburgh Castle, to keep 
40 men-at-arms instead of 40 light horsemen, to defend 
the Castle.f 

In the year 1 839, the adherents of King David II . 
had been so successful in their measures and operations, 
that the power of Ekiward Baliol was nearly annihila- 
ted, for of all the fortresses or places which had been 
either conquered by King Edward, or given up to him, 
none remained, with the exception of Roxburgh, Edin- 
burgh, Stirling, and some other inconsiderable forts; 
and Baliol, intimidated by such unexpected successes, 
again took refuge in England. Edward, though prin- 
cipally engaged with the war in France, did not lose 
sight of the state of matters in Scotland ; and, conse- 
quently, early in the following year (1340), he made 
such arrangements for the defence of the strong places 
still in his possession, as would ensure their safety, and 
at the same time enable him to carry on active offensive 

• WyntouD, vol. II. p. «06. Camdetiy vol. III. p. 298. Major, 
p. HSU Ridpath, p. 324. 

t Rotuli Scotise, vol. I. p. 56l. 


operatiims. For these purposes the governors of the 
castles, and his nobles, were to raise certain ^piotas of 
men. For instance, the governor of Roxboi^ Castle 
was to furnish, besides what he had for the defence of 
that fortress, sixty men-«t-arms, fifty halberdiers, and 
as many archers, of whidi he was to have the command^ 
to attend the lords appointed to defend the marches. 
A truce, however, concluded on the 25tfa September, be- 
tween England and France, in which Scotland was in- 
cluded, put an end to all hostilities till Midsummer 

Edward being again, in the ensuing year, 1841, in- 
volved in war with France, in consequence of a dispute 
respecting the succession of the Duke of Brittany, the 
Scots took up arms against him in terms of their league 
with the French King, and collected an army on the 
Borders ; but hearing of the approach of Edward with 

* 1S40.— Gordon^ in his Memoirs of the Satherlaod ibiftily, re- 
cords the foUowiDg occurrence at Roxburgh in the year 13M>, which 
we do not find mentioned by any other hbtorian :*-'' While Edward 
IIL was carrying on the siege oi Tourrin in France, William, Earl 
of Sutherland, made an inroad into England, where he did much da^ 
mage, but on his return he fell into an ambush near Roxburgh, which 
the Lord Gray the elder, Robert Muniers, and John Copeland, and 
the English garrison of Roxburgh, had laid for him. After a despe- 
rate battle he was put at first to the worst, but haying rallied his 
men and encouraged them, he returned to the attack, and not only 
beat his enemies, but after this skirmish assaulted the CssUe of Rox* 
burgh, which he took after a furious conflict, killing most of the gar« 
risen ; and, having placed a Scottish garrison in it, returned home 
with his booty. This happened on Easter-day."— -GoBBOir, p. 48. 

Fordun, vol. 11. p. $S2- Abercromby, vol. 11. p. 76. Ridpftth, 
pp. S29-'31. 


a mudi more powerful force, they were intimidated, 
and salt o(Mmiiissioiiers to him at Newcastle to solicit 
a truce for six months. He granted their request, on 
condition, that if King David (who had taken refuge 
in fVance in the year 18S8) should not return within 
ihat time, and personally assert his claim to the crown, 
then the nobles should transfer their allegiance to him. 
In consequence of this truce, Edward celebrated the 
ensuing Christmas at Melrose, and his Lieutenant-Ge- 
neral the Earl of Derby at Roxburgh. On this occa^ 
sion Sir William Douglas, and three other knights, paid 
the Earl a visit, and joined with liim in the festivities 
and martial ^imusements customary at that season, in 
a most cordial and friendly manner.* 

On the 80th of March 1343, the Castle of Roxburgh 
was surprised and taken by the brave and courageous 
Sir Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie. Having waited 
till the darkness of the evening should prevent the gar* 
rison from observing his manoeuvres, and being provi- 
ded with rope-ladders, he scaled the walls, overpowered 
the guards, and got possession of the Castle. For this 
act of distinguished bravery. King David, on his arri- 
val frcmi France, rewarded him, by the appointment 
of Governor of the Castle, and Sheriff of Teviotdale. 

The conferring of these appointments, so justly and 
deservedly, on Sir Alexander Ramsay, gave great <rf- 

• Tyrell, vol. III. p.>85. Abercromby^ vol. II. p. 76. Maitland> 
vol. I. p. 5S2. Ridpath^ p. 332. Chalmers^ vol. IL p. 110. 


fence to Lord William Douglas, who had previoiisljr 
held the oflice of Sheriff; and he was detenEuned- to 
seize the first opportunity of wreaking his vengeanoa 
upon him. Unfortunately, such an opportunity too soon 
presented itself. While Ramsay was holding a court in 
the church at Hawidc, Douglas entered with an armed 
retinue, dragged him from the bench, and afiter having 
wounded him, and killed some of his servants, he cacw 
ried him to Hermitage Castle, where he was starved to 

The knowledge of this barbarous transaction being 
communicated to the king, he was justly fired with in- 
dignation, and determined to punish the perpetrator of 
such an atrocious deed. Douglas, aware of this, fled to 
the mountains, where he concealed himself for a coasi- 
derable time, until, through the intercession of the 
Steward, the king^s resentment was assuaged, and Dou- 
glas recalled, and again received into favour, and rein- 
stated in his former office.f 

* " It is related^ that abore the place of Ramsay's coofinemeat^ 
there lay a heap of corn^ and that with some grains which dropped 
down through the crevices of the floor, he supported a miserable 
life for seventeen days. Thus perished one of the braTest and wor- 
thiest, and most fortunate leaders of the Scottish nation, to the eyer- 
lasting infamy of him who perpetrated the murder, and to the dis- 
grace of that feeble government which durst not avenge it.'^—HAii.Es, 
vol. II. pp. 253-4. 

f Fordun, vol. IL p. 334. Major, p. 243. Holinshed, vol. I. (Scot.), 
p. 239. Wyntoun, vol. II. pp. 251-2. Buchanan, Lib. IX. Godscroft, 
p. 7S. Ridpath, p. 332. Hailes, vol. II. p. 253. Chalmers, vol. II. 
p. 110. 


The distressed state of the country, through the an^ 
bitious designs and repeated invasions of the King of 
England, being fully made known to King David on his 
arrival in Scotland^ (June 2, 1342,) he speedily raised an 
army, with the intent of avenging its Mnrongs upon the 
enemy ; and liaving advanced considerably into their 
territory, and acquired a great deal of booty, on his re- 
turn, a sortee was made upon his rear by the garrison 
of Wark Castle, who took a large portion of it. Incenr 
sed at this, he determined to lay siege to the castle, 
which, on the approach of a superior English army, he 
abandoned, and retired to the Forest of Jedburgh, fol- 
lowed by the English. Here, however, as they could 
not attack him, a truce was concluded for two years^ 
which was afterwards prolonged for a yeat more ; and 
nothing material Occurred between the two kingdoms 
till the year 1346, wh^i the arms of Edward being 
completely victorious in France^ the King of Scotkoid 
was prevailed upon by the French monarch to declare 
war against England, who promised to send him 15,000 
Genoese troops to his assistance. 

Edward was employed in the siege <^ Calais when 
he was apprized of David's intention to invade Eng- 
land, and sent messengers to him, earnestly requesting 
that he would not enter his territories in a hostile man«- 
ner ; at the same time offering to restore the Castle .of 
Berwick, and even to deliver up Edward Baliol, wlio 
had been the cause of all the late wars, to him^aa the 
price of his forbearance. In order to deliberate on this 


oflfer^ a pariuunent was Bmnrnanad to meet at Fsrth^ 
which, throogfa the inflttenoe of David, detcnniiied cm 
the continuance of the war, and the invasicm of JESag* 
hmd. David'beuig thns sanctioned^ levied a great army^ 
which he ordered to rendearous at Perth. This maxiy 
was considerably reinforced on ita arriifttl at £diB* 
borgh, and amounted to 3000 armed men, 80*000 
horsemen, and 5000 Genoese €ro8s4x>w-meii, beaidfia 
Frmcfa auxiliaries. From Edinburgh they mardied 
to Roxburgh Castle, and arrived on the bordens. The 
whcde was divided into three divisions ; the first waa 
OHnmanded by Lord Robert Stewart, and the Earl of 
March ; the second, by the Earl of Murray and Lord 
Douglas; and the third was nnder the command of the 
king himself. 

^The army, thus arranged, entered Cumberiandt and 
tocdc the Castle of Liddel by storm. They continued 
their march to Lanercost, and having dcstco3red the 
abbey,- entered Noatbumberland, laying waste the eoimi- 
try as they went along. David, however, preserved ibe 
Towers of Hexham, Corbridge, Durham, and Dariingw 
ton, cQOcaiving they might be of service to him as de- 

To oppose this invasion, the Englidi r^ency, at die 
head of which was the queen (Philippa), summoned all 
that were fit for service to appear in arms fiir thede- 
fence of their country. This army amounted in all to 
dbout 16^000 imen, and was put under the ccmunand ef 


Lord Parcy, WilUain, ArdbbiBhop of York, TlioiiiM» 
Bishop (^ Lincoln, and Edward Baliol. 

The English arrived much sooner than the JBcotdi 
expected, and made an attack upon some cavafay sent 
out to forage, under the command of Douglas, whom 
thef defeated and put to flight The Scot<^, in retunt, 
attacked the Eng^iiEAi, but mapie no impression on them. 
Thcae unfertuiutte drcumstaneeg did not, however^ di»* 
courage theldng, who commanded a charge to he souoA- 
ed, when the English archers were attadced Jbjr the 
broadswords and battle-axes of the Scotch, with sudi 
furjr and success, that, had not Baliol ad vanoed with Uft 
cavaky to their assistance, in all probafailitf the battte 
wouldihave terminated in David's favour. Although "die 
English had now evidently the advantage, yet King Dsh 
vid made every effort to recover the fortune of the day, 
andfought with theutmostbravopy till mostof thenoUes 
and otibers around him were slain ; when, unwilling to 
survive iso fatal a loss, he rushed forward into the heat 
of the battle, and being overpowered, was taken pri- 
soner (not without a most gallant resistance) by Cope- 
land, a Northumbrian genttenan ; and by 'l|im con- 
veyed to the strong castle of Ogle, in Northumbaiiaadt 
of which he waa governor. 

The consequences of this disastrous battle^ ware tndy 
distressing to Scotland. The castles ci Boilm^ and 
Hermitage immediatdy surraiidered ; a^d thecenntiis 
of Teviotdale, March, Liddisd^le, and Lauder^al^ nfere 

250 ' HISTORY OF KKI.80. 

delivered up. The coiinties of Annandale and Liddig- 
dale suffered greatly from Baliol, who destroyed all the 
country round about, and also laid waste the county of 

The castle of Roxburgh, on this oocasion» appears to 
have surrendered by capitulation ; as an order of King 
Edward and council, dated February 1, lS46-7f di- 
rects, that the terms made with those who gaveupflie 
castle oi Roxburgh, should be strictly obsenred in 
every particular.* 

Copeland, who had the honour to take the King of 
fiootland prisoner, having refused to deliver him to 
Queen Philippa, was summoned to Cakus to answer to 
Edward for this act of disobedience to the King^s re- 
gency ; when he gave to the Kii^ sudi satisfiustoiy 
jreasons for his conduct, that he created him a km^gfkt 
banMeretf with a grant of land to the value of L.500 
sterling per annum, and sent him home with orders to 
deliver his prisoner to the Queen, who had him con- 
veyed to the Tower of London«f Copeland was also 
made Governor of Roxburgh Castle, where in the fol- 
lowing year4 1848, having collected a considerable force 
to oppose William, LordDouglas, who had over-nin Te- 
viotdale, Ettrick Forrest, and Tweeddale, and driven 
the English out of them ; the men of Teviotdale joined 

♦ Fordun, toI. II. p. 348. Major, p, 244. BuchanaD, lib. IX. 
BoetiUB, ToL 11. p. 443. Maitkmd^ toI. I. pp. 557-ia Bidpath, p|^ 
336-9. Chalmers, Tol. II. p. 110. Rotuli Sootis, toL L p. 68& 

t See Appendix, No. VIII. 

X Rymer, torn. V. pp. 551-557- Ridpath, p. 33S. 


Douglas, which obliged Clopeland to retreat to the 
castle, afiter having suffered the loss of a great many 
of his. men.* 

Edward, from many ordinances bearing date at Rox- 
burgh Castle, appears to have resided there the greater 
part of the month of Januarys 1355.f 

This same year, war breaking out between England 
and France, Edward hastened to that country to secure 
and protect his conquests ; and the Scots, instigated 
by the French King, having refused to prolong the 
treaty^ which expired on June 24, immediately invaded 
England. They took the town of Norham and burnt 
it, and on their return, surprised Berwick in the night, 
which they also took. Edward, informed of these events, 
left his army in France, and came with the utmo9t 
haste to direct the operations in Scotland. He arrived 
at Durham on the; 2Sd of November, and having sum- 
moned his nobles to assemble with their forces, at 
Newcastle, by the 1st of January 1S56, he advanced 
to Berwick. The Scots, informed of his ap{nx)ach, and 
aware they cotdd not defend the town against the im- 
mense force he was bringing against them, abandoned 
it, after having burnt the town, destroyed the walls, 
and plundered it of every valuable they could carry off. 
Edward, after taking possession, ordered the forti- 
fications to be repaired, and while his orders were in 

* Fordun, vol. II. p. 346. Boetius^ vol. II. p. 444. WyntoitDj 
vol. 11. p. 269. Godscroft, p. 82. 
t Rotuli Scotie, vol. I. pp. 787-9- 


: ' vv I 1 1 1 1 «,!;.» 

execution, he went to Rozbui^h Gastte, 
by liis vassal Edward Baliol; who, on theSOth of Jar 
nuaiy, again made him a formal surrender of all his 
right and title to the throne of Scotland, by presenting 
to him the golden crown, with earth and stones of the 
kingdom, (the usual tokens of infefting a person, or 
putting him in full and complete possession of any pro- 
perty,) at the same time praying him ^ to deliyer him 
from his enemies, the Scots, the most iniquitous of all 
naticms, who had thrust him out that he might not 
reign over them.** He also, by a separate deed, made 
over to him all his patrimonial estates, and in return 
received from Edward the grant of an yearly pension 
of L.SOOO sterling, which, however, does not appear 
ever to have been paid, at least not r^^nlarly, or to 
tibat amount. During Edward's stay at Roxburgh, he 
was for some time amused by a proposal of the Earl of 
Douglas, and some others of the Scottish nobles, to 
submit to his authority ; which allowed them time to 
convey their valuables out of his reach. On finding 
himself thus duped, he advanced rapidly into Scotland, 
and laid waste the whole country as far as Hadding- 
ton ; and expecting there to meet his fleet, which he 
had ordered to the Forth with a supply of provisions, 
(the country through which he had passed being com- 
pletely destitute, grain of every sort having either been 
carried off or destroyed by the inhabitants,) but which 
had been completely dispersed, and many of the vessds 
destroyed by a violent storm, he returned in diiKgust to 


England. Soon after his arrival in his capital, s^i- 
ble that he was needlessly wasting m^ and money in 
attempting to subdue Scotland, he had recourse to ccm- 
dilatory measures ; and therefore issued a jirociamaM^ 
tioii, bearing date Mairch 15, addressed to the CtiODi- 
cellor and stjqperior Officers 6f Berwick aiid Boxbmrgii, 
and to all his connnanders in Sbotland^* ordering! theor 
to publish the same in tike usnal way, setting forth tint 
Scotland was to be governed by the saiine laws and cus- 
toms as hitherto ; and also declaring that he hsAd nof 
intention of ever making any diange or alteritic^ is 
any of theuLf 

A treaty was, in the year 1357» concluded at the 
church of the Friars MincM^ at Roxburgh, by which the 
lands on the borders were to continue in the hands of 
the present possessors.^ In the year 13599 Edward 
issued orders foi^ repairing the Castle of Roxburgi^ 
which do not appear to have been carried iihto effect $ 
for in the next year, 1860,^ another order was issued^ 
causiji^ strict examination to be made intof the defectirf 
in the walls and buildings of the Castle, which by a 
future order, in the year 1S61, were put into a coi&i- 
plete state of repair. || 

* Aj^iendix, No. IX. 

f Rymer, voL II, p. 846. Wyntoun, vol. II. p. 274. Fordum 
vol. n. p. S53. LeJand, Vol. H. p. 566. ttolinshea, vol. I. (Scot.) 
p. 842. Godficroft, p. 83. Mattland, vol. I. p. 545. Ridpadi, pp 
342-848. Chalmers, vol. II. p. 110. 

i Cialmcrs, vol. ll. p. 106. § Rotuli Scotiie, vol. I. p. 84^. 

II Roitdi 9ooliib» toI. I. pp. 849^861- 


The capdyity of David II. had produoed the seriea of 
wan with England since the year 1946 ; and although 
many attempts by n^otiation had been made to pro- 
core his liberty, Edward would agree to no accommo- 
dation, till, after haying received the comfdete renunci- 
ation of the kingdom by Baliol, he found there was 
scarcely a possibility of reducing, either by force or 
conoessicm, the nobles of Scotland to subjection. Desi- 
rous, however, of preserving the appearance of libenu 
lity, he consented, in the year 1847, to the appoint- 
ment of commissioners to treat on this point, who 
met annually, (notwithstanding hostilities were still 
canying on,) till the year 1851, without coming to any 
arrangement, except as to the sum to be paid for hk 
ransom ; the other stipulations being so humiliating, 
that the Scottish Parliament would not assent to them. 
In the year 1351, however, EJdward conceded so for, 
that he should be permitted, on delivering a certain 
number of hostages, to go to Scotland, to endeavour, by 
his personal presence, to raise the sum stipulated, and 
prevail on his nobles to consent to the other terms. 
This being agreed to, David (having left a great many 
of his principal nobility as security for his again re- 
turning to England as a prisoner at Easter, next year, 
should he not be able to effect his purpose) proceeded to 
his capital; but, after folding that all his influence could 
not induce his nobles to listen to the terms proposed, he 
returned to England at the time ajppointed, and wa6 
again imprisoned in the Tower of London, and the 


same farce of meetings of commissioners continued 
yearly, till 1854) when it was definitively settled that 
the sum of 90,000 merks should be given for his Ub^ 
ration, payable by yearly instalments of 10,000imeria» 
for nine years. David, on this agreement being con«* 
eluded, was conveyed to Newcastle, where Eklwalrd haA 
summoned all the nobility in that quaitefito.astemble^ 
in order to witness the delivery of the Scottish King^} 
but the government of Scotland refusing to ratify thia 
arrangement, he was again remanded to his old lodging 
ia the Tower, and the war between England and 
France breaking out, and Baliol having renounced the 
Crown of Scotland in favour of Edward, caused ^ im«-: 
prisonment to be more rigorous than it had yet beeik; 
In the. year 1357, however, it was finally settled that 
David should be released, (Edward finding the Scottish 
nobles inflexible with regard to the other stipulations 
on which he had. so pertinaciously insisted,) simply rat 
the payment of a ransom, whidi was now raised i to 
100,000. merks sterling, payable in ten yeara. A trum 
between. the two kingdoms was accordingly concluded 
for that term ; and twenty hostages delivered to the 
English for the due. fulfflment of this contract David 
being thus set at liberty, was received by hid slitfecsta 
with every demonstration of joy and affection. 'Thi| 
immense sum, howiever^ demanded^. and agreed to, £oR 
his ransom, it was foimd impossible, in the present im- 
poverished state of Scotland, to pay ; and acco^pdingly* 
after one or two yearly instalments had been mad^, it 


Was idimd neeessary to mdce applic8tioii to tiM oonrt 
of Eilgtatid to raduoe the jrearly paymentd, anl tocoE^ 
toMli the final period of the balanoa To this Edwanft 
eolDBented $ but this appHcaitioii led to the coDsidevatiett 
of « measure for the umoti of the two kk^ omar pro- 
^Med in the course of the year ISfiS^ by King Edward 
to Bavidy and agreed to by him» but which thefihooltirii 
PariiamNit instantly rejected. The agreement betwea» 
tie twb monarchs was, that in case King Darid sionhl 
die without hdrs^of his own body, then Edward^ King' 
of England, or his heirs, should succeed to the crowa 
ofSootland. This being ratified by the Seottfeh Par- 
tiamsBt, the balance of David's ransom would be re- 
mitted ; he would be put into ininEiediate posaession of 
dl his property in England, as also of the towns ami 
oesOes of Roxburgh and Berwick-i^on-Twteedy With tke 
8«rro«EHtog country ; that the govermnents of ScotlsBd 
andSi^land (stemld be still preserved ae|larate^ with m 
munber of minor arraz^emeats uaoieoessaiy to be here 
inserted. This, as noticed abovs^ was mmninioiislyMjeet- 
ed by the Scottish parliament ; and although tbefleeta 
w^^stiD unable to pay the ransom of their KsHgr BO war 
took place between the oountrSes on this accounti* for 
we find that, in tke year lS67f connnissiMeri were apu 
pointed to meet a* Rosburgh, to treat for die ootitiMfr* 
tien of the truee entered into at the tune of Duvid's 

* 0<»UMft, ^ S4. If ikliDd, vol. r. ^ 550. Abeitrwiib^, yd. 
\\. pp. 130.1. Ri^Mlli, pp^S45-& 


release, now on the point of expiring, and the same re« 
peated in the year 1S68,* because, from inundaticms 
and other obstacles, the Scots commissioners had been 
prevented from proceeding to England to have the fw-* 
mer agreement ratified by the King-f 

In IS699 war again broke out between England and 
France ; and apprehensive, lest, through French influ- 
ence, the Scots might again be induced to assist his ene- 
my, Edward took the precaution of sending a number of 
troops to the borders, to withstand any invasion that 
might be attempted; and at the same time, strongly reinf- 
forced the garrisonsof Roxburgh,Berwick,and the other 
fortresses in that quarter. In the same year, he granted 
liberty to the burgesses, &c. of Roxbui^h and Berwick 
to carry on their trades, in the same manner, and with 
the same privileges, as when under the Kings of Scot- 
land. This year, also, a truce was agreed upon be- 
tween the kingdoms for Jaurteen years; one of the 
conditions of which was, that the Scottish subjects who 
had possessions in the county of Roxburgh, but which 
at this time were occupied by the English, were to re- 
ceive one-half of the prints derived from these posses- 

Although the terms of the above-mentioned treaty 
were calculated to promote conciliation between the in« 
habitants of the borders, still such a d^ree of animositgr 

• Rymer, torn. VI. p. 478. t Ibid. torn. VI. p. 585. 

J Ibid. torn. VI. pp. 6«0,682. Abercromby, vol. 11. p. IS9. Rid^* 
path, pp. 846, 847. 



existed, that often produced quarrels destmctire of 
the peace of both countries. One, in particular^ o^ 
cnrred in the year 1S71> which led to very serious 
and disastrous consequences. At the annual fair of 
Roxburgh, in the month of August, which the Scot- 
tish inhabitants in that quarter were accustomed to 
attend, an affray took place, in which a domestic (or» aa 
some authors say, a chamberlain) of the Earl of Maich, 
waskilled by the English. The grossest insult had thus 
been offered to the earl ; and as he was impatient fcnr re- 
dress, he immediately sent a herald to Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland, Warden of the Borders, requiring him 
to give up the murderers, that the injury done by them 
might not pass unpunished ; but Henry, notwithstand- 
ing the earrs importunity, treated his demand with 
derision. The Earl of March took no further notice 
of the matter at the time, but, stifling his resent- 
ment, he waited for the return of the same £Eur in the 
following year, when, a great number of Ei^lish being 
present with their merchandise, he, in conjunction with 
his brother, the Earl of Murray, came suddenly upon 
the town, slew every male, carried off their goods, and 
reduced the town to ashes. The borderers, glad of 
any pretext for commencing hostilities against the 
Scots, (a pretext, as some writers say, whidi was court* 
ed by the English — the inhabitants of the borders be- 
ing so much accustomed to live by plunder, that a 
state of peace reduced them to indigence,) immediately 
mustered all their strength ; and determined, as they 
avowed, to obtain redress by the destruction of the 


Earl of March's property, advanced into Scotland, in 
their route, however, they regarded no property, nei- 
ther did they spare the innocent inhabitants ; but with 
rrientless fury put all to the sword, male and female, 
old and young. With distinguished barbarity, they 
ravaged the property of Sir John Gordon, which hap- 
pened to lie contiguous to that of the Earl of March, 
spoiling his estate, and carrying away a number of 
prisonera. Sir John, burning to revenge the injuries 
thus inhumanly committed, advanced into England at 
the head of a numerous body of men, killing many, 
Bsad taking a number of prisoners, besides seizing a 
large quantity of booty. On his return he was attack- 
ed near Carham, by Sir John Lilbum, with a very su- 
perior force. The battle which ensued was fdugfat 
with the utmost obstinacy and determined courage. 
Five times were the Scots that day on the point of be^ 
ii^ vanquished, and as often did they return to the 
contest, and were victorious. At length the English 
were completely discomfited, and Sir John Lilbum, 
their commander, with his brother, and a number of 
luB followers, made prisoners, and brought to Scotland. 
Sfar John Gordon likewise preserved all his booty.* 

During the remaining years of Edward III., who 
paid the debt of nature on the 21st day of June, lS77f 
nothing occurred at Roxburgh requiring notice; but 

* Boetius^ vol. II. p. 45S. Buchanan^ lib. IX. c. 40, 41. Major, 
p. 262. Abercromby, vol. II. p. 171* Maitland, rol. i. |r. 558. 


immediately on the accession of his grandscm, Ricfi- 
ard II., new disturbances occurred on the borderCr 
At the fair of Roxburgh this year, another quarr^ 
took place between the Scots and English, which ended 
in the Scots again setting fire to the town. To avenge 
this, the Earl of Northumberland, still bearing in minA 
the former occurrence, advanced into Scotland at the 
head of 10,000 men, to obtain satisfaction of the Easl 
of March, whose lands he ravaged during the space of 
three days ; and, having thus accomplished his purpose^ 
returned into England.* 

At a conference held in the year 1388, between John^ 
Duke of (xaunt, (Earl of Lancaster,) and the Earl of 
Carrick, it was agreed, if possible, to bring about a 
lasting peace between the two kingdoms ; and having 
submitted the terms to both monarchs, it was fixed, 
that when they had duly considered them, the King of 
Scotland should signify his pleasure on this point ta 
the King of England, at Roxburgh ; and that the King^ 
of England should do the same to the King of Soot- 
land, at Melrose, f 

It does not appear, however, that this n^^otiatimt 
proceeded farther at this time, and that a truce merely 
for twelve months was concluded ; for hostilities again 
broke out the next year between the two kingdoms. 
The Scots were successful in taking the Castle of Loch- 

* Stow, p. 229. Maitland, vol. I. p. 559. Ridpath, p. 949. 
f Abercromby, rol. II. p. 1S4. Rymer, torn. VIK p« 405v 


nmben, which surrendered from want of provisions ; 
and the King of England, fearing lest the Castle of 
Roxburgh might also fall into their hands, committed 
the custody of this fortress to Lord Graystock, a noble 
and wealthy person, much famed for his military skill, 
who immediately set out to assume the command of it ; 
carrying with him immense supplies of provisions, be- 
sides his own household goods, conoeivii^ they could 
be nowhere more secure from the enemy. The Earl of 
March, informed by his spies of his day of setting out, 
and the route of his army, laid an ambush for him, and 
suddenly attacking his long train of equipage, consist* 
ing of soldiers, waggons, and a promiscuous multitude, 
captured the whole without any resistance. Lord (}ray- 
stock he carried to the Castle of Dunbar, where, that 
same evening, he had the mortification to be served at 
supper out of his own drinking-cups. At the same 
time, the Earl of Lancaster invaded Scotland, and took 
Edinburgh, which he spared, on account of the kind 
treatment he had experienced there on a former visit. 
He then returned to England by the borders, and ha- 
ving committed the conmiand of this district to the 
Earl of Northumberland, he allowed him the sum of 
Lf.4000 for the maintenance of Roxburgh, Berwick, &c. 
for the space of six weeks.^ 

• Rymer, toin. VII. p. 425. Boetius^ vol. II. p. 457. Fordun, 
vol. II. p. 397. Major, p. 264. Godscroft, pp. 90-95. Buchanan, 
lib. IX. Holinshed, vol. I. (Scot.) p. 247* Maitland, vol. I. p. 564. 
Abercroniby, vol. II. p. 185. 


Tbe war between the two oountritae still eontinningt 
FjRuioe, in the fi^owiog year, (1885,) sent aaeistanee to 
Seotlandy both in men and money. An army was a0« 
oordingly raised^ which proceeded to the bordeva ; but 
the Eogliah, under the personal command of the king, 
so greatly outstripped the Scots and French in num^ 
hers,* that they prudently declined giving them battle, 
aQd retreated before them, taking care to cause the in* 
habitants to withdraw, and carry with them eversrthing 
which could be of senrioe to the enemy. In oonseqosnee 
of this wise precaution, Robert soon found it necessary 
to retrace his steps, after losing by starration, and the 
sudden attacks of flying parties of the Soots, a great 
number of his men. At the same time, another army of 
Scots, under the Carls of Fife and March, had invndfd 
England, and devastated the country as £u* as New- 
eastley carrying off much booty, with which they got 
safe hame.t 

The season not being far advanced when the Engt- 
lish retreated, the Scots were inlent on recovering the 
Castle of Roxbui^h, and pressed this measure upon 
their alliea the Frendi, expecting to derive much bene* 
fit from their superior skill in conducting sieges ; but 
the French commander, making it a stipulation that the 
town, if taken, should be given up to his master, in re- 
muneration for the ample assistance he had afforded, 

* 1385.— On this occasion King Edward ordered the garrisoii of 
Roxburgh to join the army. Rotuli Scotia;^ vol. XL p. S(K 
t Buchanan, lib. IX. Godscroft, p. 94* Ridpath, p. 355, 


die idea of lajring siege to it was abandoned Iqr the 
Scots; and the French soon afterwards returned to 
their own country. Abercromby states, that the Fieneh 
did not leave Scotland this year, and that another at* 
tempt was made to take Roxburgh next year, whidi 
did not succeeds 

By a truce ocmcluded in the year 1897, it was agreed, 
in order to afford time for arranging a lasting peace be« 
twem the two nations, that commissioners should meet 
for this puipose on the 11th of next March, at some 
town on the borders that should be fixed upon ; and 
that a strict peace by sea and land should be obsenred 
till that time, and fcnrty days thereafter, under the pe* 
nalty ci instant repayment ci double the damage done ; 
and that in this case the complaints of the Scots should 
be sent to the castle of Roxbur^, and those of tlie 
English to Kelso.f Agreeably to this arrangement, 
at a meeting of the commissioners of both kii^doms^ 
in the ensuing year, 1898, a bill of Gomfdaint was 
presented against the son ci the Earl of Douglas, who^ 
with Sir William Stewart and others, had broken down 
the bridge of Roxburgh, burnt and plundered the towD, 
made a breadi in the wall, and burnt the hay and fudL 
to the damage of L.8000 sterling, contrary to the tentts 
of the truce. To this charge Sir William Stewart, who 
was present, answered, that as to the breaking of the 

* ForduD, vol. II. p. 401. Buchanan^ lib. IX. Major^ p. £65. 
Godscroft^ p. 95. Ridpath^ p. 356. Abercromby^ vol. II. p. I90. 
t Rymer, torn. VIIL p. 18. 


faridgi^ md the bomiiig the hajr and fuel^ he did It hf 
ofder of his lord, although he was not ready to aaiert 
that it was justifiable ; but as to the burning and spoiling 
the town, this was done contrary to his orders, and for 
that he was willing to make restitution* The commia- 
sioners, however, did not take upon themsdves to de» 
cide in this matter, leaving it to the judgment of their 
masters; or, as some say, the commissioners who 
should succeed them. Of this decision, however, then 
is no record in history.* 

The bridge of Roxburgh was again broken down, 
and the town burnt, in the year 1411, by Gavin, a son 
of the Earl of March, and William Douglas of Drum* 
lanrig, but whether in revenge for any dedsion given 
in the above-^nentioned affair, we are unable to asesvu 

James L of Scotland, having been captured by the 
English, on his voyage to France, in the year 1406, was 
detained prisoner by King Henry V., and even forced 
to accompany him in his eiqpeditions to that country. 
During his captivity, the kingdom still continued at 
war with England ; and, in the year 1417> the Soots 
having refused to enter into a treaty, although urged 
thereto by King Henry, as soon as he was passed over 

* Rymer, torn. VII. p. 58. Abercromby, vol. II. p. SOlr. RidpRth, 
p. 365. 

t Fordun, toI. II. p. 4i7. Buchanan^ lib. X. Holinshed, vd. I. 
(Scot) p. 257. Ridpath, p. 380. Henry, toI. V. p.2Sl. Godscroft 
p. 124. 


to France, raiied an army, and, according to sokne ao« 
counts, invested Roxburgh. This, however, is doubt* 
ful ; but it is evident that they encamped in the neighr 
bourhood,, and there beat a very considerable Englidi 
force. A short time after they invaded England ; but oq 
learning that an army, at least 100,000 strong, wad on 
iti^ march to oppose them, they retreated ; nor were 
they pursued by the English, who judged it better to 
maintain a defensive, than carry on an offensive war.* 

Roxburgh Castle having fallen into decay, King 
Henry V., in the year 1419» ordered it to be complete^ 
ly repaired, and put into a defensible state.f 

Henry V. of England died in the year 1422, in 
France, and on the accession of his son, Henry VI., to 
the throne, being an infant, his unde, the Duke of Bed- 
ford, became Regent of France, and the Duke of Glou* 
joester, Regent of England. The war between England 
and France still continuing, the Scots, in order to make 
a diversion in favour of the latter power, raised two 
armies, with one of which the governor of the king- 
dom (King James being still a prisoner) invested Bar- 
wide ; while the other, under the command of the Earl 
of Douglas, laid si^e to Roxburgh. Both of these en- 
terprizes failed ; and the Scots, who had always been 
accustomed, in one way or other, to derive some benefit 

♦ Fordun, vol. II. p. 449. Hidpath, p. 385. Henry, vol. V. 
p. 231- 

f Rotuli Scotiw, vol. II. p. 224. 

fl66 HISTOBT OF K£L80. 

from thflif ezpeditioiit, deaominated them, in ridkiile, 
<' the Dirtin Raid.'** 

The releaae of JameB I. from his detention in Engu 
hmd, by a tareaiy condnded on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 14239 was fixed for thei month of Maidi in the fol* 
kywing jrear, on the condition of L.40,000 steriii^ being 
paid in the conrse ci eix years, as a remuneration ftr 
his maintenance, and the expense of his education ; and 
a truce between the two countries, to last for seven 
jrears, being twelve months beyond the time of pay- 
ment, was agreed to at the same time ; and also, a 
treaty of marriage between him and Jane, daughter of 
the Earl of Sraierset, a cousin of King Henry VL, for 
whose portion the last payment of 10,000 medka of tlie 
above sum was to be remitted. The marriage aoooid- 
ing^y took place in the month of February, and early 
in April following, he arrived with his queen in 8oo(^ 
land, attoded by an immense retinue of Scots and 
English nobles, whom he treated with princdy mag- 
nificence. But by this expense^ and the sum to be paid 
for his ransom, (although it did not receive that name,) 
he laid such a debt upon the country, that all classes 
of his subjects were filled with discontent. The peace, 
however, which the kingdom enjoyed for twelve years 
after his return, (the first truce, for seven years, being 
prolonged for five more,) enabled him to attend, without 

* Holinshed, roL I. (Soot.) pt 259* Abercromby, toL IL p. 858. 
Ridpatb^ p. 388. 


distraction, to the internal government of the country, 
which it washisomstajitstudy to amend and toimpnyra; 
for during that period many wise and salutary laws were 
enacted, and many useful arts introduced and eneoti* 
raged ; justice was administered in a strict, regulai% 
and impartial manner ; his proud and haugh^ baraoa 
were reduced to a proper subjection to their soToreiga, 
and the ferocious Highlanders and Islanders hroug^tH 
yield obedience to the laws of the realm. Thus he i«h 
gained the affection and regard of his subjects; and 
the dissatisjhction so general in the beginning of hia 
reign, gradually changed into veneration and esteem. 

The tranquillity which had so long been preserved, 
and under which the kingdom had so greatly profiljpttv 
ed, drew near to a dose, as did the life of this valuable 
monarch. A contract of marriage had been eondudad 
in the year 1428, between the Dauphin of France and 
the eldest daughter of King James, to whom he was to 
give, as her dowry, 6000 men, to be sent along with 
her to France in ships provided by the French govers* 
ment. In the year 1436, an embassy arrived to daim 
the fulfilment of this contract ; when the English go- 
vernment, aware that so close a ecmnexion between 
these two powers would be exceedingly detrimental te 
its interests on the continent, espedally as the dowry 
of the princess was to be paid in men instead of mcmagr, 
sent Lord Scroop ambassador to Scotland, with iH1]qpo* 
«als for the marriage of the princess with the King of 
England, making the most tempting oflers to indiiee 


the ioDg and parliament to agree to this match. Tbm- 
ofEoB were— ^ a perpetual peace between the two oomt- 
triea ; the restitution of Roxburgh and Berwick ; and 
all that the Scots 'anciently possessed in En^and, as 
fiur as tiiie Re-cross in Yorkshire.'* These offers the 
Scottish parliament rejected ; and, in revenge* an Engi- 
Ush army, under the command of the £!arl of Nor^- 
thumberland, invaded Scotland. This force was met 
by a Scottish army equally strong, commanded by the 
Barl of Angus and Sir Adam Hepburn, at Popperdeo, 
in Northumberland, when a desperate battle, which 
was fought with the most determined bravery on both 
sides, ensued. Victory at last declared for the Scots. 
The loss of the English amounted to 1500 killed, 
among whom were 40 knights, while the SeMs lart 
coiy about 200 men. Elated with this success, the 
king determined to lay si^e to Roxburgh ; and eoL* 
lecting a very great army of all his seculars, (shepherds, 
and those exempted by law, excepted,) to the amcnmt 
of 200,000 men, besides carriages, he marched thither, 
and sat down before it about the beginning of August. 
The king prosecuted the siege with great vigour, and 
the castle, tiiiough bravely defended, could not have 
held out much longer. It is even said, that the governor. 
Sir Ralph Gray, had come to the resoluti<m to offer 
terms of surrender, when the Queen of Scotland. sud*^ 
denly arriving in the camp, gave information to the 
king of a conspiracy formed against his life« In con- 
sequence of this intelligence, he immediately rawed the 


siege, disbanded his army, and went to the convent of 
the Dominicans at Perth, to investigate into the oooi«* 
spiracy ; and there he was murdered, on the 81st dajr 
of February, 1 437. * 

In the course of the year 1438, a truce was entered 
into between the two kingdoms, which lasted for niii0 
years. By the terms of this truce, the soldiers, and 
others residing in the town and castle of Roxburgb, 
and the English repairing thither, were to have the 
free use of the commons in their neighbourhood, £at 
grass, hay, fuel, &c. ; and this truce had nearly lasted 
the full time, when, on the marriage of James II. with 
Mary of Guelders, in 1 447)1 the English broke it, and 
invaded Scotland at two different points. One army, 
under the Earl of Salisbury, burned the town of Dum* 
fries ; the other, under the Earl of Northumberland, the 
town of Dunbar. But this war was of short duration ; 

* Fordun, vol. II. p. 498. 500. 502. Boetius, vol. If. p« 505. 
Holinshed, rol. I. (Scot.) p. 866. BuchanaD, lib. X. Maithai, 
vd. I. p« 6l2. Abercromby, v«l. II. p. 296. Ridpath^ pp. S99r^ 
401. Henry, vol. V. p. 231. 

1437. — It 18 necessary here to notice some disagreement between 
dtfi^rent authors respecting the transactions under this date. Some, 
as L.e8lie and Boethius, place them in 1432, while others^ with morp 
probability, assign to them the date we have given ; and Abercromby, 
calculating upon the change of the 3rear, which, from being formerly 
reckoned from the 25th of March, was now changed to the 111 of 
January : — this, by his calculation, places the siege of Roxbur^ 
by King James in 1437, and his murder in 1438. — ^ABERCROmnr, 
vol. II. p. 298. 

f Rymer, torn. X. p. 688. 


the Soots having obtained a great victory over the 
English on the banks of the Solway Friths the latter 
i^greed to conclude a truce on the same terms, which 
was accordingly done in the month of July, 1449.* 

This truce, which was at first only conduded for 
forty days, was afterwards extended to the 15th of No« 
vember, when another was entered into, (insuring, how- 
ever, the same privileges to the garrison and town of 
Roxburgh,) to continue for no definite time, but only so 
long as either king might choose to observe it ; with 
this stipulation, that the party wishing to put an end 
to it was to give 180 days* notice to the other party, 
before his subjects should commence hostilities. 

The Earl of Douglas, in the year 1452, having 
been discovered canying on a correspondence with the 
English court, for assistance in a projected rebellion 
against his sovereign, the king required his presenoe 
at Stirling, where he refused to appear, unless a safe 
conduct and protection were granted to him under the 
great seal ; which being complied with, he repaired thi- 
ther with a numerous retinue. The king, after enter- 
taining him most magnificently at supper, took him 
aside into a private diamber, and remonstrated with 
him respecting his traitorous conduct, which he re- 
quested him to discontinue. The earl, conscious per- 
haps oi the influence he possessed in the kingdom. 

* Rymer, torn. XL p. 244. Buchanan^ lib. XI. Abercroniliy^ 
vol. II. pp. 342, 34>S. 


(which, in fact, the king himself dreaded,) replied m 
very irritating language, which so provoked the king^ 
that, drawing his dagger, he plunged it into hk hearty 
and killed him on the spot. The commission of this 
deed gave great and general offence ; and the imme- 
diate consequence was, that the earl's brother^ his sue^ 
cessor, with his adherents, took to arms. This re« 
hellion, however, was soon crushed ; and pardon be* 
ing granted by the king, the present earl was received 
into favour, and early in the following year was sent 
ambassador into England, to n^otiate the prolongs^ 
tion of the existing truce ; which he accomplished, ob* 
taining the same privileges for Roxburgh and Berwick 
as had been granted in it. 

Although Douglas had been restored to the finrour 
of his sovereign, yet he meditated another rebellion, 
which he commenced in the same year, J 45S ; but be* 
ing unsuccessful, he made his retreat into England, 
where he remained till the year 1455, when he received 
from King Henry a pension of L.500 per amium, until 
he should recover the whole or the greater part of Iris 
possessions, which had been confiscated by the King of 
Scotland, and this for services to be rendered hy Mm. 
In this year he had idso made an unsuccessful attempt 
to invade Scotland by the Western Borders, but bdng 
totally defeated by the Earl of Angus, he with difficulty 
escaped to the territories of Donald, Earl of Ross, and 
Lord of the Isles, whom he enticed to become a party 
with him against the king, and retired again into Eng- 


land. On this occasion a new method was devised for 
giving alarm to the country when an invasion took 
place. This was by placing watches at the passages and 
fords between Roxburgh and Berwick, who were to 
light up fires upon the highest eminences in the neigh- 
bourhood, which were to be repeated from other heights 
in view of these, that so in a very short time the whole 
country might be advertised of the approach of an ene* 
my, and ready to oppose their progress. The issue of 
this rebellion was the voluntary exile of the Earl of 
Douglas, who remained in England, and the submission 
of the Earl of Ross, who was pardoned, and afterwards 
became a firm adherent to the King. They, however, 
had done considerable damage, the former in the south- 
em, the latter in the northern parts of the kingdom.* 

In this year an act was passed by the Scottish Par- 
liament, prohibiting all Scotsmen from suppljring Rox- 
burgh or Berwick with victual, fuel, or other support 
iaeian, on pain of treason ; f and, in the following year, 
(1456,) another act was passed, prohibiting the expor- 
tiifion of grain to Roxburgh, Berwick, and England^ 
under pain of such punishment as might be awarded by 
the judges.^ 

On the 10th of June, 1457) another truce was con- 
cluded, containing the same privil^es to Roxbui^ as 


* Godscrofty p* 191* Holinshed^ vol. I. (Scot.) pp. 277-9- Aber« 
cromby, vol. II. pp. 363-5, 
"^ Acts of ParliameDt, vol. II. p. 44. X Ibid. vol. II. p. 47* 



the former. It was to have effeet from the 6th of the 
ensuing month of July, and to continue for two years.* 
The civil war, which, in the year 1459» commenced 
in England, between Henry VI. and the Duke of York, 
(commonly known by the name of the Wars of the Houses 
of Lancaster and York,) who laid daim to the throng 
prevented, it would appear, the confirmation of the r^ 
newal of the foregoing truce, which had in £act been 
agreed to, and both parties seem to have applied to the 
King of Scotland for his assistance.! To neither did he 
return a positive answer ; but considering, that in the 

* Rymer, torn. XL p. 460. 

t 1460. — Abercromby states it as bis opinioD^ tbat tbere was a 
perfect good understanding between King Henry and King James ; 
and that an embassy, sent in the month of June for the avowed pun- 
pose of confirming the truce> was in fact to make arrangements as to 
the mode in which James could employ the assistance to be furnish- 
ei, to the best advantage ; and that it was by the adrice of King 
Henry he undertook the siege of Roxburgh^ which was then in tbe 
possession of his (King Henry's) opponents. On the contrary, Pitsoo(« 
tie says, that ambassadors were sent to King James from the Duke of 
Yoric 8 party, with offers to restore to hin all the pessessioos fimMn^ 
ly held by the kings of Scotland in Northumberland^ Berwick^ &e. 
and a perpetual amity and friendship between the two kingdoms, if 
be would lend his assistance towards wresting the Crown from King 
Henry ; and to this offer. King James, after stating thai he had aof- 
fident cause of war with England, replied, *' that if the Duke of 
York, with the Earls of Warwick and Salisbury, with the nobles of 
their hdion, will keep promise, they shall be assured that my whole 
strength and forces shall be ready to invade your King's favourers 
with fire and sword, wherever I come ; and shall do my utter dili- 
gence to expel King Henry, and to restore the Duke of York to liis 

own place."*-AB£RCR0MBY9 vol. n. pp. 381-2. PlTSOOTTUI, pp* 




present situation of affairs in England, he was war^ 
rantdd in the attempt to recover those places withia 
the kingdom, which the English had so long held ; and 
so calling upon all his subjects from the age of 16 to 
60, assembled a numerous army, and laid siege to Rox- 
burgh, in the month of July, 1460. The town, which 
was incapable of defence, he took and destroyed ; but 
the castle being in a condition to hold out, and withstand 
an assault, he laid regular siege to. The Earl of Ross^ 
who had so lately been in rebellion against him, soon 
joined the army with a very considerable reinforcement 
of West Highlanders, and men from the Isles ; but, in- 
stead of employing this force in the siege, the king sent 
the greater part upon incursions into England, retain- 
ing only the Earl, and a few of his followers^ about his 
own person. Not many days after, the Earl of Hunt> 
ley arrived with his quota of troops, when the king^ 
who was particularly attached to this nobleman, desi- 
rous of exhibiting in his presence the vast power of the 
artillery he had brought into the field,* took him to 
witness the effects of a single discharge from it upon 
the walls of the castle. Unfortunately (or, as some his- 
torians say, '^ unbecoming his majesty," or, *^ more cu- 

* 1460.— One of the pieces of artillery, from its immense sue, 
was called the " Lion," — cast in Flanders by order of King James I. 
in 1430, and was the first cannon of any size brought to Scotland. 
It was 3000 weight, and was made of brass, with the following in- 
scription upon it : — 

'* Illustri Jacobo Scottorum, prindpe digno, 
Regi Magnifico, dum fulmine Castra redoco, 
Factus sum tub eo, nmicuper ergo Leo." 


rious than became him/') his majesty approadied too' 
near the guns. When one of them bursting, a splinter 
from it cut his thigh in two, and otherwise severely 
wounded him. Of these wounds he died in a very short 
space ; but previously, he gave strict orders that no 
notice should be given of the misfortime that had be* 
fallen him, lest the army should be discouraged, and 
the siege abandoned. The Earl of Angus, who stood 
close by his majesty, was severely wounded, with some 

The queen, on receiving the melancholy intelligence 
of the king's death, fearful lest his dying apprehen- 
sions might be realized, with that undaunted courage 
and decision of mind for which she was so justly ce- 
lebrated, immediately took her infant son, scarcely 
seven years of age, who happened to be with her in the 
camp, and presenting him to the nobles, addressed them 
nearly as follows : — ** Lose not with shame the time 
and labours you have bestowed on this siege, neither 
let the loss of one man bereave you all of your courage ; 
and, seeing this chance is not known to the rest, bear 
ye a good countenance, so that no more may know the 
same. Forward, therefore, my lords, and put an end to 
this honourable enterprize, sacrificing rather the lives 
of your enemies, than your own tears to the ghost of 
your prince."* The effect of such an address from the 

* Som« writers have imputed the hehavioor of the queen on this 
occasion to a decrease^ or rather a want, of affection for her royal 
spouse; but although there certainly was a difference in their tem- 


lips of a woman to a band of Scottish nobles, may easily 
be anticipated. The si^ was more rigorously press- 
ed, and the castle so fiercely assaulted, that the besie* 
ged, despairing of relief,* surrendered this great bone 
of contention between the two kingdoms for upwards 
of 800 years, to the arms of the infant King James IIL, 
on condition of the garrison being allowed to depart 
with arms and baggage ; and, to prevent the English 
from ever again making it a strong-hold, it was entirely 
demolished ; and, according to Lesley, the Scots advan- 
ced and destroyed the Castle of Wark.f 

per and dispositions^ approaching almost to an extreme, the king 
being generally represented as a credulous, yet benign and beneficent 
monarch, and the queen, like her progenitors, of a bold, determinate, 
and discerning mind, there does not appear sufficient ground fiv this 
imputation. We are therefore disposed to believe, that the queen's 
conduct, so far from being influenced by hostility to her husband, 
and a desire to see her son upon the throne, was, on the contrary, the 
natural effect of her own bold and intrepid spirit, which could not 
brook discomfiture. The circumstance of her being with her son in 
the camp, shows that she was acquainted with the operations to be 
undertaken ; and, in presenting him to the nobles after his fiither 
had been killed, she certainly adopted the best mode of stimulating 
them to a vigorous prosecution of the siege, instead of abandoning it, 
as most likely would hare been the consequence of the king's death, 
had she not done this. 

• 14?60.— At this time, the Earl of Sarum was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief in the North of England, and was ordered to raise 
an army out of the different counties under his power, to rescue Roa&> 
burgh and Berwick from the siege with which the former was press- 
ed, and the other was threatened. 

f Fordun, vol. II. p. 516. Holinshcd, vol. I. (Scot.) p. 278. Bu« 
chanan, lib. XI. Major, p. 325, Lesley, pp. 298-9* Oodseroft, 
p. 204. Maitland, vol. II. p* 651. Abercromby, vol. II. pp. 581-2* 
Ridpath, p. 422. Henry, vol. V. p. 276. Chalmers, vol. V.p. ua 


James IV., by a charter, dated at Stirling, the 20th 
of February, 1499) granted to Walter Kerr of Cess- 
furd, and to his heirs, the Castle of Roxburgh, and the 
site thereof called the Castell-stede, with the site and 
capital messuage of Roxburgh, together with the right 
of patronage of the hospital called ^ Le Masson Dew** 
of Roxburgh, and whatever was annexed to the said 
hospital, castle, and messuage. Likewise the right of 
patronage of the hospital called '' Le Masson Dew" of 
Jedburgh, rendering, if demanded, one red rose on the 
feast of St John Baptist, in sunmier, at the said castle, 
in name of blench-holding.* 

From the demolition of the castle and town of Rox« 
burgh, in the year 1460^ notwithstanding the £requent 
wars between Scotland and England, there does not ap- 
pear on record any attempt, on the part of either king- 
dom, to restore or rebuild this fortress, till, in the year 
1547, during the reign of Edward VL of England, and 
Mary Queen of Scotland, a new war between these 
countries (which King Henry VIII., on his death-bed, 
had strongly recommended to his son,) broke out,f 
when the Duke of Somerset, protector of the kingdom. 

* Diplomata Regia^ vol. IV. lib. 13^ No. 372. Appendix^ No. X. 

f 1547« — ^The occasion of this war was the radllatiiig conduct of 
the Scottish Regent and his counsellors, in regard to the marriage 
of the then infant Queen of Scotland, with the infant King of Eng- 
land, Edward VI. ; a contract which, though imposed upon them by- 
Henry VIII., they had agreed to fulfil ; and when required to do so, 
always gave evasive answers to the application, and at last, in direct 


during the King^s minority, invaded Scotland; alnd 
having obtained possession of Leith, burnt a great part 
of it ; but finding his attempts on the Castle of Edin- 
burgh foiled, by the bravery of the commander and the 
garrison, he proceeded to the Borders on his return to 
England. He, at that time, took the Castle of Hume, 
and encamping his army on the peninsula where the 
town and castle of Roxburgh formerly stood, he was so 
much struck with the importance of the place as a mi- 
litary station, that he determined to fortify it ; and ac- 
cording to some authors, he built a fort within the 
ruins of the old castle, and according to others entirely 
rebuilt it. Perhaps neither of these accounts is strict- 
ly true ; and we are inclined to believe that, agreeably 
to another historian, he only repaired such a portion of 
the castle as could in a short time be made fit for the 
reception of a garrison. An extensive trench, or ditch, 
was accordingly cut, and a strong wall built, which 
extended from one side of the exterior defence to the 
other. These works were traversed by others of a 
similar nature. The exterior defence, in which laige 
breaches appeared, was patched up with turf and other 
like materials. Small apertures were made in the 
walls, which were so constructed as to enable the be- 
sieged to maintain the defence of the fortress with to- 
lerable success. The Duke of Somerset is said to have 

breach of their agreement^ concluded a marriage between her ami the 
Dauphin of France. 


accelerated these repairs by his own example, which 
was followed by all the officers in his army ; so that 
the repairs were completed, and the castle put in a 
proper state of defence in the short space of six days. 
During the time the English encamped here, a consi-* 
derable number of the Scottish cUefe appeared before 
the Duke, and todc the o^hs of allegiance to the King 
of England ; here also, many of the English received 
from the protector the honour of knighthood. The 
Duke then retired with his army, having bestowed die 
government of the castle on Sir Ralph Bulmer, leaving 
in it a gairison of 500 men, 300 of whom were soldiers^ 
the other 200 pioneers.* 

The English being in possession of several places in 
the neighbourhood of the capital, and of the principal 
strong-holds on the Borders, thus maintained a firm 
footing in Scotland, whence it was vetY desirable to 
expel them ; and a body of French troops, to the 
amount of 5000, arriving early in the following year, 
1548, und^ the command of M. D'Esse, they, in con* 
junction with Uie Scottish army, made an unsuccessful 
attack upon Haddington. After this failure, however, 
they proceeded to the Borders with the view of driving 
the enemy completely out of that part of the king- 

* Holinshed^ vol. I. (Skx)t.) pp. 343«4. Lesley, pp. 474-7« Rid- 
peth, p. 5I^S. Chalmers, toL 1 1, p. 510. Groee, vol. L p. 1 19. For 
a minute and curious account of the repairs done to Roxburgh Caa« 
tie, and the other transactions of the Duke of Somerset while tkert, 
see Appendix, No. 1 1* 


dom. Their mecem even here was very partial ; thqr 
reoorered the castles of Hume, and Fast Castle^ and 
also the castle of Femiharst ; but the English, early in 
10499 assembling an army, of 8000 men at Roxburgh, 
prevented any attack being made ii^on that fortress. 
The Scots and French, nevertheless, made repeated in- 
roads upon the English borders, doing considerable 
misdiief, and bringing off much booty. The castle of 
Comhill was taken and plundered, and the castle of 
Ford had been besieged, and partly demolished^ when 
the English army approaching, prevented its complete 
destruction ; they burnt, however, several villages in 
its vicinity. In revenge for this, the English plun-^ 
dered and destroyed Jedbui^h and all the neighbour- 
hood, where the Scots and French had hem quartered 
for some short time, but firom whence they had retired 
on being apprised of the assemUing of the English at 

At this time, in consequence of some measures of the 
government, which had for their end the relief of the 
poor, by the laying open indosures, England was dis- 
tracted by dvil commotions, which it required all the 
means they possessed to suppress.f The war in Soot- 

* Spotiswood, p. 89- Holinshcd, vol. I. (Scot.) p. 350. MaiUand, 
vol. II. p. 883. Ridpatli^ p. 567* Chalmers, vol. II. p. 110. Lesley^^ 
p. 478. 

t The commotioDS which are here alluded to, were occasioned faj 
a prodamatioii issued by the regency for laying q)en iiiclosareB» the 
multitude of which had become a great grievance to the poorw The 
commou |ieople thus eucouragcd to put forth their hand to redreaa 


land was therefore suffered to languish^ and the Frend^ 
taking advantage of these intestme broils^ considered it 
a fit opportunity to attempt the recovery of Boulogne 
the only place, except Calais, retained by the English la 
France. In this, however, they were unsuccessful ; for 
after spending much time, and losing many men in the 
si^e, they were obliged to retire from brfore it. Th^ 
were aware, too, that the English government was 
using every means to conciliate the friendship of the 
Emperor of Germany, whose influence and power wece 
at that time very formidable, and whose assistance in 
this case they would obtain. The English also found 
the expense of defending Boulogne so very heavy, that 
they were anxiously desirous of peace, and the French 
were not less so. The French, however, having stipu- 
lated that Scotland should be included in the treaty^ 
this was reluctantly consented to by the English, who^ 
on account of their league with the Emperor, pretend- 
ed they could not make peace with that kingdom with- 
out his consent. The negotiations, nevertheless, com* 
menced, and a peace was concluded on the 24th of 
March, 1550, by which France obtained possession of 
Boulogne, upon the payment of 400,000 crowns. In 
that part of the treaty which referred to Scotland, it 

the injuries tbey sustained in temporal matters^ were easily instigi* 
ted to oppose the innovatioDS in matters of religion^ which led to 
open rebellion, particularly in Devonshire and Norfolk ; and it was 
to quell these the forces intended to reinforce the English army in 
Scotland were employed. 


was agreed, tbat the King of England should deliver 
up the forts of Lauder and Dunglas to the Scots, the 
garrisons being allowed to retire with their baggage^ 
and the artillery they had carried to them from Had- 
dington ; but if these forts were not in possession of 
the English at the time of this treaty being concluded, 
then, in lieu of this, the King of England became bound 
to demolish the castles of Roxburgh and Eyemouth, 
which it should not be lawful for the Queen of Scot- 
land, or the French or English king, to rebuild ; and 
farther, if the King of England did restore the castles 
of Dunglas and Lauder, still he should be bound to dci* 
stroy the castles of Roxburgh and Eyemouth, if the 
Queen of Scotland required this of him, and, on her 
part, had demolished the castles of Dunglas and Lau« 
der. It was also agreed that the King of England 
should commit no further hostilities against the Soots, 
unless new cause should be given by the Scots them- 
selves. This treaty beipg ratified and sworn to, the 
castles of Roxburgh, Eyemouth, Dunglas, and Lauder, 
were demolished, A separate treaty was next year, 
1551, concluded between the Scots and English, for ar- 
ranging and settling all points of difference, or which 
might give occasion of dispute, and for definitively fix- 
ing the boundaries between the two kingdoms, where- 
in it was agreed that they should be the same, as be- 
fore the war between James V. and Henry VHI.* 

* Holinshetl, vol. I. (Scot.) p. 35S. Maitlandy vol. II. p. SS5. 
Ridpatli^ p. 570. Chalmers^ vol. II. p. 110. 


Peace continued between the two nations until tibie' 
year 15579 when England being again engaged in war 
with France, (in consequence of Queen Mary's fond at-' 
tachment to her husband, Philip, King of Spain, who,* 
at the instigation of Pope Julius III., had broken the 
truce then existing between Spain and France,) Scot-^ 
land was urgently solicited to afford assistance to its 
old ally, by breaking peace with England ; for doing^ 
which, the French suggested to the queen-regent many 
specious pretexts. The queen-regent was exceedingly 
desirous to accede to the wishes of the French govern- 
ment, but the nobles were equally averse to engage in 
any war with England at this time, especially as com* 
missioners were then sitting at Carlisle for adjusting 
any difference that still existed between the two coun- 
tries ; and besides, because they conceived it to be un- 
dertaken solely for the purpose of serving the French, 
and Without any just cause on the part of the English. 
The queen-regent, however, gave authority to the 
French general, D'Oysel, to rebuild the fort at Bye- 
mouth, contrary to the stipulations in the treaty of 
1550, and thereby provoked a rupture. War having 
thus taken place, the nobles consented to raise an army 
for the protection of the borders ; some petty marau- 
ding incursions were made by both parties ; but in a 
very short time the nobles, quite disgusted with the 
war, disbanded the army ; and the King of France ha- 
ving taken into his pay some of the Scottish soldiery 
who had been discharged, they with the French troops 

284 BDsrroRY of kelso. 

were statioiied in tibe neighbourfaood, and along the 
borders. During this and the following year^ the war 
was carried on in a predatory manner, with various 
success ; but the death of Mary, Queen of England, 
and the accession of Elizabeth to the throne, brought 
about a peace, in which Scotland was induded, early in 
the year 1559. By an artide in the treaty, it was sti- 
pulated, that the fort built at Eyemouth, and whatever 
else had been erected by the Queen of Scotland, in 
br^u:h of the treaty of Boulogne, should be demolished 
and razed to the ground within sixty days from the ra- 
tification of the present treaty, and if the English had 
made any acquisition in Scotland, or fortified any place 
near the border, contrary to the same treaty, they 
should in like manner destroy and raze it, and that no 
place should be rebuilt or fortified anew by them, in 
violation of that treaty.* 

From the accession of Queen Elizabeth to the throne 
of England, in 1558, to the death of Mary of Scotland, 
in 15879 the wars between the two countries arose from 
the internal disorders in Scotland, occasioned by the 
rapid progress of the prindples of the reformed religion, 
by which the kingdom was divided into two parties, 
each of them struggling for the superiority. Elizabeth 
being decidedly in favour of the protestant profession, 
lent every assistance in her power to those in Scotland 
who had openly embraced it ; while the opposite parly 

* HoUndbed, voL I. (Soot) p. 361. Ridpath^ p. 588. 


were supported by the French, whose inflnence in Scot- 
land had always been productive o£ hostilities between 
the two kingdoms. But after James had attained the 
age which entitled him to assume the reins of govern- 
ment, when he made a profession of the protestant re* 
formed religion, and bound himself by his oath to sup- 
port it as the established religion of the realm, we hear 
no more of wars or contentions between them, although 
still excesses were committed on the borders ; but these 
being merely the result of private quarrels, did not en- 
danger the general peace of the country, although at- 
tended with melancholy consequences to the inhabit- 
ants on the spot. 

The accession of James to the throne of England, 
upon the demise of Elizabeth in 1603, placed both 
kingdoms under one supreme head ; and, of course, put 
an end to all those unnatural wars which had wasted 
both countries for so many centuries ; yet being an- 
xious to extinguish that ideal mark which separated 
the two kingdoms, and gave to each a distinct name, 
he assumed the title of King of Great Britain ; and 
although Scotland still retained its own government 
and laws, he recommended, and procured, an act to be 
passed, by a parliament which he summoned to meet 
at Perth in the year 1607, by which it was enact- 
ed, that in all times coming, all laws, customs, and 
treaties, concerning the borders between Scotland and 
England, should be abolished ; and that the inhaUtanta 
of the late wardenries should be governed by the com- 


mon laws of the kingdom ; and that all offences com* 
mitted in England, since the banning of his majesty's 
reign over that kingdom, by any of his majesty's sub- 
jects returning within the same, were to be tried at his 
majesty's justice aires of the Sheriffdoms of Roxburgh, 
Berwick, Selkirk, Peebles, and Dumfries, before the 
Lord Justice General and his deputies.* 

The impression left upon the mind by the perusal of 
the foregoing details, is at once solemn and affecting. 
The change which has taken place, fr*om grandeur and 
magnificence to ruin and extinction, pourtrays in most 
striking colours the vicissitude and instability of earth- 
ly excellence, and in never-fading characters stamps 
vanity on every sublunary object. 

"VVho can view the venerable ruins of this once famed 
and *' towering Castle ;" or endeavour to trace out the 
site of the city of Roxburgh, in former times the me- 
tropolis of the kingdom, without feeling in all its force 
the justness of the forgoing remark, and acknowledging 
the uncertainty of all human greatness ? 

The very thought, that here, for many centuries, was 
the residence of our best and most beneficent princes, 
surrounded by all the noble and illustrious of the land ; 

* Acts of Parliament, vol. IV. p. 367* 


that here was first laid the foundation of that celebrity 
for Arts, Sciences, and Learning, for which Scotland 
now stands so conspicuously pre-eminent, awakens in 
the mind reflections of a gloomy and melancholy cast. 
Nor can our footsteps trace this hallowed spot, where 
the noisy mirth of revelry, and the direful clang of war, 
so often resounded in former days, without being appslL- 
led at the awful change ; where the gentle bleating of 
the lamb, and the swelling notes of the winged chorister, 
have succeeded to the bacchanalian carols of its former 
inhabitants ; and the peaceful toils of husbandry td the 
martial exercises and military achievements of our fore- 

We cannot close our remarks on this celebrated place 
with better effect, than with the following lines by an 
elegant and much-admired poet, a native of this quarter* 

" Roxburgh ! how fallen^ since firsts in Gothic pride> 
Thy frowning battlements the war defiedi 
Called the bold chief to grace thy blazoned halls, 
And bade the rirers gird thy solid walls ! 
Fallen are thy towers^ and^ where the palace stood, . 
In gloomy grandeur wares yon hanging wood ; 
Crushed are thy halls, save where the peasant sees 
One moss-clad ruin rise between the trees ; 
The still green trees, whose mournful branches wave 
In solemn cadence o'er the hapless brave. 
Proud Castle ! Fancy still beholds thee stand. 
The curb, the guardian, of this Border land. 
As when the signal flame, that blazed afar. 
And bloody flag, proclaimed impending war, j 

While, in the lion's place, the leopard frowned, , 

And marshalled armies hemmed thy bulwarks round." 

Leydsn's Scenes qflnfancif, p. 107. 



The following short notices of eminent and literary 
characters, natives of the county of Roxburgh, we trust 
will not be unacceptable to our readers. 

William Crawford, Minister of a small country 
parish in the Merse, at the commencement of the 18th 
century, was bom at Kelso in the year 1676. He was one 
of the first and most determined opi>osers to the settling 
of ministers by presentation, instead of election by the 
congregation, and in 17S4 he openly professed the 
general sentiments of Ralph and Ebenezer Ersldne, on 
this and other points in the government of the church, 
but did not proceed with them the length of seceding 
from the establishment. He died 1743» aged sixty- 
six years. 

James Thomson, the celebrated author of ** The 
Seasons," was bom at the village of Ednam, about two 
miles distant from Kelso, on the 7th September, 1700. 
His father was the Minister of that parish ; who, de- 
signing him for the same profession, after going through 
the usual course of school education at Jedburgh, sent 
him to the university of Edinburgh to complete his 



studies, which were first interrupted hy his father^s 
death, and afterwards finally closed by the following 
circumstance. During the first session that he attend- 
ed the Theological Class, a psalm, in which the power 
and Majesty of Qod are conspicuously dwelt upon, was 
assigned to him as an exercise, when he produced a 
paraphrase and illustration of it in a style so highly 
poetical, that although he was complimented by the 
Professor (Mr Hamilton) for the elegance of the com« 
position, yet he admonished him to express himself, in 
future, in hinguage more suitable to an ordinary congre- 
gation. This gentle rebuke, however, it would appear, 
turned Thomson's thoughts completely away from the 
ministry, and he now devoted his whole attention to the 
study of that branch which had been his earliest delight 
and which was to give to his name that lustre which it. 
now so eminently possesses. 

The metropolis of Scotland was at this time ill soiU 
ed to reward the efforts of his genius ; he therefore re* 
paired to London, where, although for a short time he 
struggled with the difficulties attendant on poverty and 
want of friends, his merit did not remain long conceals 
ed. The publication (tf his '' Winter," in 1786, soon 
brought him into notice, and that of *' Summer^ and 
'^ Spring," in the two following years, established hie 
fame. " Autumn" first appeared in the year 1730, in *• 
4to edition of his works. In the interval Thomson went, 
as companion to the son of Lord Chancellor Talbot, the 
usual tour on the Continent, for which he was rewarded 
by the appointment of fiecretiry of the Brieft, a aitiui- 



tian of no great emolument, and which he ooly enjoyed 
for a short time, the Chancellor dying in 1787; and with 
his death this appointment fell into the gift of his suc- 
cessor, who, it is said, would willingly have continued 
him in it had such a favour been solicited. 

Thomson, however, from delicacy, or some other mo- 
tive, did not present his suit, and thus became onoe more 
solely dependent on his writings. This reverse he hoare 
with much fortitude for some time ; but being shortly 
after introduced to his Royal Highness Frederick, Prince 
of Wales, he obtained his patronage, and received from 
him an annual pension of one hundred pounds. In the 
year 1746-7» he was appointed, through the friendship 
of Lord Lyttleton, Surveyor General of the Leeward . 
Islands, a situation which, after paying his deputy*, 
yielded him about three hundred pounds a-year. This, 
however, he only enjoyed for two years. He died on the 
27th August, 1748, from a fever, the effect of taking cold 
on the water between London and Kew. His remains 
were deposited in the Church of Richmond, in Surrey, 
under a plain stone ; and in 1762 a monument was 
erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey. His me* 
mory has also been perpetuated by a similar erectioh 
in a field near his birth-place, which, however, reflecfs 
little credit on the taste either of the architect or ccm- 

Sir JoHK Paikole, Bart., and M J)., was bom at 
Stitchel-house, in this county, April 10, 1707* The 
elementary part of his education he received at home ; 


and, at a proper age, was sent to the University of St 
Andrews, where he remained for some years, and then: 
went to Edinburgh to study medicine. Here, however, 
he only staid one year, when, anxious to receive the 
best instruction in a profession of which he afterwai^ 
became so bright an ornament, he removed to Leyden»v 
in order to have the benefit of the lectures of the oel»* 
brated Boerbaave, at that time the head of the medical 
school in Europe, and there, on the 29th of July, 1780, 
he received his degree of M.IX 

Immediately thereafter, Dr Pringle returned to his 
native country, and commenced practice in the metro* 
polls, where he so soon ingratiated himself with the Ma- 
gistrates and Professors of the C!ollege, that in 1734 he 
was appointed joint Professor of Pneumatics and Mo- 
ral Philosophy, with the then Professor, Mr Scott, and 
his successor in that chair. Here he continued iSl 
1742, when he was appointed physician to the Earl of 
Stair, commander of the British army on the contmest^ 
and performed the duties of his office so ccmij^etely to 
the satas&ction of this distinguished nobleman, and hii 
successor, the Duke of Cumberland, that he recdved a 
commission from his Royal Highness as Physician-Ge- 
neral to his Majesty's Forces in the Low Countries, and 
parts beyond the seas ; and shortly after another, cooa* 
stituting him Physician to the Royal Hospitals in the 
same countries. Upon these preferments, he resign^ 
the professorship in the U[niversity of Edinbui^ whidi 
hitherto, through the respect the magistrates entertain- 


ed for his abilitiea, and the hope that he would agidn 
resume the duties of it, had been retained for him; the 
teaching of the class, during his absoioey being intrust- 
ed to two gentlemen, who officiated for him. 

In 1745, he was recalled from the Low Countries to 
attend the Duke of Cumberland on his advance into 
Scotland, and remained with this army till the rebellion 
was crushed. He returned to his duty on the continent 
in 1747» and remained with the army there till the 
peace of Aix-Ia-Chapelle, in 1748, when he came to 
England, and from that time chiefly resided in London, 
still retaining his commission as phjrsician to the army, 
although he was not called to perform the duty on the 

In 1749, he was appointed Physician in Ordinary to 
the Duke of Cumberland, and in 1758 was chosen one 
of the Council of the Royal Society. In 1 758 he en* 
tirely quitted the service of the army, and, being adndt* 
ted a licentiate of the Coll^^e of Physidana in Lon* 
don, comm e nced practice^ in which he succeeded in a 
measure proportioned to his already well-earned repu- 

On the accession of his late Majesty^ in 1761, Dr 
Fringle received the appointment of Physician to the 
Queen's Household ; in 1768, that of Physician Extim- 
ordinary ; in the following year, he was made Physician 
in Ordinary to the Queen ; and in 1768, he was ap* 
pointed Physician in Ordinary to her Boyal Higfanoa 

£MIK£KT MEN. 29& 

the Princeis Dowager of Wales, with a salarjr of LAQO 
per annum ; and in 1774if he was further advanced to 
be Physician Extraordinary to the King. 

The extraordinary merit and ability of Dr Pringle 
had not, however, escaped the notice of that munificent 
Prince, (George III,,) who, on the 5th of June, 1766, 
raised him to the dignity of Baronet of Great Britaui; 

Sir John had been four times honoured by the Royai 
Society in being elected one of the council of that did* 
tinguished body, and on the SOth of November, in the 
year 1772, in consequence of the death of James Wesf^ 
Esq., he was elected President, the duties of whidi 
office he performed with distinguished ability, till the 
year 1778, when, from his advanced age and increaaiiig 
infirmities, he voluntarily resigned it ; and, in theyeat 
1780, conceiving that he might derive advantage to faia 
health firom an excursion to Scotland, he came to Edin- 
bui^h, where he principally resided during that sum- 
mer, and returned to London in the autumn^ with lite 
view of disposing of his efiects; which having done^ he 
returned in April following to Edinbuif^h, intendiag 
there to pass the remainder of his life ; but finding the 
air too sharp and cold for his exhausted frame, he agahi 
returned to London. His health now rapidly declining, 
left no room for any hope of recovery ; and, while 
joying the company of a society which frequently 
he was, on Monday, January 14, 1783, seissed withra 
fit which baffled all the efforts of medidne or skilL He 


died at his apartments in King's Street, James' Square* 
on the 18th of the same month, in the Beventy-fiflh 
year of his age. 

It is impossible, in this short sketch, to give even an 
enumeration of the various works o£ this cdefarated 
author. Suffice it to say, that his numerous produc- 
tions, inserted in the proceedings of the various socie- 
ties of which he was a member, show that he was in- 
defatigable in the promotion of science, and of what- 
ever might be instructive or beneficial to society ; but 
his Treatise on the Diseases of the Army, has for ever 
rendered his name immortal. After going through many 
editions at home, it was translated into the Frendi, 
German, and Italian languages ; and scarcely, says his 
biographer, hath any medical writer mentioned it with- 
out some tribute of applause. 

Jxi^fES Brown, a great traveller, and an excellent 
oriental scholar, was bom at Kelso in the year 1709. 
He was the first who established a commercial inter- 
course between this country and Persia, by the way of 
Russia. Having accompanied his father (James Brown, 
M.D.) to Constalitinople, in the year 1722, he soon, 
made himself familiar with the different languages 
spoken in that part of the world ; and from his geo- 
graphical knowledge, the fisudlity of such an intercourse 
was so strongly impressed upon his mind, that in the 
year 1T41, he entered into an agreement with twenty- 


four of the {Hrincipal merchants in London, members oi 
the Russian Company, as their chief agent for opening 
and conducting this trade. In consequence, he sailed 
for Riga in the month of September that same year, 
and passing through Russia, down the Wolga to As- 
tracan, and along the Caspian Sea to Reshd in Persia^ 
he established a factory, in which he continued nearly 
four years ; and, during his stay, he had the honour of 
deliyering a letter from his Majesty Greorge II. to Na* 
dir Shah, (better known by the name of Kouli Khan,) 
the reigning monarch of Persia. In 174f6 he resigned 
his charge and returned to England, where he resided 
jvivately diuing the remainder of his life, whidi ter- 
minated, at his house at Stoke Newington, on the 80th 
of November, 1788, by a stroke of the palsy, which 
carried him off after four days' illness. He was a man 
of the strictest int^rity, unaffected piety, and exalted 
bat unostentatious benevolence, and died lamented and 
regretted by all who knew him. 

While in Persia, he made himself so proficient in the 
language, that, on his return home, he compiled a very 
copious Persian Dictionary and Grammar, with many 
carious specimens of their writing, but which wen 
never published. 

He was the first that projected what is now found so 
useful, and is so general throughout the kingdom, » 
*' Directory,'' or list of the principal traders, &c. whicii' 
waa first published in IxHidon, about the year 17S8i^ by 


Bfr Heniy Kent, printer, CJomhill, who, oontiimiiii^tlM 
puUication from year to year, realised a conridtrahii 
fortune by it. ::*: 

William Buchan, M. D. author of ^ Domestie Me* 
didne," was bom at Ancram in this county, in the year 
1729, and was descended from a most respectable &- 
mily. Although in his early years he took great plea- 
sure in the study of mathematics, yet he eventually 
made choice of medicine for his profession ; and, to 
qualify him for practice, attended the lectures of the 
various Professors of the different branches of this de^- 
partment in the University of Edinbui^h, where» fagr 
intense study and application, he made rapid progreas 
in his knowledge of the science. 

The first scene of his professional labours was at 
l^ieffield, in Yorkshire ; and, in the course of a short 
time, he was elected phjrsidan to a branch of the Found* 
ling Hospital, then established at Ackworth, where, fimn 
his mode of treatment, and the regulations established 
by him for the preservation of health, the annual num- 
ber of deaths was reduced from one-half to one in fif- 
teen ; and here he derived that intimate knowledge of 
the complaints of children, which he afterwards pub* 
lished in his "^Domestic Medicine,'' and ^Advice to 
Mothers,** which has, without doubt, been of muck be* 
nefit to mankind at Uu-ge. 

On the dissolution of the establishment at Adcworth» 
Dr Buchan returned to Edinburgh, and being deded a 


Fellow of the Royal College of Physidans, he hegaa^ 
the practice of his profession, in which he was very sao- 
cessful ; but considering this sphere too limited^ he re- 
moved to London about the year 1775, where he died 
in the year 1805, in the seventy-sixth year of his age, 
and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. 
His chief work, the ** Domestic Medicine," was first 
published in 1771 » by the late Mr Cadell, to whom he 
sold the cop3nright for a very inconsiderable sum ; but 
who, from the increasing popularity and rapid sale of 
the book, made the Doctor a handsome present on his 
revising each edition, of which he lived to see nineteen 

George Augustus Elliot, Lord Heathfield, £»- 
moos for his gallant defence of Gibraltar during the 
war which ended in 1783, was the yoimgest son of Sir 
Gilbert Elliot of Stobbs, in this county, and was boom 
about the year 1718. Having received the first rudi- 
ments of his education under his paternal nxrf^ he was 
sent at a very early period of life to the University at 
Leyden, where he finished his classical studies ; and at 
this time, giving the strongest proofs of his attachment 
to military pursuits, he was immediately placed in the 
military school at La Fere in Picardy, then under the 
superintendance of the celebrated Vauban. Having 
finished his studies there^ he visited the different places 
on the continent, in order to have an opportunity of 
witnessing the theory he had learnt, carried in practice^ 


and returned to his native country in the seventeeBih 
year of his age. 

This same year he entered a volunteer into the 28dl 
regiment of foot, and the yetar following he joined the 
Engineer coips at Woolwich, where he soon hecame 
very proficient in that branch of military sdenoe. His 
first promotion was to the adjutancy of the second troop 
of Horse Grenadiers, of which Colonel Elliot, his uncle, 
had the command. With this troop he went to Gei^ 
many, and was present in all the actions in which it 
was engaged, and was wounded at the battle of Dei- 
tingen. In this regiment, he afterwards became cap- 
tain and major, by purchase ; and, on arriving at thia 
rank, resigned his commission in the Engineer depart- 

Shortly after this, he was made aid-de-eamp to George 
the Second 1 and in 1759 he quitted the Guards, being 
appointed to raise and discipline the First regiment of 
Light Horse, named after himself, JE/tiofs^ and long 
famed as a pattern both for discipline and appointment. 
With this regiment he served, with distinguished credit 
to himself and the corps, on the coast of France and in 
Germany, from whence he was recalled to take part in 
the expedition against the Havannah, in which be waa 
second in command. 

During the peace which followed, he was differently 
employed, but always actively ; and in the year ITTCt 
being appointed Commander-in-C3iief of the Forces is 
Ireland, he found so many things connected with that 


service disagreeable to him, that he solicited to be re- 
called from it, which was at last granted; and he recei- 
ved inmiediately the command at Gibraltar, the defence 
of which placed the top-stone on his character, as > a 
brave, judicious, persevering, and indefatigable generaL 

The circumstances of this memorable siege are so 
well known, that it would be superfluous even to give a 
sketch of it ; suflSce it to say, that his conduct during 
this prolonged and arduous contest, drew forth not only 
the gratitude of his sovereign and his country, but the 
astonishment and admiration of every nation in Europe. 
On his return he received the thanks of both Houses of 
Parliament ; the honour of Knight of the Bath was con^ 
ferred on him by the King, with a pension during his 
own, and a second life of his own appointment ; and in 
the year 17879 he was advanced to the peerage, by the 
title of Lord Heathfield, Baron Gibraltar. 

His lordship died at his chateau at Aix-la-Chapell% 
on the 6th July 1790, in the 7Sd year of his age, of a 
second stroke of the palsy, and just two days before he 
meant to set out for Leghorn on his route to Gibraltar, 
from an anxiety to end his days on the spot where he 
had acquired his fame ; or, as another account says, to 
assume the command of and defence of this fortress, in 
the view of an approaching war. His remains were 
brought to England, and deposited in a vault at Heath- 
field, in Sussex, over which a handsome monument ia 


John Araistbong, M. D. author of the ^* Art of Pre- 
serving Health,'" and other Poems and Misoellaneoos 
Pieces, was born at Castleton, in the county of Rox- 
burgh, and took his degree in phsrsic at the university 
of Edinburgh in the year 1732. He afterwards went 
to London, where his fortune was various for several 
years. At length he was appointed one of the Physi- 
cians to the Hospital for Lame and Sick Soldiers^ be- 
hind Buckingham House, in the year 1746, which si- 
tuation he enjoyed till 1760, when he was made Physi- 
cian to the Army in Germany. After the peace, in 
1768, he resided principally in London, where he ob- 
tained a limited, but very respectable practice, and en- 
joyed the friendship of many of the leading chamcteri 
for literature and genius of the day. He died at hit 
house, Russell Street, Covent Garden^ September 7» 
1779» leaving behind him a very inconsideraUe for- 
tune, which, however, it is said, he had saved out of a 
very small income, derived chiefly from his half-pay. 

As a poet, his *' Art of Preserving Health'* is hia 
cktf d^ceuvre^ and ranks him among the best of our 
minor English poets, but his other published pieces, 
with the exception of ^ Benevolence," whidi appeared 
in 1751, either from the choice of his subject, or the 
cureless execution, rather detracted from, than added to 
his fame. His biographers speak variously of his other 
writings, either professional or miscellaneoas, but in 
general agree, that his style was '* deformed by a per- 
petual flow of affectation, a struggle to say smart 


things, and, above all, a most disgusting repetition of 
vulgar oaths and exclamations,** a plractice which is alsb 
said to have predominated in his common conversa-> 
tion. He was, however, esteemed a man of letters and 
genius, of considerable ability in his profession, gene-* 
rous and good-hearted, but of an indolent habit, which 
was a great bar to his advancement in his profession, 
and totally unfitted him for contending with the host 
of competitors at this time candidates for medical 

John Home, author of the celebrated tragedy of 
" Douglas** and other Dramatic Pieces, and of the " His- 
tory of the Rebellion 1745-6," was a native of this 
county, and bom in the vicinity of Ancrum in the year 
1724. His views Being directed towards the church, he 
was removed to the university of Edinburgh, after going 
through the usual course at the parish school of An- 
crum; and having nearly completed his studies, th^ 
rebellion breaking out interrupted them for some time^ 
Mr Home having joined^ an association formed by the 
citizens of Edinburgh for the support of the royal 
cause; and having accompanied the king*s army to Fal- 
kirk, he was taken prisoner in the battle fought in that 
neighbourhood, and was for some time confined in the 
prison of Doune, from whence, however, he made his 
escape, about the time of the total overthrow of thd 
Prince*s army on the plains of Culloden. He then re^ 
sumed his studies, and was licensed to preach in the 



year 1747* In 1750, he was presented to the living of 
Athelstaneford, in the county of East Lothian, TBcant 
by the death of the Rev. Robert Blair, author of the 
^ Grrave ;*" but the particular bent of his genius leading 
him to seek for fame in a different species of literature 
from that connected with his clerical duties, he never 
appears to have relished his situation. He devoted his 
talents to dramatic productions ; and although his first 
tragedy, ** Agis,** was refused by the London managers, 
and his next, " Douglas," was peremptorily rejected bjr 
Grarrick, yet he was not discouraged ; but from his ac- 
quaintance with the leading characters in Scotland, he 
succeeded in bringing it out in Edinburgh, where it 
was performed at the theatre in the Canongate, in the 
year 1756, in the presence of himself and several of his 
clerical brethren. 

The circumstance of Mr Home, and those who ac- 
companied him, giving their sanction to theatrical per*' 
formances, gave great offence both to the clergy and 
people of Scotland ; and being threatened with the high* 
est ecclesiastical censures, he, in the year following, re- 
signed his living, and with it all connexion with the 

From an high eulogium of the celebrated David 
Hume, on the style of the author, in which he compli- 
mented him with possessing ** the true theatric genius 
of Shakspeare and Otway, refined from the unhappy 
barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of the other,* 
the managers of Co vent-Garden consented to- receive 


** Douglas," and it was performed in that theatre -ihe 
first time, on March 14, 17579 with very moderate ap^ 
plause. Each succeeding representation, however, dis- 
played more and more its excellence, and it is now 
ranked among the best stock-pieces of the British 
stage.* He afterwards produced four other tragedies, 
none of which had even a temporary success, which in- 
duced him for ever to relinquish dramatic writing. 

Shortly after this, through the influence of the Earl 
of Bute, he obtained a pension from his Majesty, and 
in 1763 was appointed a Commissioner for Sick and 
Wounded Seamen, and for the Exchange of Prisoners, 
and the same year was made C!onservator of the Scotch 
Privileges at Campvere, in Zealand. 

He had now retired to Scotland, where he passed the 
remainder of his days ; and in 1778, when the Duke 
of Buccleugh raised his regiment of fencibles, he ac- 
cepted of a captain's commission, which he held till the 
peace in 1783. 

For a considerable time before his death, his n^nta|. 
faculties were much impaired ; and he died of a gran 
dual decay of nature, at Merchiston House, in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, on the 4th September,^ 
1808, at the advanced age of eighty-five. 

* It is said that. Mr Home was present in the Edinburgh Thea«, 
tre, when Mr Betty (better known under the appellation of the 
young Roscius) first appeared in the character of Young Norval^ and 
was 80 highly pleased with his personification of it, that he aent finr 
him next day, and. presented him with a pursue containipg twenty 


The Right Honourable Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
MuRRAT, Kynnynmound, Baron and Earl MintOy 
Viscount Melgund, was son to Sir Gilbert Elliot, third 
Baronet of Minto, for many years a distinguished mem* 
ber of Parliament, who generally leaned to the mea- 
sures of the court ; but his son, the subject of the pre* 
sent sketch, on taking his seat in the House of Com- 
mons in 1774, took a decided part with the opposition ; 
and continued to support the measures of that party 
with high reputation, till the breaking out of the French 
Revolution, when the wild and chimerical doctrines 
broached, and in some measure countenanced by this 
party, induced him, with many others, to join the mi- 
nistry. Sir Gilbert was made a privy councillor in 
1793, and the yetar following was sent to Corsica, to ne* 
gotiate the accession of that island to the sovereignty 
of Great Britain. He accepted, for his Majesty, the 
Toydl title of Corsica, and continued there as Viceroy 
till the prevalence of the French party obliged him to 
quit it. On his return he was raised to the peerage^ 
by the title of Baron Minto, in the county of Roxburgh; 
and by the King's particular command, had the disttnc* 
tion granted to him, of bearing, with his fiunily anno* 
rial bearings, tn cki^, the arms of the island of Corsica. 
In 1799 he was sent Envoy Extraordinary to the Court 
at Vienna ; and in 1806, was appointed President of the 
Board of Control for the Affairs of India. In 1807-8 
he succeeded the Marquis Wellesley as Govemor-Oe- 
neral of India, where, in the year 1811, he 


the expedition for reducing Hie island of Java. Re- 
toming from India early in ISIS^ he received the 
nnanlmbus thaixks of both Houses of Parliament, 
for the wisdom and ability with which the military re- 
sources of the British empire in India, Under his l<»tl- 
ship's government, had been applied in the reductioli at 
the power of the enemy in the eastern sras; and, 
in remuneration for such distinguished services, he 
was, February 2, 1813, further advanced to the 
dignities of Earl of Minto and Viscount Melgund. His 
lordship was not, however, destined long to survive this 
additional mark of his country's favour. His health 
begaii to decline gradu^y, and he died on this Slrt 
day of June, 1814; at the seat of Lord Malmesbury, i^ 
Kent, in the 61st year of his age, being bom on the 9$i 
of April 1754. 

John Leyden, M.D. an elegant poet, and abte 
linguist, was born at the village of Denhdm, in thip 
county, on the 8th September, 1775. From the drcumr 
scribed means of his parents, his education was at first 
much retarded, as he had reached his tenth year before 
he Was put even to the reading school, where, how* 
ever, his natural abilities soon made up for this loss ; 
and his parents, designing him for the ministry, short* 
ly after placed him upder the tuition of Mr Duncan, a 
Cameronian minister in the village, by whose instruo^ 
tions h^ profited so rapidly, that before he had attained 
his fifteenth year, ^e was considered sufficient]y:proficient 



in the Latin language to be sent to the University. He 
accordingly entered the C!oll^e of Edinburgh, in the 
year 1790, and soon became distinguished for his know- 
ledge in that and the Greek, and also in all the other 
branches of education connected with the profession for 
which he was intended. At the same time, he devoted 
his leisiu*e hours to the attainment of the French, Ita^ 
lian, Spanish, and German languages, as also the an- 
cient Islandic, the Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian. 

In the year 1800, he was licensed as a preacher of 
the gospel, and preached in several of the churches of 
Edinburgh and the vicinity. His manner of delivery 
is said to have been rather awkward and uncouth, but 
the substance of his discourses sufficiently overbalanced 
this defect. 

Some time previous to this, his attention had been 
excited by the expedition of his early friend and coU^e 
companion, Mr Mungo Park ; he therefore set himself 
to study the history of Africa ; and in the year 1799> 
he published the fruit of his researches in a small vo- 
lume, entitled, A HUtorical and Philosophical Sketch 
of the DUcaveries and SettlemenU of the Europeans 
in Northern and Western Africa, at the close of the 
eighteenth century, a work which was favourably re- 
ceived by the public. 

Leyden's thirst for knowledge being thus increased, 
he made an offer of his services to the African Society 
in 1802, to undertake a journey of discovery through 
that continent, which, however, was not accepted ; and 


no prospect appearing of any settlement for him in the 
ministry, his friends, becoming anxious that his re- 
markable abilities should not lie dormant, they repre- 
sented him to the Right Honourable W. Dundas, at 
that time a member of the Board of Control, as a per- 
son eminently calculated for investigating the languages 
and literature of India. Mr Dundas instantly embraced 
this proposal, but signified, at the same time, that 
he had no appointment at his disposal except that of an 
assistant-surgeon, for which it would be necessary that 
Mr Leyden should qualify himself. Such an appoint- 
ment, especially when he was assured that his employ- 
ment would entirely be confined to literary researches, 
was eagerly accepted by him, and he immediately com- 
menced the necessary studies. In the short space of six 
months, he obtained a diploma from the College of Sur- 
geons of Edinburgh, and the degree of M.D. from the 
University of St Andrews. 

Early in December the same year, he went to Lon- 
don ; and having gone through the proper examinations, 
he received his appointment, with orders to sail in the 
Hindostan, then on the eve of departure ; but, owing 
to sickness, he was fortunately prevented from going in 
that ship, (which was lost in going down the Thames,) 
and through the kind interference of his friends, he 
obtained permission to take his passage in the Hugh 
Inglis, in which ship he left England in the month (tf 
April 1803. 

On his arrival at Madras, he was appointed surgeon 

308 HI8T0R7 OF KELSO. 

to the comnussianeire for survejring the ceded digtricts, 
with directioiiB to devote his attention to the natnral 
histoiy, manners, and languages of the Mjrsore ; but 
the effects of the climate, and his unwearied exertions 
to acquire the languages of the country, upon his health, 
soon rendered it neeessarj^ for him t6 leaive the presi- 
dency of Madras,' and to go to Prince of Wales Island. 
Previously, however, he had' teqUired a general know- 
ledge of the Arabic, Persic^' Hindostani, Mahratta,'Ta- 
mul, Telinga, Omara, Sansdit, Malayalam; Malay, 
and Armenian languages, and had succeeded in trans- 
lating the famous Jewish tablets of brass, preserved 
in the synagogue of Cochin, arid likewise 'dedphered 
several inscriptions in the andent Canara and Tamul 
dialects, which had baffled the attempts of all preceding 

During his Stay at Prince of Wales Mand, he visit- 
ed Achi, and some other places on the coast of Suma- 
tra and the Malayan peninsula, pursuing with unaba- 
ted ardour, and with considerable success, the objecte 
of his mission. 

In 1806, he left Prince of Wales Island, and arrived 
at Calcutta^ where he was most kindly recdved by the 
Governor-general, EarlMinto,; and received the ap- 
pointment of a ProfesscMT in theCoUege of Bengal, ii^hidr» 
however, was soon exchanged for that of a Judge of the 
twenty-four Pergunnahs of Calcutta, ah office of consi* 
derable emolument. ' 

On the expedition against the island ci Java, in 181 1 1 


he aocompanied Lord Minto, in ocder to act. aa intep- 
{ireter with the native princes in the neighbourhood of 
the Dutch settlements, and also to pursue hiy researehes 
respecting the language, &c., of the different tribes of 
that island, and to assist in settling the govemm6ni«of 
the country. But on the surrender of Batavi% in Ut 
eagerness to examine a library in that dty, where mtatdf 
valuable Indian MSS. were 8i;ipposed to be dqiositedl 
he incautiously went into an apartment without its h^ 
ing aired, (although it had b^en shut up for some timt^ 
and on his coming out was seized with a shivering aad 
fever, which cut him off in three days, in the S6th yeat 
of his age, and on the very day when the island of JTavm 
surrendered to the British arms. Lord Minta and M# 
Raffles saw the last sad offices done to Im mortal M« 
mains — *^ Thus," says Mr Morton, ^ Leyden dosed his 
'bright and brief career,' when his hopes ware higheat, 
and his fortune seemed most auspidous ; when he was 
advancing rapidly to that fame and distinction of whidi 
he was nobly amotions, and when hk merits had -ba* 
come suffidently known to cause hfan po he deeply aiid 
universally regretted." And Lord Minto^ in a speeda 
delivered at a visitation of the CoU^ie of Fort Williani, 
speaking of Dr Leyden, bears this honourable testi" 
mony to the disinterestedness of his chaiBCter ^-^^ Ifo 
man, whatever his condition might be, ever 
a mind so entirely exempt firom every sordid 
so n^ligent of fortune, and all its grovelling pnnruita 
—in a word, so entirdy disinterested— nor ever owned 


a spirit more firmly and nobly independent I speak 
of these things with some knowledge, and wish to re* 
cord a competent testimony to the fact, that within my 
experience, Dr Leyden never, in any instance, solicited 
an object of personal interest ; nor, as I believe, ever 
interrupted his higher pursuits, to waste a moment's 
thought on these minor cares« "Whatever trust or ad* 
vancement may at some periods have improved his per- 
sonal situation, have been, without exception, tendered, 
and in a manner thrust upon his acceptance, unsolidt- 
edf uncontemplated, and unexpected. To this exemp* 
tion firom cupidity, was allied every generous virtue 
worthy of those smiles of fortune which he disdained 
to court, and amongst many estimable features of his 
character, an ardent love of justice, and a vehement 
abhorrence of oppression, were not less prominent than 
the other high qualities I have already described.*** 

In addition to the foregoing, we subjoin the following 
list of literary characters bom in this county, of 
whom little remains on record, that we can find, ex- 
cept their names :-— 

Peter Fenton, a monk of Melrose, who wrote 
'' The Bruce," in metre, about the year 1369- Chal- 

* Life of Leyden, p. 1xxi.«»lxxiv. 


John Rutherford, minister of Cults, and provost 
of St Salvator's C!ollege, St Andrews, was bom at Jed<*> 
burgh, about 1572. He published a Commentstry on 
Aristotle's Poetics, and a work, entitled Commentario* 
rum de Arte Disserendiy in four books. In 1564, he 
was appointed, along with George Buchaman, John 
Knox, and others, to confer about the causes appertain- 
ing to the jurisdiction of the kirk, and to report their 
judgment to the next Convention. Dr Irving. 

Jane Elliot, authoress of that elegant border bal- 
lad, ** The Flowers of the Forest," was bom at Minto, 
in 1726. Chalmers. 

George Barry, D.D. author of the History of the 
Orkney Islands, was a native of Roxburghshire. 

In connexion with the eminent men which the coun« 
ty of Roxburgh has produced, it would be unjust to paw 
without notice the name of William Dawson, Es^^ 
who, although a native of the neighbouriug shire (Ber- 
wick), was the first to introduce the new mode of huSH 
bandry, so successfully practised by himself, and so be- 
neficially followed by the agriculturists in Roxburgh- 
shire. If it is to be recrarded as a benefit conferred on 

812 HfSTOBY OV XEL80. 

the Gommunitf to increase the national reaources of thia 
ooontiy bjr augmenting the productiveness of the 8oQ» 
Mr Dawson must be allowed to be a proper object of 
puUie gratitude. It is now uniyersally acknowledged, 
that this gentleman first introduced, and first set the 
example, in his native district, of the perfect system of 
farming, now prevalent in this and the adjoining ooon* 
ties, where, it is believed, the true jHrindples oi good 
farming are more thoroughly understood as a s c icnesb 
and more eflkiently carried into practice, than perhapa 
in any other part of the kingdom. The most striking 
feature of Mr Dawson*s improvement upon the former 
practice, was the introduction of the drilled turnip hu»* 
bandry. Previous to his time, the advantages of a pro* 
per rotation of crops was understood; it was also 
known that land ought to be followed, in order that it 
might be cleaned and restored ; but the growth and ex* 
tension of any proper system founded on these prind* 
pies, was much obstructed by the expenses incurred in 
the vacant and unproductive year of fidlowing. It was 
with the view of providing a remedy for this evil, that 
Mr Dawson commenced his speculations; and, after 
mudi observation of the practice in various parts of 
England, where farming was then best understood, ma- 
tured and assisted by the vigorous powers of his own 
mind, he succeeded in at once establishing, in its higfa^ 
est perfection, the cultivation of the turnip in drills, a 
system which was found to be the most efieetual mode 
of cleaning and restoring vigour to the land, whiles at 


the same time, the crop produced at least repaid ih^ 
expense of raising it. The introduction of this system 
has, it is well known, been followed by the most im- 
portant and beneficial alteration upon the whole prac- 
tice of agriculture. Mr Dawson was also the author 
of a small tract, entitled, ^^ Thoughts on Public Trusts^'' 
published about 1810, which was favourably noticed in 
the Edinburgh Review ; and also, of a ** Ti:^eatise on the 
Poverty of Nations/' in which he anticipates later po-> 
litical economists in some of their most important con- 
clusions, particularly regarding the benefits of a free 
com trade. As an author, Mr Dawson was original and* 
ingenious. His style, however, is rude and unpolished. 


Or Commissioners fir ike Skire ^tfRoxlntrghj from Ae year 
1607, to 1706, the last ofihe Scottish ParHamenis. 

19ih liBreb, 1607 — Sir John K«r. 

12th October, 1612 — ^William Douglas, younger ni Cavers. 

37th May, 1617 — William Douglas, younger of Cavers, and 
the Lafa'd of laddell* 

Ist June, 1621— The Laird <^ Liddell, and Wilfiam iDooglas 
ofCavera. . i 

15th September, 1628, and 18th June, 1633— William Dou- 
glas of Cavers, and Sir Walter Riddell i^ that ilk. 


Second IVliumeiit of King Charlei L, 1641— Sir QSSbett 

Elliot of Stobft. 
Third Parliament of King Charles L, 1644— Sir Thomas 

Ker of Cavers ; John Ker of Lochetoure. 
First Triennial Parliament of King Charles L, 1645 — Laird 

of Cavers ; Laird of Stobs. 
Second Triennial Parliament, 1649 — Sir Thomas Ker of 

Ditto, Ditto, 1650-1— Laird of Cavers ; Laird of Stobs. 
First Session first Parliament of King CharlcB IL, 1st Jii* 

noary, 1661 — Sir Archibald Douglas of Cavers, and Sir 

Gilbert Elliot of Stobs. 
Second Session of the first Parliament of King Charles IL, 

8ih May, 1662— Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs. 
Third Session of King Charles XL, 18th June, 1663— Sir 

Archibald Douglas of Cavers, and Sir Grilbert Elliot of 

Second Parliament of King Cbarles 11., 19th October, 1669 

— Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead, and Sir Gilbert El- 
liot of Stobs. 
Second Session of second Parliament of King Charles IL, 

22d July, 1670 — Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead, and 

Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs. 
Third Session of second Parliament of King Charles IL, 

12th June, 1672 — Sir Andrew Ker of Greenhead, and 

Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs. 
Fourth Session of second Parliament of King Charles IL^ 

12th November, 1673 — Sir Andrew Ker of Ghneenhead, 

and Sir Gilbert Elliot of Stobs. 
Third Parliament of King Charles IL, 28th July, 1681— 

Henry M^Dougall of Makerstoune, and Robert Pringle 

of StitcheU. 


First Ptoliaiiient of King James VIL, 23d April, ie85---l^ 
William Ker of Greeuhead, and Sir Patrick Scott of 

Second Session of King James VII., 29th April, 1686 — Sir 
William Ker of Greenhead, and Sir Patrick Scott of 

Convention of Estates— 14th March, 1689— Sir William 
Elliot of Stobs, and Sir Patrick Scott of Ancrum. 

First Parliament of William and Mary, 1st June, 1689 — Sir 
Patrick Scott of Ancrum. 

Second session of William and Mary, 15th April, 169(K— Sir 
Patrick Scott of Ancrum. 

Thiid Session of William and Mary, 8d September, 1690— 
Sir John Ridddl of that ilk. 

Fourth Session of William and Mary, 15th April, 1693— Sir 
William Douglas of Cavers; Sir John Riddell of that 
ilk ; William Bennett, younger of Grubett ; and John 
Scott of WeUs. 

Kfth Session of first Ptoliament of William, 9th May, 1695 
— Sir John Riddell of that ilk ; William Bennett, young- 
er of Grubbet ; and John Scott of Wells. 

Sixth Session of first Parliament of King William, 8th Sep- 
tember, 1696— Sir John Riddefl of that ilk; Sir WH- 
liam Douglas of Cavers ; William Bennett, younger of 
Grubbet, and John Scott of Wells. 

Seventh session of first Parliament of William and Mary, 
19th July, 1698— Sir John Riddell of that ilk ; William 
Bennet, younger of Grubbet ; John Scott of Wells ; and 
James Scott of Gala. 

Eighth Session of first Parliament of William, 21st May, 
1700 — ^William Bennet, younger of Grubbet; John Scot 
of Wells ; James Scott of Gala ; and Archibald Douglas 
of Cavers. 


Ninth Sestion of first Parliament of William, SMk Otttober, 
ITMV— William Bennet, younger of Oral>bet ; Jdm Soot 
of Wells ; James Scot of Gala ; and Afeldbald Donglaa 
of Cavers. 

ParUameni of. Queen Anne^ 9th June,^ 170S— Jehn^fidett of 
Wells; Archibald Douglas of Cavers* • *•- ** 

6th May, 1703-^1% TfllliamKer of Ghreenliead; Sir Gilbert 
Elliot of Headshaw ; Archibald DouglM'of^ Cavetst Wil- 
liam Bennet <tf GrubbeL 

Second Session of the first Parliament of QMen Amle^ 6th 
July, 1704^SIr WillkmKer of Greenhead; fiKr Gil- 
bert Elliot of Headshaw ; ArehihsldDol^ilas of Gamers ; 
and William Bennet of Gfubbet. 

Third Sesmon of first Ptoliamient of Queen Anne^ SSHk J^nne» 
17flfr.^-Sir William Ker <^Greenhead; Sir Gilbert El- 
liot of Mlnto; Archibald Doi^las of Cv^ers; William 
Bonnet of Grubbet. • ^ . 

Sd October, 1706— Sir William Ker of Graenhead; Sir Gil- 
bert Elliot of MSnto; Archibald Douglas (rf Cavers; mid 
William Bennet of Gful>bet. 





rfKdso mto a Barony. 


OuRE Souerane Lord^ and Estaittas of this present Parliament^ calling to 
remembrance the gade> trew^ and memorable semioe done to his Mi^ 
and lieges be his trest oonsing Robert Lord Roxburgh^ and his predecea« 
sonris^ in all tymes^ and at all neoessar occasionis bigane^ Assweill in tyme 
of peax as in tyme of weir : And als the great cair^ earnest xeall and ttMm 
nes of the said lord to yndirly all gode offices and semioes tending lo his 
hienes honor^ weill and projflfbitt of the reahne^ not onHe in the dischaiw 
geing of the office of the waidanrie in the MIddill Marches of this reahne 
befoir the happie vnioon of baith the realmes in his hienes persone, bot 
lykwayes in the execatioim of diuerse vtheris comissionis for quieting of 
tile lait bordooris, and repressing of all insolencie and disordonr widi& 
the samin, at all occasionis bigane^ vpoon his great charges and expends. 
In the quhiUc gude offices, the said Robert Lord of Rozbm^h hes disdiav* 
gdt his duetie maist faithfullie, as is notoorlie knawin to his Ma^ and «§• 
taittis of this present Parliament, quhairvpoon sufficient tryell hes 
tane befoire thame ; and being of gude deliberat mynd, that the 
gude offices and seruices done be the said Robert Lord of Rozborg^ iMk 
the great charges sustenit be him, sail be in sum measure reoompeiMit; 
and finding na better meane for the present than that the haill temporall 
landis and i^tis, qnhilkis pertenit of befoir to the Abbade of Kelso and 


Cell of LemdiagDy quhilk is tne pendick of the said Abl«eie» with the 
tbbej plaeesy dosteris, jrairdis^ orchardiiy and til aismeiitis and comodltris 
within the prednctis of the samin, with all and baill that part of the 
towne landis and manonn of Sproustonny njlnis, mylnhindis, nmltaris^ 
sncidn^ and haill pairtis and pendiclis thairof, (pihilkis pertenit of befirfr lo 
the priories of Cluixterhoiise, as ane pairt of the patrimonie thairof, and no^ 
pertenis to his Ma^ be the act of anezation of the kirk landis, within this 
lealme, to the Crowne^ with all and sindrie the teyndschewcsy vtheris teyndia^ 
iroitis^ rends, proventis, cmolamentis, and doeties, aliweill personages aa 
vicarages of all and aindrie the psrodi kirUs of the samin bendkes, saU be 
grantit and disponitto the ssid Robert Lotd Rozl(iir]^, his airis maiU and 
assignsis heretabUe, as Ibllowis :— As alao eonaidering that WiUiani, Coo- 
mendator of Kelso, fbrmony gndeandrcttoaablecanaBis, with eoosentof Us 
yconimns, hes rengnit, remindtyand dimittit in hishdnes hands, all and 
haill the ssid benefice of KdsoandCdlof LeaniehagD,qnhilk is ane pendicle 
thairof, assaid is, haill teyndis, ftiiitllff,«idrentisof thekirkisof thesaaain^ 
(except hdreftir exoeptit,) with the abbay places of Kelio and Lennehago, 
doateria, honssis, biggingis, yairdis, orchardia, and all landis within the 
piecinctis thersof, to the d&ct the aamyn may be disponit be his Mai* t» 
the said Robert Lord Rozboi;^, and Us IbraudiB, in maner and lo tha 
efibct following :— As the said dimissionn beiris, Th Aimroim Us hcinei^ 
withadTyseof thesaidisEstaittisof Parliament, efUr soffidcat tiyell taaa 
thairin be thame of the haill premisses, and that the ssmyn ar aene icn- 
sonable and profitable causses for the weiU of his Ma<>** crowne and reafan^ 
hes disBolTit, and be thir pRaentis ^yTK>i"<«, all and aindrie t frnp o wH 
hoidii and rentis, pertcmng of bcftnr lo the said AbbMie of Kelso and Cell 
of Lesmdiagi^ with that pair! Miaaid, of aU and bain die saidia landfab 
manomfs, and towne of Spkoastoin, myhis, mylnlandis, maimia» aacki^ 
and haill pairtis and pendidis diairof, free the said ad of aasuliou of Che 
samin to the Growne, and flra aD Tthsris setis of sni nalliwn qnhatanm- 
evir ; SxctPTAim alwmyea ftirth and fra the present diasdmtoiui all aai 
haill the hmdia of Bothin, wKh the myln of the samin ; the landis of Tsfe- 
dengh; the landia i^ HaiiMd, with the loiire, fDrtibee, and maner plaee 
of the samin; and die bndia of BowadirilbiH, with housses* big^i^pi 
yairdis, toftis, croftis, pairtisy pendiclis, antiexis, conncxis, temwnta^ t«ft» 
nandres, seruice of frie tcimentis of the saidis haill landia, with thair pcill« 
nentis lytnd within the oonstebnlarieOf Hadingtonaand ftedomeof JBdis* 
burgh, to Sir Jdhne Cokbome of Ormestoon Knight, Jnstiee Ctek« to ha 
halditt of oar Boaeninc lord, in all tyme cmning, Ibr the addls paymcM 
of tnentie cwa piindis, tnelf pennais, conforme to his inf e fta e nt of the an* 
min, the saidis Lord of Ormestoon, his airis and snccesssorisin the saiile 
lands; KELizTAifP the wid Lord of Roxborgh and hia mcowsqwiia in li» 
lordschip of Kdso, of the fewfttme duetie ydrlie of tacntie tu 
pcnnds, at ourv soaaanclordisyaad hishkiiaooUectorshaadisjoadi 


lyk bes diaaolnity and be tbir presentndiaioliiis all and sindrie the teynd* 
sefaeTes and vtheris teyndis, fruitis^ rentia^ proventis^ and emdmnentisy ala- 
weiilpenonage aa mange of all andsmdiw the paroeh Idrkhi of the aaidis 
benefices of Kelao and Leanehago, fra the aaidis benefices and fiindationia 
thairof, quhairvpoun the samia procedit» except the tejndisy parsonage^ 
and. vicarage of the kirkis of Home^ GaEdoon, and Fogo, posseasit be Alex* 
ander^ Erie of Home^ Lord JcdbuinJi and Douglas^ &e>, and the teyndis of 
the landis and baionie of Bmsfieid, lyand within the pazochin of Kdso, also 
pertoikig to the said.Erle, being the anld kyndlie poasesaionia of the honsses 
of Home ; and lyfcwayes exceptand the Idrk of Grenelaw^ and teyndis thaii^ 
o^the^tronage qnhaixof pertenia toGeoige, Erleof Dunbar, LmdBerwidc, 
be his hienes gift and dispositioun^ qnhiUds kirlds. and teyndis zespectiae 
ibiraaidis sail nawsyes be comprdiendit ynder ibis present dissolutiowi» 
hot is and sail be ^ecialie exceptit thairfra, and fnrth of the infefltment 
following : And lykwayes bes dissoluit, and be thir presentis dissolois, 
the saidis abbay, places, dosteris, yairdis, orchaidis, and all aismentis and 
ocnnmoditeis within the prednctis of the samin, (ra the saidis benefices; 
and hea sopprsssity and be thir presentis suppressis, the names and me- 
moreis of Uie same benefices for now and euir. To the eflfect the same 
bail] temporall landis and rentis of the saidis benefices, (except bffoir ex- 
ceptit) and that pairt of the saidis haill towne landis and manoois of 
Sproustoun, with thair forsaidis, quhiUds perteinit of befoir to the said 
priorie of Charterbonse, with all and sindrie the teyndsdieves, vtheris 
tejmdis, fruittis, rentis, proventis, emohunentis, and dueteis, abweill 
personages as vicarages, of all and sindrie the paroeh kirkis of the samin 
benefices, (except befoir exceptit ;) togiddsr alsua with the saidis abbay 
places, dosteris, yairdis, and all boondis within the prednctis of the 
sarnie, may be grantit and disponit be his Ma^ to the sidd Robert, 
Lord of Roxburgh, his airie maill and asajgnais foirsaidis, and may be 
ereetit to thame be his hienes in ane haill and Me iordsohip- and baroniei 
wkh all privflegea, fnwinitris, and juiiadictionis pertaining to'ane frie 
ktrdscbip and baronie, hsldia of his hka^m^mmd him ■iwiismohiIb in file 
bkndie, ffiir yeidie paymoijt of fimr hundreth maikis^. Bsoney of this 
xeahne, in name of UcDohe.lcnne* As for payment to the ministres serva- 
ing the euie at die saidis kidds, to* be nominat and preaentlt end deelit 
be his Ma^, and his sueceesouns, of thur yeizlie stipendis, te be mode* 
iflit be the commissionaris appointit to that efibct ; and thairfoir, to be 
fitie of payment of ell monkis portionis, first firoittes, lyft ytxaie, thrid, 
and all vtheris dueteis quhairvnto his hienes, his predecesaouria or suo^ 
oessouris had, bes, or ony wayes may haue or pretend licht in ony tyaw 
cuming, be vertue of quhatsumeuir law, statute, actis of perliaaeBt,, 
counsaill, ev conventioun, quhatsumeuir maid, or to be maid, in the eomm 
tndr; quhilkis his hienis^and estaittis foirsaidis, §ot the onaKS ebene 


gpeoefint» rcMBneai and diidiafgct for cair, be thir prcMntiip oiduiiv 
the nid lordaehip to be cdlit in ell tyine cnmiiig the knndechip end faft- 
lODie of Helklene. And tbet sufficient heretebW inleftmeBt nay be graatat 
be his Ma^ thairvpon, in favour of the seid Hubert, I..ord of Hosborgh, 
and his foirsaidis^ in sie dew and competent fiirmet as effieris ; fibr making 
of the quhilk infcftment this act sail be ane sufficient warrand. Quhilk 
infeftmenty lykwayes, oure said sooenne lord, with adryie of his safclia 
estaittit^ now as gif the aamin were periytit and maidp and than, aa now, 
lor hifl hienesy and his suoocssoorisp ratefeia and appteria te enir, be 
thir preaentis : Ueaerreand alwayea and cKeepCand furth of this pment 
aet> and erectioun foirsaidp all regalitie and all pririlcgea thairof, gif ony 
be posa cBs it be the abbottia and titularis of Kelso of bcfuirp to renane with 
onr sonerane hmlt and his hicnes successoorisy and thair crowncy ii 
parablie in all tyme heircftir.— jicto ^PwrL toL IV. p. 399-400l 

A Reeoni tfthe Reniah ffthe Mtmattrry of Kelm^oMwdi OMcfiknr 
Tc9nporaUlk% viz. The ancient Exinbiishmenis ofihar Lamd* wM- 
in and ^cithaut the Pitrr/hs, awl of the ancient Ismes of tkeir 
Granyes ajid Dominical Lamls^ as of their Spiritualities^ mtmefy, 
the JhrnsioHS due in t/wir Churches ; and tlui ancient Grant vftkdr 
Temiks^ wherewr made^ under abstracL — From the Oriyimal MS» 


** Thr Bfonka of the said Monastery had in the county of Has- 
buiKh, in trmporaUties tlic grange of Hcvcden, with the rilb^ iu 
....... where thry had a lordship, in which they pua» 

scsaul fife camicates of laud, and when; they might keep a flock cC 
about thirty-four ewes, besides pasture for thdr oxen, llicj had tkmm 
eight husband-lands and one bovatc of land» of which the aerrioe waa ^ 
fidtows : ris. in every week in theaommcr they perteiaad a joomey wilh 
one horse to Berwick, and the horse carried three boUa of oom, or IwobollB 
of salt, or one boll and a half of coala ; and in winter the aame Jouraey^ 
but the horse carriLnl only two bolls of oom» and one and a half boUs aak, 
or Olio boU and a firlot of coals. And cvvry week of the year, when they 
did not go to Berwick, some occupant perlunned one diet of the work en* 
joined to him. And when they did »oi go lo Berwick, every hi 
peribnucd two days wurk ; and iu autumn when they did nut go lo 
wick, they |ierfunuvd three da}s wurk, and then every h 
riceivt-d Hiih Im k^uc-Uud two uxlu, uuu hurMTj three chaldcia of 


six bolls of barley, tnd three boUi of wfaett. And afterwiidey wlien Rkliu^^ 

Abbot, had converted this serricc into money, they agun letwrned their 

lease, and eadi one gave for his land annually ei^^taen sfaQlinga- They 

had there half a carrneate of land whidi bdonged to Km^jtk of Bovcden, 

whieh Richard of Delholni possessed. They had there nineCeett eoCtagca, 

eighteen of which paid annually twehre pence and six days woik in amtamn, 

they recdfing their maintenanoe ; ibr which they assisted in the washing 

and shearing of the sheep: and the nineteoith cottage paid c4;lileeBpeiiea 

and nine days work. They had there two brew-hoosesy whidi rented at 

two merks annually ; also a mill, whidi rented at nine merka. They liad 

at Ilawden one carrneate of land, which they always kept in their oiwa 

posspsaion. They had at Spronston two carraeates of land, which liiey 

were wont to cultivate with two ploughs, with the common pasture of cht 

said village for twdve oxen, four young horses, and three hundred hogs 

(young sheep). They had there a bovate of land, which Hugh Cay hM, 

which used to pay annually ten shillings. They had there six cottages^ 

one of which, that which was next to the vicar's house, had aix acrss of 

land pertaining to it, with a brew-house, which rented annually at sis 

shillings ; and othor five cottages, which lay in the other extremity of the 

village of Latham, each of which contained one and a half acres of land^ 

and paid annually three shillings and six days work. At Soottoun they had 

two acres of land and common pasture for four hundred wedders (sheep), 

together with the liberty of digging ss much turf as they pieased in that 

common. And they were bound to find one man in the miln in that place, 

and one hogg ; and there they were wont to grind their com of Colpin* 

hope; but aHerwards, when they had the liberty of a mill at Colpin- 

hope, and grinding their com at their own mill, they gave annually 

to the mill of Scottoun half a merk. They had a tenement at Yetfiam, 

near to the mill at Colpinhope, three acrea of land, with tho cornnw 

pasture of Yetham, which the miller of Colpinhope used to hold : and 

there the ntionks were wont to have and make a receptacle of their 

goods of Colpinhope, when they ssw danger flmn say other quarter. At 

Clifton they had seven acres of land, which the superior of the kirk of 

Mole had given for providing communion elementa. They had the gimga 

of C<^nhope, situated beyond the march, wliidi they lahoored with two 

ploughs for the winter season, and had pasture for twenty osen, twenty 

cows, the produce of which they disposed of annually, five hundwd ewes^ 

and two hundred two-year-olda. At Mole, they had in Altonhutn four 

acres of arable land and meadow, with pasture for three hundred sheep, widi 

free egress and ingress, and ten oxen, and four work horses ; and they hai 

in Ae wood of ScroggesstaA and flack for all their poaaessions, and tiashsr 

ibr the reparation of their carta. They had in the8a]ncplaee,aBdiieHrto 


4io land of Xhooni Fahoer, four acres of knd, which thdr ihephcni uwd 
to hold, with the paattirc for hia flocks, and there he had a 
They had ia the viUage of Mole fourteeii cottages, each of iH&idi 
topaj aumallj two shiUingi and six daja work ; and they had the 
nion nae of the said tiUagCy and had lilKwise the privilege of carrying thflb 
caUle to such places of pasture as the abbotTs peofile were accn sts m ed la 
occupy. They had there one brew-honacwhidi paid annually half a BcA. 
TheyhadalSinigidyade^in the said tencnent, seven acres of land ftrtWr 

Wedder-aheep, from which plaoe» ftr flfteen days before the nativity of St 
John the Baptiat, and for flfteen dayt subsequent, they were TCnoved;sBd 
during that period the lord of the manor appropriated a portion of hia owm 
pasture lands to the use of their cattle. They had at Stcplaw four aoaa 
of landj which i^dam of Rule and Janet hia wife had given lo them. They 
had alio four acres of land at J^ethlado, in which they mi^t place their 
fohla, and shut up their iheep when they were beyond Beanchope. Tliey 
had a grange in the ssme place, which was cdled Kcsko, which they labour* 
ed with two plougha ; and there they had in pasture twenty oun, twenty 
cows, a hundred and a half of ewG-sheep and two hundred wedders. Hkj 
bad at Provisit seven acres of land, and a common for three hundred 
idMsep, which were wont to pay to the csublishment half a mctk. Hkj 
bad in the burgh of Jedwood ciRhtpcnoe of annual cess on the lands 
which belonged to Mr Richard Tossard in Castlqjate. They had in a 
tenement of Stapilgorboun at An^cnin, one carrucate of land, whidi 
used to pay annuidly five merks. They had, in the tenement in Killoa- 
bem, forty acres of land belonging to their chnrdi of KiUosbem, vrith a 
brew-bouse and other common privileges, which were wont to pay two 
merks. They hsd. at Ilqwkelcow, three acres of land, which were wont 
to pay annually thrco shillings. They had, near the chnrdi of Innsrle. 
tluui, one acre of land, which uaed to pay annually iwelvv pence. They 
bad, in a tenement at Selkirk, land, belonging to die King, which ww 
called Bridge-land, and which contuned six acrea ; and they had a paatUKs 
hi Mincbemor. They had the Barony of Balden, with the krdshipa^ 
granges, and husband-landa, mills, and other pertin en dos belooging there* 
to. They had, in the aame place, the Grange of Flandoon, with ti 
one cottages, whidi rented annually at ten ponnda. lliey had one 
at Wittcmar, which was usually valued upon asscmment lo the esCihladk- 
ment at ten merks, which they could till with two pkmghs. IliBy Imd^ 
in the village of Wittcmar, ten hnabsnd-landa, each of which wos wonl 
to pay annually six shillings ; and doing the same Rcrviee aa the huabnadb 
lands of Bowlden did. They had there seven cottages, escfa of which hai 
one acre of land ; three of which paid annually six shilliiip^ and the < 
thav \md annually four ihillings and siipcnaf ; and the seventh 


pftid sixteen pence ; and performing, in like manner^ the same service as 
the cottages of Bowlden did. There was there one cottage, without Und, 
which rented annually at sixpence. They had, in the said barony, one 
farm at Witelaw, which they were wont to cultivate with three ploughs ; 
and they had in pastore two flocks of wedders, and twenty-flve young 
horses. They had there one carrucate of land, which William Gudeal 
held, which was valued annually at fourteen shillings* There were at the 
same place eighteen cottages ; four of which paid each, annually, two 
ahiUings ; and each of the others paid eighteen pence ; and some 6f which 
performed six days work* They had there one brew-house, which rented 
annually at fire shillings. They had in the said barony the form of Ha- 
liden, which they used to till with three ploughs, where they could havtt 
twenty-four cows, sixty wedders, and two hundred ewes* They had the 
village of Bowlden, in which there were twenty-eight husbaiid-lands, 
each of which rented annually at six shillings and eightpence, at the day 
of Penticost and St Martin, and doing such services : vis. each husbandman, 
with his wifo and famfly, reaping in autumn for four days ; and each bus* 
bendman perfonning similar serrices in autumn, with two men, tor five 
following days ; and each husbandman drove a waggon of peats from Gor- 
don, towards the stable-yard, for one day ; and each drove a waggon-load 
of peats from the stable-yard as for as to the abbacy, in summer, and no 
fkrdier ; and each husbuidman made a journey, with one horse, fWim 
Berwick, at one period in the year, and had his victuals from the monas* 
tery when they performed such service ; and each were wont to till every 
year on the Grrange of Newton one acre and a half of land, and harrowed 
with one horse fat one day ; and each was in use to provide one man for 
the waahing of the sheep, and another for the shearing of them, without 
victuals ; and they were wont to do suit and service to the abbofs eourig 
and carried the com in autumn with one waggon, for one day ; and they 
carried the abbot's wool from the barrony even to the abbacy ; and they 
wero bound to find carriages Ibr themadves beyond the moor, towards 
Lessenudiagu. Richard, the abbot, changed tlds service into money, by 
the assessment of his brother, WHliam of Alincromb, then of his diocese. 
They had thero thirty-six cottages, which contained twelve acres and a 
half, and half a rood of land, wldch rented annually at fifty-five ahUlingii 
and ei^^t pence, more or less ; and each cottage perfonned hi autumn nine 
days work by one man, and found a man for the waahing and shearing df 
the sheep. They had there fbur brew-houses, each of which rented an* 
nually at ten shillings ; and one lagen* and a half of ale was given to the 

* The higen slid half lagen were equal to about seven quarts, that tlie sbbot 
had for his penny ; which had, however, for more power than tbieeef oar pennies. 


nbbot for a penny. The lord abbot could take from each house of thevfl- 
lage^ beibra Christmas, one cock for a penny. They had tlicrc one mill, 
which paid annually eight merks. They had also^ in the village of Selkirk, 
which pertained to the abbotj one carrucate and a half of land^ which paid 
annually ten merks. They had there fifteen husband-lands, each of which 
contained one borate of land, which rented annually at four shillings, and 
performing yearly to the superior nine days work in autumn ; and two 
husbandmen provided a waggon to carry peats from the stable-yard to the 
abbacy ; and two of them also provided a horse for making a journey from 
Berwick to the abbacy, as the husbandmen of Boulden did. They had 
there sixteen cottages, which contained ten acres of land ; fifteen of which 
paid annually twelve pence, and one two shillings a-year, and performing 
the same service as the cottages of Boulden did* They had Uiere three 
brew-houses, each of which rented annually at six shillings and ei^^t 
pence. They had there also one mill, which paid annually Bve meriLs. 
They had likewise beyond their jurisdiction, apart by itself,, thirty acres 
of land, which rented annually at five shillings. They had also four acres 
of land, which was called the land of Richard Gate, which rented annual- 
ly at six shillings. They had, in the same barrony, the village of Mid- 
dleham. And there were there twenty-nine husband-lands, twenty-seven 
of which paid annually half a merk, with all the service which the hus- 
bandmen were bound to perform ; and the other two, which belonged to Ber- 
nard, the son of Garvius, were free, by paying annually for the same twelve 
shillings, and working to the superior for three days in the year, and per- 
forming in autumn twelve days work. This service was changed into money 
by Abbot Richard, in the same manner as the village of Boulden, that is to 
say, every husbandman was assessed for eleven shillings. They had there 
eleven cottages, which contained nine acres of land, each of which were 
wont to pay annually eighteen pence. They had there one brew-house, 
which used to pay annually half a mark, and performing the same service 
as the cottages of Boulden did. They had there one mill, which was 
wont, together with the miln of Boiddcn, to pay annually twenty-one 
merks. They had in the same place the farm of Newton, which they 
used to till with seven ploughs, where they could have twenty-four oxen 
and six cows in summer, and sixty in winter at forage, 1 000 ewes, sixty 
hogs, and work-horses sufficient for their ploughs, besides carts for hay. 
They had at Clary law twenty-one cottages, each of which had three acres, 
less one rood, of land, and paid annually two bolls of meal, and weeded 
all the com on the Grange of Newton ; and they had two cows at pas- 
ture, the increase of which they removed at the end of the year. They 
had at Malcarviston two carrucates of land, and pasture for 300 lambs, and 
at the end of the year these were removed, and other lambs brought in. 
They were wopt to be valued annually at forty shillings. They had also 


nt MikarviBtOR twelve cottages, and each o£ these had one toft and half 
an acre of knd, and had two eowfi in common pasture; four of wfaieh ool» 
tagea returned each annually four ddUings and nine daya work ; and each 
of the others paid annually eighteen pence and nine daya work. And then 
was there one brew-hoose, which had one acre of land, and rented annually 
at five shillings. They had at Mdokeaton one carrucate of land, which lo- 
tumed annually one merk, and possessed every privilege in the woods and 
tenement of Mddkeston. They had also in ano^er part four acres.of 
land, with a brew«house, which rented annually at five shillings. They had 
at Gordon half a carrucate of land belonging fo the church, with pastune 
for twenty-five young cattle, and 400 wedders, whenever the cattle of the 
superior were fed. beyond the meadow and farm. They had in die samfs 
place one carrucate of land, which belonged to Andrew Fraser, which had 
common libertiea with the village, by which means they returned an&tt- 
ally to the superior two merks, which stood effectuaL They had there 
alao six cottages, each of which had one acre and a half of land, wiA 
common privileges in the village, and which paid annually thirty waggon 
loada of dried peats, and performed nine daya work, which they were 
bound to do. They had there a toft for raiaing a chapeL They had theic 
two peat bogs for digging peats. They had at lipullea a sdte for ahouse, 
and receptacle to receive their fueL They had at Home one carrucate itf 
land, which had four tofts, and had common privileges with the village, 
which was wont to be assessed annually at six merks. They had there 
two bovates of land belonging to the church, with a toft and common pii« 
vil^gea. They had there one meadow, which waa called Harrestrother, 
and which contained thirty acres. They had there an annual retnm from 
the land of William Boswell of eleven shillings and sixpenca, 900 egga» 
and four days work. They had at Wedderky seven acres of landt with 
the toft and common privilegesi, and with pasture for 300 wedders. They 
had there the annual return of the land of Galfredus of Home, six shil- 
Ungs, sixpence, and ibur daya wock. They had in the land of WiUiam 
Dunrigden, the annual return of waird and relief. They had the fkrm of 
Speruldan, whidi they might cultivate with two ploughs, and had in pas* 
ture 1000 sheep and 400 weddera together in the moor, and. forty young 
horses fit fiir work, and hoggs as they were required* And they had ihere 
sixteen or more cottages, for their shepherds and their £uniUes ; an^ they 
had a bvew-houae, whidi rented annually at five ahillings. They had at 
Greenlaw half a carrucate of land, which the vicar was wont^to hold, and 
which was valued at two merka annually. They had in the same pUoe 
another half carrucate of land, which Allan, the son of Madiew, posaasa* 
cd, which used' to be valued annually • - . - - They hfidithere 
two bovates of land, with a toft and croft near the church, and ftfc acrea 
of land in another part, with a toft, which Richard of Giend|aiv hcld» by 


paying annnaUf one And a half mcrki. They bad at Lambden an amraal 
retnni of one pound of pepper froia the land of Wilham of Lambdoi. 
They had at Hoggie one carmcate of land, withoommon priTilegeiy whidi 
ofed to pay annuaUy four merki. They had in the etme plaee a ch^el* 
with two carraoatee of land and a miln^ which vied to pay annually ten 
nerks. They had at Langtown one toft to collect iti own tcntha. They 
had at Simpring two boTatet of land, whidi need to pay annnally one 
mcrk. They had at Honiden half a camicate of knd, «id paatme ior 
100 ewef> nx oxen, and two cows, and two hoEaea, where the ahbot'a 
horaea grazed, and one toft. They had there a meadow, which waa caOed 
HoUanmedo. They had there an ho^tal, with sixtaen acrei of land^ 
and aleo some fiehings upoo the Tweed, with its perdnenta in the teaa* 
ment of Upeetlinton, by procniing for the same one diaplain of good dw* 
meter, and a chapel thm, and the mutenanoe of two panpenb Thaj had 
at Bondington, near the church of St Laurenoe, two earracatea of land, 
with two tofbi, which need to pay annually lix meriaL They had thet9 
a toft near the church of St Mary, and a depositary under the dmrbh lor 
herbage. They had at Tweedmoath a church with a iani, and throe aeaea 
of land, which used to pay annually twenty shiDingi. ' They had Aem 
the fishing of Woodbome, which used to pay annually fimrteen nseitei 
They had there the fishing of Northrarum, which used to pay annually two 
merki. They had at Berwick the fishing of Berwick, which used to pay L.ML 
They had in the tolbooth an annual oeaa of 40s. They had in the aaaia 
place a mansion near the Bridge-house, for their own use. Tliey had in the 
Briggat and Waldegat, and elsewhere, an annual return of L.10, Ss. 9^ 
They had in Uddingat one mansion, with three shi^e, which John of 
Aula possessed, which used to pay annuaUy ten roerks. They had an es- 
tabUshment in the Tillage of St John, beyond the Scotch boundtry, an 
annaalcesB of 40s. They had, in the TiUage of Stripling, in a eertafn te- 
nement, twenty pence of annual cess. They had, in the irillage of Ranfra, 
in a oertun tenement, forty pence of annual oesa. They had, in iSbe vil- 
lage of Rothergkn, in a tenement which belonged to Darid of Iiondon, an 
inn, with free fire and candle. They had, in the city of Edinburgh, a cer- 
tain tenement, which was wont to pay annually sixteen pence. They had, 
in Wester Dodingston, twenty-four marks of annual cess. They had. In 
Easter Dodingston, ten merks of annual cess. They had the Tilli^ of 
Preston, which used to pay annually twenty pounds. They had the Til** 
lage of Hundibiketh, whidi used to pay annually ten merka. They had, 
in the Tillage of Haddington, a certain tenement, twelve pence of anvuai 
cess. They had, in the valley of Lander, half the vill^e of UDcilleslon, 
which used to pay annually twenty merks. They had, in the tenement ef 
Willeslade, six diiUings of annual cess. They had, in the tenement of 
Brokesmouth . . - • • which was in the possession of Lord 


Thoaia8R«n«lph, oiidinedtoptyanniiillyfiHrtyriiill^^ TheyhnAfim 

the land of £da of Brtkesmoothy wliidi had, in the fcfeaaid tenanen^ 

thiny-^me acret of land, eight shiUtnga of annual retnni. They had, in 

the village of Roxbure^ belonging to the Kipn an annaal ceag of lOOa. 

They had of annual Toturn, in the village of Roxburgh, in dtfibent teno* 

menta of the lame plaoe, L^ Sa. 9^ and one-fourth. They had, in the 

village and bni^ of Wcater Kekhou of annual return, L.0, 16b. i^ 

They had the village of Easier Keldiou in their own hands ; die anm of 

whidi estaUidimenta was annually • • » • • They had, in the 

same plaoe, in the peasession of freeboUUn i« - • » « They Itti 

then a lordship, which they used to till with oeven plough, and had In 

paature - « • • « They had there a miln, which uaed to be valned 

annually at twenty pounds. They had there a fishing upon the Twead^ 

firom the tencnent of Broiceflmonth, as fiur as the water of Eden^ Theyi 

had die chureh of Sprouston in rectory, whidb used to be valued annually 

at ftrty pounds. They had the dinrch of MoUe lor their own uaoi whidb 

was used to be valued annually at Ij.96, Ob. 6d. They had, in the 

paridi, by n oertain annual composition between thcm.and the 

of Mehose, far die tnth of the tythsa of Ugginge% L.iO^ 8s. They Ml 

the chunch of Mahsswell in nctoy, wbidt* used to be valued antaukllydit 

Ull,10&8d. They had/ in the chnrdi of BoteBbnig^, an annil pmi 

sionof I«.]8,iB.8d« They had the diureh of »Bonlden in mtsry, wUsii 

used to be valued annually at L.10, 18b. id* They had the Klng^sChnrdi 

at Selkirk in rectory, which uaed to be valued annually at twenty poundBb 

They had the AbbotTa Cfaurdi at Selkirk in reotory, vrfaidi wed to be vftk 

lued annually at forty shillingi. They had the diurch of Stapulgortoniii 

rectory, whidi used to be valued annually at L.IS, Os. 8d. They had the 

church of Dumfries in rectory, which was wont to be valued annually at 

twenty pounds. They had, in the church of JDougiay, thirteen ahilliBy 

and fbnrpence. They had the church of Traverflat in rectory, which used 

to be valued annually at L..0, 6a. Sd. They had the church of Killorbsn 

for their own use, which was wont to be valued annually at Ij.96, Ob. 8d» 

They had the diurdi of Morton, which used to pay annually ten ponnda. 

They had the diurch of Crawford^one in rectory, which was used to be 

valued annually at L.6, ISs. 4d. They had the diurch of Roberdeaton in 

reetory which uaed to be valued annuaUy at L.6, 13b. id. Iliey had 

the diurdi of Wiston in rectory, which used to be valued annually at 

L.6, ISs. id. They had the diurdi of Tinton in rectory, in which they 

had an annual penaion of forty shillings. They had the church of Lemon* 

deston in rectory, which used to be valued annually at ten pounds, "niay 

had the church of Dunsier in rectory, in which they had an annaal pan* 

sion of 106b. 8d. They had the church of Kilmaura in reetory, which 

used to be valued annually at forty pounds. They had the choreh of In- 


nerleitban in neUwj, which used to be Taliud annually at Ii.96» ISi. 4d. 
And they bad an annual peniion in vicarage. They had the diurch of 
Lyntonmoltheredge in rectory, which uaed to be valued annually at twenty 
merks. They had, beyond the Scotch boundary, the church of Cnltir in 
rectory, whidi used to be valued annually, with the pennon of the Tem- 
plars, at L.18, 138. 4d. They had the church of Calder in rectory, which 
uaed to be valued annually at L.96, 19i. 4d. They had the church oi Do- 
dingestone in rectory, which uaed to be valued annually at twenty pounds. 
They had the churdi of Cranston in rectory, whidi used to be valued an« 
nually at ten pounds. They had the church of Handerbyketh in rectory, 
which used to be valued annually at twenty pounds. They had the church 
of Gordon for their own use, which used to be valued annually at twenty 
pounds. Tliey had the church of Home for their own use, which used lo 
be valued annually at twenty pounds. They had the church of Grenelaw 
in rectory, which used to be valued annually at L.S6, 138. 4d. They had 
the church of Malcazston in rectory, which uaed to be valued annually at 
twenty merks. They had the church of Langton in rectory, which uaed 
to be valued annually at twenty pounda. They had the churdi of Simp* 
ring for their own use, which uaed to be valued annually at ten poondau 
They had the church of Homeden for their own uae, whidh uaed to be vft« 
lued annually at ten merki. They had, firom the monaalery of die Holy- 
crosa of Hedenburg, one merk of annual pension for the tenth of die tydMs 
of Slaperfold, by a certain compontion. They had, firam the monastery 
of Newbottle, 6a. 6d. of annual pension, for the tenth part of the aslt of 
die Cars. The total sum of the ancient asaesament of die said chnxchea ia 
L.541, Us. 4d." 

APPEKmx. 8S1 



No. I. 

WmuNDy €r 3PffsTH, oHoi JIPBetb. 

*' A GBETAiw Engiinhnum of obtenre Urth^ ntmed IWimund, had* in 
bis earlj jwiilih, aUaned to some proficiency in pemnamliip : he esned, 
lor a while^ a misenble lifeUhood bj tnuucribing old writiQgs in moms* 
teries. He afterwards beosme a numk at the abbej of Fomcn, situated 
in a remote corner of Lancashire^ He tAerv applied himaelf to his stisdSea 
with uncommon diligence. Endowed with the gifts of utterance, of a 
livelj genius, and a memory eminently tenadous, he soon becsme diatiii- 
guiahed aboTe his fellows. He was sent into the Isle of Man, with aone 
brethren of the oonrent. His penraasiTe eloquence and comely IoqIdb, 
and, as the historian adds, ' his portly figure, so charmed the barbarianay 
that they sought him for their bishop.' Not contented with his episoopal 
dignity, Wimund aimed at higher things, and pretended to be the aoii of 
Angus, Earl of Moray, slain at Strickathrow," {as wuniumed in ihg ITorfc.) 
" As he W88 a stranger, and as the inhabitants of Man had little interooune 
with Scotland, there were none to confute the effrontery of his pretcneea* 
He declared his resolution to retenge his father's death, and vindicate his 
own right to the estates of his ancestors. He displayed the glory and 
advantages which would result from this hardy enterprise. Many bold 
men of desperate fortunes espoused the cause of Wimund. Collecting 
together some vesaelsy he began to make luratical excursiona into tha 
neighbouring islands. He obtained for wife a daughter of Somerled, 
Thane of Argylc. Whether Somerled belieyed Wimund to be the aoo of 
the Earl of Moray^ or only from policy favoured an enterpriae againat 
Scotland, it is impossible for us to determine. Wimund next invaded the 
Scottish coasts, slew many of the inhabitants, and pillaged the ooontry. 
David sent an army to repress these outrages ; but Wimund constantly 


eluded the Soottlili forces. He Minetiinn ooncealeil liimielf and hit foU 
lowen amid forest*, smnctimes he retreated to his ships. As soon aa the 
Scottish army was withdrawn, he eame oat of his eofert and renewed hia 
depredations. His socoeana began to render him Ibnnidable to the Scot- 
tish goycmment. Wimund attempted to lery contrihations from the ter- 
ritories of a certain bishop. ' I nerer will establish a precedent,' aaid the 
Scottish Inshop, ' for one bishop's paying trfbate to another.' He asaem- 
bled hia people, and, though with a very unequal force, marched out to 
oppoae Whnund. To animate his foUowcrs, he began the onset by throw- 
ing a little hatchet. Wimund advancing in the ftont of his band, received 
the blow, and was fcUed to the ground. The Scots, encouraged by thb 
prosperous omen, attacked and routed the enemy with great alaug^lcr. 
Wimund hardly escaped. He collected, however, more foroea, and con- 
tinued his predatory war. David at length was obliged to enter into terma 
of accommodation with this daring and craAy adventurer, and bestowed a 
certain territory on him. The insolenee of Wimund czdted the people to 
oonapire against him : They surprised him, put out hia eyes, and made him 
a eunuch. It appears that he was delivered into the hai>ds of David, and 
fanprisoned in Uie Caatle of Roxbarg|i. Having been panionad after • 
tedkna captivity, he retired to the Abbey of Bilaod, la rericridrt, ani 
Aerr spent the remainder of his days in refncment and eaae. Hie spirit 
of thia audadoua man was not depreaaed, nor even fannbled by his cahi* 
mlties. He appears to have taken delight in relating hia adventorea to the 
ftiars at Bfland. * He waa wont to boast merrily,' aaya W. Newbr., ' diat 
he waa never overcome in battle, except by the fidth of a ailly bUiop.'^ 
At another tine, he la reported to have said, * Had diey but left ne the 
amallest glimmering of dgfat, my encmiea should have had no cauae to 
boast of what they did.* 

** I have made this ample recital of the adventures and ftle of Wimund, 
beeauae this BCory is little known. Snch Is the flagitious impostor who dis- 
turbed the tranquillity of a nation, happy and contented under the go- 
vernment of a virtuoua prince. The predse period of Wimuad's inva- 
sions cannot be aaoertained. They happened aometiine between 1141 
and 1151, when he waa deprived of aight."*— H ailbs, voL I. pip 100—3. 

* Fordun places the iiDpriionincnt of Wimond, or Maleoliii M^Hsalh, in I %M^ 
the nmo jest in which the charch of 8t James at Koxbufgk waa 


No. n. 

Character (f BSnff JDavieL 

To this KiDgy all hiftoriMs imile in giving the most exalted efaancteiK, 
both aa a warrior and civil magistfate. As the sovereign of an inde|^endp 
ent kingdom^ he socoeasfiilly asserted its rights against the ambitioua de- 
signs of his more poweilhl neighbour (the King of England) to reduce it 
to his subjection ; and the wars he was constrained to engage in to preseme 
its independency, were conducted on his part with leas cruelty than was 
customary at that early atage of our history. As a civil magiatrate^ he 
viewed with pity the rude, undvilixed, and barbarous state of his cDuntrjp 
m^i ; and the first and chief study of his life was to raise them iiom this 
state of degradation. To attain his purpose, he employed every mean to 
induce f oreignera, akiUed in husbandry and the arta, to aetUe in Scotland ; 
but as at this period knowledge of every kind waa copfined, if not whoUy, 
at least in a great measure, to the cbystera. of the monki^, he cartfblly 
sought out sndi of the Orders in France who united industry with t^ 
gion, and at a great expense transferred a portion of them to this coun^ 
try. On these he coBf<»red with a lavish hand immense revenues of land 
and money, besides erecting for their accommodation most superb an^ 
costly edifices. To this part of his character many have ol^ected> that bj 
such profuse grants to a set of men generally addicted to sloth and icUe- 
ness, he advanced them to a station in the empire to which they werdnot 
entitled, and at the same time greatly impoverished the revennes o£ the 
Crown,* while he was also supporting a system which he must hAvf 

* ^* The libeialiky of Darid to the ecdesMtleal oidtr, 
temporvies, has btea lerenly ccosara^ jKn UUk tamM. Jains% ths fiist of thsl 
name, King of Seotland, said, ^ That he was ^ sore taint to the oown.* This has 
been tnuumitted to poitezity as a ahrtwd and judidoos apothegm. We ought to 
judge of the conduct of nicn according to the notions of their sge, not of ours, Tp 
endow monastecies may now be considered as a prodigal supostition ; but in the 
days of David it was esteemed an act of pious beneficence. In monasteries the 
lamp of knowledge continued to bum, however dimly. In tiiem men of bnsiBess 
were formed for the stale ; the art of writing was cultivated by the monks ; dwf 
were the only proficients in mediantcs, gardening, and architectnze. When we 
examine the sites of ancient monasteries, we are sometimes inclined to say with the 
vulgar, *■ That the clergy, in former times, always chose the best of the land, sad 
the most commodious habitations ;* but we do not adfert, that zcUgioM bouses 
were frequendy erected on waste grounds, afterwards improved by ths aita,ldtin* 


known to be wholly oompoeed of Bupentition and prlestcrafu In amwcr 
to this it is only necessary to state^ that his sole desire being to civllixe his 
countrymen, and to introduce among them a spirit for industry, and a 
knowledge of the arts, the order of monks he made choice of for this pur* 
pose were most eminently qualified to efSsct his object (see a particular 
account of them under the *' Ancient History of Kelso") ; and although 
it may not be altogether possible to defend this pious and extdleat nun 
narch against the charge of unnecessary profusion in his liberality towards 
them, still let it be remembered, that, in the age in whidi he lived, men 
had not attained (at least in this country, when all the aequaintanoe they 
had ¥rith the Scripture was through the intervention of monkish inteirpre- 
tations) that d^pree of knowledge which enabled them to distinguish be- 
tween will-worship and the true worship required by the Deity; and when 
the endowment of monasteries, and the comforts of their religions inhabi- 
tants, were in this early age reckoned as propitiatory acts, and acts highly 
Improved by the Divine Migesty. 

King David was equally distinguished for his temperance, bravery, jus- 
tice, clemency, and piety. 

" In his habits of lifb he was strictly temperate in meat and drink, even 
to abstincnoe ; and was decidedly hostile to every foreign luxury. After 
the death of his Queen, while yet in her youth, he paved the remaining 
23 years of his life in devoted widowhood, nor could any inducement 
persuade him to enter upon a second marriage ; nor was he ever known, 
by word or action, to trespass against the strictest laws of chastity. 

^' He kept all the factious nobles of his realm in complete subjection 
by his bravery. Not satisfied with acting merely on the defensive against 
an enemy so powerful as the King of England, he often made severe re« 
prisals on his adversary, and by such acquisitions enriched himself* 

" To the poor as well as to the rich, he distributed justice with an im* 
partial haud. It is related of him, that one day while mounting his 
horse to go a-hunting, and with one foot already in the stirrup, a poor 
peasant approached him beggM&g redreea ; he commanded his attendants 
to stop, and he returned to his palace to listen to the cause of the suppli- 
ant In this manner he was accustomed to act towards many poor people, 
whose causes could not be quickly decided by the judges of the land. 
To them he generally sent the wealthy and the opulent, while he atten- 

dastry of the clergy, who alone had art and industry. That many monasteries 
did, in process of time, become the seats of sloth, ignorance, and dcbaachery, 
I deny not Candour, however, forbids ns to ascribe accidental and unfbreseca 
erils to the virtuous founder. * It was dcvodon,* says John Major, ^ that pro- 
duced opulence ; but the lewd daughter strangled her parent.* **— Haii.ES, voL I. 
p. 114— IIG. 


tWdf liBleiied to the dkpates of thow whose drenmstiiieei ptefoiled 
them from approadiuig the Coarti of Law. In the diBcfaarge of thia dnty 
he was frequently exposed to the peevish and Tulgar indTility of those 
whose diifeivnces he settled ; hut heing equally distingoished for hispni- 
denoe and mildness of disposition, this did not drire him from his stead- 
fast love of duty and of justice. Whilst he held the cause of justice he- 
tween both parties inviolable, it was no uncommon drenmstanee to And 
him contributing from his private parse to the psrty snstaining loss. 

** Preserving the becoming dignity of his royal station among the noble 
and powerftd of the land, he was al the ssme time accessible to the very 
poorest of his subjeeti, and by this happy accommodation of mind he nsn* 
dered himself at once the olirject of veneration end of love. 

** He had a strong presentiment of his death a yesr before it happened; 
during which time he redoubled his accustomed charities, whkh he be> 
stowed with his own hand. On the Sunday preceding his death, he ie« 
ceived the Holy Supper ; and when he felt his end approadiing, as a tra» 
veller setting out upon Uie road, he earnestly wished a speedy tsrauDatioii 
of his journey. Being unable to walk to maas, he was carried to dimdi 
in the arms of his courtiers, and having heard aermon, and observed the 
sacrament, he requested extreme unction, which he received sitting on 
the floor, after the manner of St Martin. The priests seeing the Kin|^s 
devotion, wished quiddy to anoint him, which he perceiving, desired them 
to tarry a little, and then applied to some questions aa his strength wonU 
permit. All things being then finished, folding his arms over his breast 
in the form of a Cross, his hands raised to heaven, he died in that pot* 

" David was contemporary with many noble and Ulustrions men. . He 
was the common fodier of his sulgects ; equally reBgioua in his public 
and private deportment ; and what may appear remarkable, he had a doft* 
ter of monks even in his Court. He avoided those remarkable for vioioas 
habits as infectiona. His children, both by preoept and example, wen 
incited to virtue, and he forced them to asandate with the wise and the 
good."— FoanuN, et aliL 

No. IIL 

Notarial Copy o^* tke LeUer rfJohn^ King ijf SoMmA, tgnm Afo 

rehirmng hu homage. 

*' In the name of God. Amen. 
This is a copy of a certain Letter of the King of Scotland ; and on the 


bebalf of Uul King, prcKiited to rar Lend the King of Kngliiid, «t 
Berwick-npoiHTweedj in the Caide of that Towuj in the yw of our 
LordlSMj Indictioii, 9ott thedth Apiil>bytheiereligioiuinen^Cion« 
diamna of the Minor Brethren of BUiketboQT^, and hiiComponfo the 
tenor of which ia aa fbUowa^— 

'^ To the Hagniiaeent Prince^ Lord Edward, by the Graee of God^ 
King of England ; John, by the same Grace, Khig of Seothmd ; 

<< Aa you and othera of yoor kingdom, of which you are not ignorant^ 
or at least ought not to be ignocant, by yoor o?er-bearing power, have 
brought upon tb, and the aulQecta of our kingdom, aerere and inanffisrmble 
injuries, contempt and losses, and also inexprcsaible pnjudioea againaft 
our libertiea, and the libertiea of our kingdom ; aa alao againat God, and 
against justice ; and by unlawfully harasnng ua without our kii^gdon, 
being incited thereto by any, the slightest suggestion. 

^ By m^natly aeiiing our caatlea, our landa, and our poaawsioiis, and 
thoae of our adbgeeta, within our kingdom, without any demerit of oura* 

^^ By capturing of our gooda, and of our sttljiecta, aa well by land 
aeo, and reeeiTuig them within your kingdom. 

'^ By putting to death our merchanta and other inhabitaiiti of our 

** By violently carrying away our snbjectafinmi gar Idngdom into youn^ 
and detaining and impriaoning them there. 

** For the reforming oi which grierances, we have ftequmtly sent our 
ambaasadOTB to you, which as yet not only contmue uncorrected, bnteven, 
by you and your subjects, are, firom day to day, becoming worse than bfr* 

" For even now, you, with an innumerable multitude of anned paoi^, 
having pnUidy convened your army in a hostile mannor, approaeh to the 
boandaries of our kingdom, in order to extirpate um, and the inhabitants 
of our kingdom ; and advancing farther in our kingdom, you have inhui 
manly committed stonghtera and burning, aa also insulta, and violcBt in- 
vasions, as vrell by land aa sea. 

" We are not able further to endure these said iqjuriea, contempts, 
losses, and prejudices, aa also those hostile attadcs ; nor remain in your 
fealty and homage, extorted from us by your violence and oppression : 
We are therefore desirous to rise up against you, for our defence, and the 
defence of our kingdom, for the defence and protection of which we have 
bound ourselves by the bond, of an oath. 

" By these Presents we return to you the Fealty and Homaob made 
to you by us, and by others, whomsoever, being the inhahitanta of our 
kingdom, and by our faithful subjects, on account of the landa which they 
held of you, within our kingilom ; as also en account of your 


or of your retention^ this is done in (mr name^ and in the name of ill and 
severally of our subjects." 

" This letter was transcribed and compared in the said year and indic- 
tion, on the £th day of the present month of April, at Berwick upon 
Tweed, in the House of the Brethren of the Carmelites^ in the presence 
of these venerable noblemen, 

" John Langton^ Chamberlain of our said Lord the King. 

" William Hamilton, Archdeacon of York, and 

" Robert Galbus, Notary Public; 
who, together with myself, to authenticate the said letters, which are 
sealed with the seal of the before mentioned King, diligently and £aith« 
fully compared them." 

RtmeRj torn. 11. ppw 707«708* 

No. IV. 

Directions for the Treatment of the Queen of Seotlandy Wifeqf Robert 
SrucCy and for the Iron Cage for the Countess of Bu/chan, and for 
Maryy sister to Robert Bruce. 

'^ Be it remembered, that so soon as the wife of the Earl of Carrick be 
come to the King, she shall be sent to Brustewick^ and be there detained, 
and that maintenance be provided for her, in the following manner ; that 
is to say, 

** That she may have two women of the coimtry with her ; that is to 
say, a lady and a chambermaid, who must be of a proper age, and not 
given to gaiety ; and that they have a good and decent character, sudi aa 
may be appointed to wait upon her. 

" And two valets, who must also be of a proper age and character; 
of whom one may be a valet belonging to the Earl of Ulvestier (Ulster) ; 
that is to say, John Bentley, or any other in his stead ; and the other, one 
^m the country, who may be in attendance to wait upon her. 

''And also a footman to wait in her chamber, who must be sober and 
not riotous, to make her bed, and for other necessary purposes within her 

*' And it is also ordered that she have a master valet, who must be also 
of a good and decent character, to carry her keys for her pantry and but- 
tery ; and also a Cook. 

" She may also have three greyhounds for her amusement in the war- 
ren, and parks, whenever it may please her. 



*< She ilull alio hare yeniMn, and fiah from the ponda, of whattrer 
kind may be found in them. 

" And the ahall posscsi the moat conyenient home on the manor, which 
abe ma J choose. 

*' She ahall also have the liberty of walking in the parks, and around 
the manor, at pleasure. 

" And it ia also ordered by lettera from the king'a prirate seal, that 
Richard Oyael, Seneachal of Holdemesa, shall proTide for the aaid lady, 
and for her houadiold, proper maintenance, and other ncecwirica, aeconl- 
ing to the aaid order." 

" It is ordered and commanded, by letters under the prtyate seal, to the 
Chamberlain of Scotland^ or to his Lieutenant in Berwick-upon*Twecd, 
that in one ot the towers within the Castle of that same plaee, in a 
situation that may appear to him most suitable ami conrenient, he raoae 
a cage to be msde of ycry strong lattice work, barred, and wcU secured 
with iron, into which cage be shall put the Countess of Baughan (Buchan). 

" And that she may be so safely and securely kept within this cage, so 
that she cannot in any manner escape therefrom. 

" And that there be appointed for her an Englishwoman, or two wo- 
men, if requisite, of the said town of Berwick^ who must be free from all 
suspicion, who are to be at the scrvici* of the said Countess, to supply her* 
with yictuals, and all other things which shall be provided for her during 
her imprisonment. 

*' And that she be so safely and secxirely kipt in the «ame cage, that she 
may not be allowed to speak to any person, neither man nor woman, who 
may belong to Scotland, nor any one be allowed to speak to her, except 
the woman or women, who may be appointed to wait on her, and those 
who may have the charge of her. 

** And that the cage be so made, that the Countess may have eonvetii- 
ently within it, a priyate chamber ; and that this chamber be ao properly 
and securely constructed, that the keeper of the aaid Coanteii can have no 
access to it. 

" And that whoever ^hall haye the keeping of the aaid CounteM, be an* 
swerable for her, body for body ; and that he also provide proper mainfe» 
nance for her. 

" And it is likewise orderetl that Mary, sister of Robert Bmee, former- 
ly Karl of Carrick, be sent to Roxburgh, to be imprisoned in a similar cage 
in that castle/' 

RvMca, torn. 11. pp. 101S-14. 


No. V. 

Order for exchanging Mary Brus far Walter Comyn^ prisoner in 


" The King to his faithful «nd beloved Henry Behnont, Constable of his 

Castle of Rokesburgh^ wisheth health. 

" WHEaE A 8, at the request of our beloved and faithful Galfrid Mowbiaj, 
and some other friends of Walter Comyn, at present confined in a prison 
of our enemies and rebels^ the Scots, we have granted that Mary Brut, 
prisoner in our said castle in Scotland, shall be exchanged for tlie said 
Walter ; 

"We hcrtby command that you discharge the said Mary from our said 
castle, in exchange for the before- mentioned Walter. 

" Witnessed by the jKing at Westminster, 13th March, 1310." 

Rymer, torn. III. p. 204. 

No. VI. 

Letter of Edinard^ King of Scotlatul^ upon the Concession of the- 
Towns, CastleSy and Counties of Roxburgh ^ Benoickt Jedwwrih^ 
Selkgrk, Etrgcke, Edinburgh^ Hadington^ lAnUscow^ PeUeSf €tild 
Dumfres, "» 


" Edward, by the grace of God, King of Scotland, to his Archbiahopt, ' 
Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Karls, Barons, Justiciaries, Viseoimts, (She* 
riflfs,) Governors, Officers, Bsillies, and all his faithful sobjectt, wi^eth- 


*' Know ye, that we, considering the purity of the afiection and benevo-' 
Icnce, which we have known that the most excellent Prinee, and most be-' 
loved Lord, our cousin. Lord Edward, illustrious King of Eiq;lmnd, hadi ' 
lately evidenced for our person ; and ahio the great assistance, (and thftt 
not without great expence and hazardous enterprises,) he hath latdy aftfd- 
ed us, by himself and his subjects, in regard to the recovering of our in- 
heritance ; and wishing, by the import of these premises, as far as in oar 
power, to show our regard to this King of England. 


'* We have granted and conceded for oaraelfft and our heirs, to give and 
assign^ and cause to be giYcn orcr to the said King of England^ two thou- 
sand tibrake of land annually, in suitable places, upon the marches of our 
kingdom of Scotland, a^oining to the king^knn of England, and agreeable 
to the said King of England. 

" And in part of the Talue of the said two thousand libraUt of land, we 
have giyen, conceded, and assigned, to the said King of England, the Caa* 
tie. Town, and Comitj of Berwick-upon-Tweed ; and also we further pro- 
mise, whatever may be deficient of the said two thousand Ukroi^t of land 
annually, we shall cause to be assigned and given up to the said King of 
England in other competent places, as mentioned ; and these to be held 
and possessed by the said King of England and his heirs, together with 
their military tenures, advocations of churches, and all other pertinents 
dependent on them ; as perpetually separated flrom the regal dignity and 
crown of Scotland ; and perpetually annexed to the regal dignity, crown, 
and kingdom of England. 

" And we, afterwards, fVom the 19th of February next to come, by the 
consent of our Prelates, Earls, Barons, Knights, and others in our king- 
dom, in our Parliament at this time assembled st Edinburgh, accepting 
our said eonocssion and promise, have ratified, approved, and confirmed 
them, and the condition and possession which the same King of England 
hath in the said castle, town, and county of Berwick, by virtue of this 
donation, concession, and assignation of our premises, for us, our heirs 
and our successors ; promising, that in regard to the remainder of the aaid 
two thousand HUraUe of land, we shall make satisfaction to the said King 
of England in other places mentioned, according to our said concess i on 
and promise, as u more fully contained in our different Letters Patent 
given for this purpose. 

" Wo, wishing to fulfil our said concession and promise, so msdc and ac- 
cepted, by the said consent, in the name Psrliarocnt, as is already premi- 
aed, we give, concede, render, and assign, and by this our charter we 
confirm for ouxadvcs, our heirs and successors, to the said King of Ri^. 
land, the town, castle, and county of Rokesbuigh ; the town, castle* 
and forest of Jedworth ; the town and county of Selkyrk, and the fo- 
rests of Sdkyrk and Etryk ; the town, castle, and county of Edinburgh, 
with the constabularies of Hadyngton and Lynliscow ; the town, castle, 
and county of Pebles ; and the town, castle, and county of Dumftca ; 
with all their pertinenta, and whatever we have, or ought to have, in them 
counties, in lordship, fief, or servitude, to be held, and to be posscswd by 
the same Lord, King of England, and his heirs, together with military 
tenures, advocations of churches, chapels, religious houses, and boaps* 
tals, together with their garrisona, and all other immunities, which 
merly did belong to us, our heirs and successors, in regard to the 



of churches within the kingdom of Scotland^ with all their hnds, tene« 
ments^ &c. &c 

** In testimony of this^ we have caused our great seal to he put to this 
charter, by these venerable fathers, as witnesses, viz. 

'' William, Archbishop of YotIc, Primate of England. 
"Richard, of Durham, j 3^ 
"John, of Carlisle, J *^ 

(and others.) 

" Given under Our hand, at Newcastle upon Tyne, 12th of June, IS34, 
and 2d year of Our reign. ' 

(Under the Great Seal of Scotland.) 

Rymeb, torn. IV. pp. 615-16. 

Of taking Seism of the said Towns and CasUes, 

The King to all to whom these letters may come, wisheth health. 
Know ye, that as among other lands and tenements, which the most 
excellent Prince, and our cousin. Lord Edward, King of Scotland, hath 
given, conceded, and assigned to us, by his charter ; 

" That he hath given, conceded, and assigned to us, the town, castle, 
and county of Rokesburgh, with its pertinents, to be possessed by us and 
our heirs, together with all military tenures, advocation of churches, and 
everything wheresoever and howsoever situated, appertaining to the said 
town, castle, and county, without any reserve. 

" Fully confiding in the prudent drcumspectioa of our beloved and 
faithful Galfrid de Mowbray ; 

" We assign, constitute, and depute him to receive in our stead and name, 
from the said Ring of Scotland, or his deputies or deputy, full seisin of 
the town, castle, and county aforesaid, together with sdl military tenures, 
advocation of churches, and everything, wheresoever or howsoever situa- 
ted, appertaining to the said town, castle, and county, as beforementioned. 
'^ Witnessed by the King himself, in Council, at Newcastle-upon«* 
Tyne, June 15, 1334. 

RvMEB, torn. IV. pp. 617-I8. 

Instruments of the same tenor as the foregoing, were at the same time 
issued fbr taking possession of the diflf^ent castles, towns, and counties, 
contained in Edward Baliol's letter of concession, by the persons named in 
them, instead and in the name of the King of EnghuuL 


LcHersappoutitnff ViscountSy or Sheriff s^ for ike Coymi^ of Mojcbmrgk^ 
und the other confieeated Gntmtiee im the Kmgdhm ^ Scotland. 

" TiiK King to nil to whom these letters nisy come, wtsheib health. 

*' Know je, that we have appointed, or intrusted to our belorcd and 
faithful Galfrid of Mowhray, the office of Viscount (or SheriflT) of Rokrs- 
burgh, with the pertinents thereof, and the gorernorship of our castle in 
the same place, so that he may be answerable to us, by the means of our 
treasurer of the town of Berwick, for the tenures, (or eontrscts,) emolu- 
ments, and other rerenues; and also the assesments, and everything else 
pertaining to the office of viscount (or sheriff) and governor of our said 
county and castle ; and henceforth he msy hold the same authority, as 
other viscounts (or sherifi) of that county, and governors of that castlv 
have heretofore held. 

** Also, by the tenor of these prctcnu, we command all, and every one 
within the said county, in our commissions, that they be complying and 
obedient to the said Galfrid, as our viscount (or sheriff) of the aaid coun- 
ty, and as our governor of the said castle, in everything which belongs to 
the said office and governorship. In testimony of which, &c. 

" Witnessed by the King himself in council, at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, 15th of June, 133i." 

Similar commissions were signed the same day for the same offices in 
the other ceded counties. 

Of the same date, be appointed John Bourdon, treasurer for all the 
hill's provinces in 5)Cotland ; and issued letters to the sheriffs of the dif- 
ferent ceded counties tfi be obedient to him in all things appertaining to 
bis office, as far as might be most conducive to the advantage and honour 
of the king. 

RYMsa, tom. IV. pp. •17-10. 

No. VIL 

Order for dehveriug up to Edward Baliol the PatrimomUd Eitaite 

he had ceded to the King of Engiand. 

'* The King to his beloved Clerk, Thomas Burgh, his Treasurer 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed, wisheth health. 
'' Edward, King of Scotland, our beloved Cousin, hath rcqucstad «•• 
that as you have received into our possession, dificrent lands aad 

APPEKDfX. 848 

mentt, with their pertinents, in Lowederdale and elsewhere in ooir eoon- 
tiet of Berwidc, Rokeshmg^, Edinburgh, M>le8y and Dnrnfries, whidi 
by hereditary right belong to Balid, and of which the same Balidl« as 
ICng of Seodand, was lately possessed ; 

'' That we shonld cause oar authority over the said conntieB to be re-r 

We^ being favoorably inclined to this request, oonnnsnd you, that with- 
out delay, you remore our authority from aU lands and tenements in tho 
said counties, which by the said hereditary right bekmgiBd to Baliol ; and 
that you allow the said King of Scotland, and his officers, to receif« and 
collect the rents, and other emoluments of the said lands and tenement^ 
lor the use of the said King of Scotland, and the same to be done in tima 
forthcoming, for his advantage. 

*' Witnessed by the King, at Newcastle-upoo-Tyney 5Mdi of Do- 
cember, 13S5." 

Rymbs, torn* IV. pp. 681-8. ■ 

No. VIII. 

E3peH9esfor conducting David Bfugs to die Tower cf London. 

" Thb King to his Tressurer, Barons of Exchequer, and his Chamber- 
lain, wisheth health. 
** As we have lately sent our beloved and fiuthful. John Darcy Le Fiere 
from our city of London, to the castles of Rokesburgh, Wick, tad Baum- 
burgb, for David Bruys, Malcolm Flemyng, and other prisoners in Soot- 
land, captured at Durham, to be brought from thence to our Tower of 
London ; 

** We command yon, that for the whole time in which the said John 
remains in our service, in going to these places, remaining there, and re- 
turning from them to our said dty ; fSbat you assign and pay to him 
twenty shillings each day during ^the said time. • 

" Witnessed at Redyhig, 1st March, 1347." 

RvMia, torn* V. p. 6SU 

No. IX. 

Proclamation for continuing in Use lAe Ancient Laws of ScoOamL 

*' Thb King to his ChanoelkMr and Chamberlains of our town of Berwidfo 
upon-Tweed, and to our Viscounta (Sherifl^) of Berwick, and B<okBa« 


burgh ; and to all and crery of our fidthfvl Constablea, Gofomora of 

Caatlea, and other offioen^ to whom tboe kUcra maj eomc, wiihcth 


'' Know ye, that when Edward BalidI, fonncily King of Soocknd, our 
well bdoved oooaln, had, by his charter, given np and ralgnod the king- 
dom and crown of Scotland, and all right he had in the nme kingdom 
and crown to uf , and to our heira, ai u more ftilly contained in the laid 

** We, wishing it to be publicly known that it is our intention and wiO, 
that the subjects of the said kingdom of Scotland should be ruled and g»* 
Temed by the same laws and customs, by which they were before the said 
kingdom and crown of Scotland came into our possession ; and that the 
same laws and customs should not be dianged in any respect; nor do 
we intend changing them in any manner whaterer. 

'' We command you, that our said intention and will be pubh'cly pro* 
claimed and maintained in all places within your districu ; and that you 
cause all the subjects of the said country to be rukd and governed by the 
same laws and customs. 

" And that you will by no means omit tliis, under forfeiture of every- 
thing that can be forfeited to us. 

by the King at Westminster, 15lh March, 1336." 

RvMEa, torn. V. p. 846. 

No. X. 

Ccpy of Charier ffranted to Wal tkh Kerk of Ceufurd of the Castle 

of Pikrffurghf SfC. 


'* Carta Waltcro Ker de Cesafuid et hevedibus snis de Castro et Loco 
castri nuncupa, le " CastellBtede/' loco et cspitale Mcssuagio de Roxburgh* 
cum iHrrtincii. nunc Ucgi ]icrtinen. jacen. infra vioeoomitatum de Rox- 
burgh ; unacum jure patronatus, adTocatione et donatione hospitalts 
' le Masson I)cw' de Roxburgh, quodquid hoipitalc dictis castro ct 
gio annoxand. nccnon jiut patnmatus, advocationcm ctdonationem 
talis die. Me Masson Dew' de Jedburgh, jacen. in dictum vicccomitatum. 
tcnend. de ri^ge ; Ucddendo unam Ro*am rttbeam in festo Sancti Joania 
Baptisti, in estate, apud dictum Csstrum, nomine albe Icrme* si peUlur 
tantum. Testibus ut in alijs. Dat. apud StriYiling, 211 die, Fcbrauy* 
1499. Dip. Ucg. voL IV. Ub. 13. No. J7«. 

APP£ND1X. 34$ 

Na XI. 

The Qriginal account of the matters referred to, is given by Wittiam PatteH, 
Londoner, in a carious old work entitled " TheEjepedicion into Scotland.*' 
This book is very rare, having been printed in black letter at London, 
anno 1548, only nine months after the events took place. As the ori* 
ginal account is exceedingly ciirious and interesting, and is that from 
which Holinshed gives his narration of the affiiir, it must be gratifyii^ 
to the reader to have it at length*-— It is as follows.—* 

Frydmy y* xxiii of September, 
" We reised and cam that mornjrng to Rokesborow, and iii myle tnm 
Hume ; our camp occupied a greate fiidlowe felde betwene Rokesborowe 
and Kelseye, stondying eastward a quarter of a myle of ; a prety market 
toun to, but they wear all goon foorth thear. My lordes grace, with dy« 
vers of the counsell, and Sir Richard Lee, knight, (whose chardge in this 
expedycyou spetially was to appoynt the pioners ech whear in woork as he 
shoolde thynke meet, and then (whear my Lordes Grace assigned) to de« 
uyse the fourme of byldyng for fortificacion ; whoom suerly the goodnes 
of his wytt and hys greate experience hath made in that science right 
excellent,) went straight to Rokesborowe to caste what thear for strength- 
nyng might be doon. The plot and syte whearof hath bene in tyme 
paste a casteU, and standeth naturally very strong, vpon a hyll east 
and west of an eyght skore in length, and iii skore in bredth, draw« 
ynge to narrownes at the easte ende : the hole grounde whearof, the old 
walles doo yet enuyron. Besyde the heyth and bardines to cum to, it is 
strongly fenced on eyther syde with the course of ii great riuers, Tiuet on 
the north, and Twede on the sowth ; both which ioyning sum what nie to 
gyther at the west ende of it, Tyuet by a laige cumpas a boWte the feldes 
wee laye in, at Kelsey dooth faU into this Twede, which with greate 
deapth and swiftnes runneth from thenoe eastward into the sea at Berwyk, 
and is notable and famous for ii commodities, specially salmons and whet- 
stones. Ouer this, betwyxte Kelsey and Rokesborowe hath thear been a 
great stone bridge, with arches, the which y* Skottes in time paste haue 
all to broken, bycaus we shoold not that wei cum to them. Sod after my 
lords graces survey of the plot and determinadon to doo asmuch in« 
deede for makynge it defencyble, as shortnes of the tyme and season of y* 
yere could suffer ; (which was, y* one great trench of twenty foot brode, 
with deapth accordyng, and a wall of lyke breadth and heyth, shoold be 
made a cros w'in the castel from the tone side waU to thoother, and a xl foot 
from the west ende; and that a like trech and wall shoold likewise be cast 

846 ilPFENDIX. 

a trauen within^ about a quoyts castfrd theast ende^ and hereto that the 
castell walles on either syde, whear neede was, tboolde be mended with 
turfe> and made w^ loop-holes as well for shooting directly forward, ma 
fbr flankyng at hand ; Uie woork of which deuise did make, that bisyde 
ihe sauegard of these trenches and walles, y kepers shoold also be much 
fenced by both the ende walles of the castel,) y* pioners wear set a woork, 
and diligently applied in the same. 

'* lliis day the Lard of Cesfoorth and many oother lards and gentlemen 
pf Tyuetdale and their marches thear hauyng com and communed with 
my lordes grace, made Ts an assurance, (which was a firendship and aa it 
wear a truis,) for that daye till the next day at nyght. 

5'Thiiiday, in the mesne while, theyr assurance lasted, these lardes and 
gentlemen aforcsayde, beyng the cheforte in the hole Marches and Tyuet- 
dale, cam in agayn, whom my lords grace, with wysdom and poUede, 
without any (jghtynge or bloodshed, dyd wyn then unto the obedience of 
the King's Maiestie ; for the whyche they dyd wyllyngly then also recejrue 
an oth, whose names ensue. 


The Lard of Cesfoorth. 

The Lard of Femyherst. 

The Lard of Grenehed. 

The Lard of HunthilL 

The Lard of Hundley. 

The Lard of Markestone by Merside. 

The Lard of Bouniedworth. 

The Lard of Ormeston. 

The Lard of Mellcstaynes. 

The Lard of Warmesey. 

The Lard of Lyuton. 

The Lard of £gerston. 

The Lard of Marton. 

The Lard of Mowe. 

The I^rd of Ryddell. 

The Lard of Reamersyde. 


George Trombull. 
Jhon Holly burton. 
Robert Car. 

Robert Car of Greydvu. 
Adam Kyrton. 

Al^l^EKDIX. S47 

Andrew Meyther. 

Ssaadtf Spiumoie of ErleHon. 

Mark Car of Lkledeii. 

Georjge Car of Faldetnide. 

Alexander Makdowdl. 

Charles Rotherford. 

Thomas Car of the Yere. 

Jhon Car of Meynthom. 

Waljter Hdjlmrton. 

Ridiard Hai^^anajde. 

Andrew Car. 

James Douglas of Cauers. 

James Car of Mersyngtd. 

George Hoppringle. 

William Ormeaton of Endmerden. 

Jhon Grymsbwe. 


Many wear thear mo hesyde> whose names also^ for that they remayne 
m legester with these^ I haue thought the less mister here to wryt. 
- *' My lords grace did tender so mooch y* Airt&cnQee of y work in 
y castdl, y' this daie (as enery day els duryi^ oar campynge thear,) his* 
Grace dyd not styk to digge wt a spsde ahooe li.lioarea him aelf : whenu> 
hy, as his estate sure was no mote emhased Aen y maiestie of great 
Alexftder,* what time w^ his oun hftdes he set the poore soldioor in his' 
eon chaire of estate to releeoe him hy his der ; so, by y* example hcveof^- 
was euery man so moved, as thear wear hut fewe of lordes, knightes, and 
gentlemen in the feld, hut with spade, ahoondl, or mattodc, did thearin 
right wiUyngly and ?ncompeld their partes. 

" Sundojf, ike sxv ifSepimiAef. 
" This daye began the Skottas to brynge Titayll to oar eampe^ ibr ttie 
whidie they wear so wdl entreated and palde, that duTnge the tyme we' 
laye thear, we wanted none of the commodities their edtry eoM minister. 

" Mtmdojf, ih$ jetfffi iff September. • 
'< No notable thyng but the continuance <^ our work at ihe eastell ; fdr ' 
Airtheraunoe whcarof , order was taken that the captayns of footmen, edie^ 
after oother, shoolde lend Tp his C. of souldioiirs thidier to woorke an' 
hoores space. 

• CurtL lib. VIIL 


Tuifday, the aavii of SepUmher. 
The larde of Coldehamknowes nothauyng so fully kq>tehyiappoyiit« 
ment made at Hume Castell^ touchyng his cummynge agayn to my lofdes 
grace at Rokesborowe ; Sir Raufe Vane, with a twoo or i^ C. horaet, about 
iii. of the clock in this momyng, was sent for hym to his house, whiche was 
a vii. myle from vs ; the whyche chardge Master Vane dyd so esmestly 
applye, as he was thear wyth his number before tL; but the larde, whl- 
thar he was warned thearof by priuie skout or spie, he was passed by an 
oother waye, and was soon after vii. with my lordes grace in the campe. 
Master Vane was welcumed, and hauing no resiatannoe made, but al sub* 
mitted, and proffer of chore, (for so had the larde charged his wyfe to doe,) 
soon after he retoumed to ye campe. 

*' This day my lordes grace was eertefied by letter from my Lorde Clyn* 
ton and Sir Andrew Dudley, that, on the Wednesday laat, beyng ye xxi 
of this modth, after certein of their ahott discharged against the castell of 
Browghty Crsk, the ssme was yddyng vnto them, the wfaicfae Sir Andrew 
dyd then enter, and after kepe as captain. 

'^ fFedneidaif, the aMniH qf September. 

** A Skottysh heraulde, accumpanied with oertdn Frechmen yt wear per- 
chaunoe more desierous to marke our armie then )o wit of our weUare, 
cam and declared from their coQsell, yt, within a seuenight after, their 
commissioners, to whoom my lords grace had before graunted his safo* 
cundet, shoold cum and commune with our counsel at Berwyk ; wfaoae 
cQming my lorde lieutenaQt, and master treasurer, and thoother of our ooiift* 
missicmeiB, did so Icmg while there abyde. But these Skottes (as men that 
ar neuer so iuste, and in nothing so true as in breache of promyss, and 
vsyng vntruth,) neither cam, nor by like meant to cQ : And yet sure take 
I this no fetch of no fine deuise, dies thei mean hereby to wyn, yt thei 
shal nede neuer after to promys; Tsing the feate of Arnus,* who, wt his 
all weys swesryng, and his ever lying, at last obteined that his btoe woorde 
was as much in credyt as his solemn oth, but his solemn oth, indeed, bo 
more than an impudent lye. Howbdt, since I am certeyn that sundry of 
them baue shewed themselues right honest, I woold be loth here to be 
couted so vnaduised, as to arret ye fiiutes of many to ye infamie of al. 

^ It was sayde amoong vs, they had in the meane tymc reoejrued letters of 
consolacion, and of many gay offinrs from the French Kyng; yet had that 
been no cause to haue broken promys Wt ye ooilsel of a ream. Howbdt, 
as these letters wear to th€ but an vnprofitable plaster to heale their hurt 

* /» Epigrd% Ator'u 


then> 80 ar thei fiill likly (if thei trust much therin) to fynd thS aconey 
that will freate them a nue sore. 

''My lords grace consideryng that of vertue and welldooyng the pro- 
per mede is honour : Aswell^ thearfore, for rewarde to them that had 
afore doon well, as for cause of encoorage to oother then after to doo the 
lyke, dyd this daye after noon adoume many lordes, knyghtes, and gentle- 
men, with dignitees, as folowe: — The names and promoting of whoo I haue 
here set in order, as they wear placed in the herauldes hook : 


Sir Rafe Sadlier, treasurer. 

Sir Fraunces Bryan, capteyne of the light horsemen. 

Sir Rafe Vane, lieutenaAt of all the horsmen. 

" These knightes wear made hanerettes, adignitieahooueaknight, and 
next to a haron, whose acts I haue partly touched in the story before. 


The Lord Graie of Wylton, high marshall. 
The Lord Edward Seimor, my lordes graces sun. 

" Of these, the reder shal also fynde before— 

The Lord Thomas Haward. 

The Lord Walldyke. 

Sir Thomas Dacres. 

Sir Edward Hastyng. 

Sir Edmund Brydges. 

Sir Jhd Thinne, my lords graces stuard of howshold. 

Sir Miles Fartrich. 

Sir Jhon Conwey, 

Sir Giles Poole. 

Sir Rafe Bagnolle. 

Sir Oliver Laurence. 

Sir Henry Gates. 

Sir Thomas Chaloner, one of the clerks of the Kyngs 
Maiesties Priuie CoCisel, and in this armie (as I mought 
call him) chefe secretarie, who with his great peyns, and 
expedite diligece in dispatch of things passyng from my 
lords grace and the cousel thear, did make y^ his merite, 
was not with ye meanest. 

" Sir Fraunces Flemmynge, master of thordinaunce thear, a gentlemft, 
whoom long cxersise and good obseruaunce hath made in that feate right 


perfit, whear vnto in this yiage he ioyned lo moodi heSe and diligenee^ as 
it was well found how much his sendee did ttede. 

Sir Jbon Greaham. 
Sir William Skipwyth. 
Sir Jhon Buttes. 
Sir George Blaag. 
Sir William Fraunds. 
Sir Fraunces Enolles. 
Sir William Thorborow. 
Sir George Haward. 
Sir Jamea Wylforde. 
Sir Rauf Coppinger. 


But y' I haue writte in y« storie before wt what ibrward hardinea Sir 
George Haward did bear y* Bangs Alaiestiea stdderd in y« battail, and 
thear also of y^ industrious peyn of Sir James Wilford, and how Sir 
Hauf Coppinger did aied not smally in saufgard of the standard of our 
horsmen^ I woolde haue bene more diligent to hare rehersed it here. 

Sir Thomas Wetwoorlh. 
Sir Jhon Maruen. 
Yet knights. Sir Nychas Strauiige. 
Sir Charles Sturton. 
Sir Hugh Askue. 
Sir Frauncis Salrayn. 
Sir Richard Tounley. 
Sir Marmaduke Cu^table. 
Sir George Awdeley. 
Sir Jhon Holcroft. 
Sir Jhon Soutwoorth. 
Sir Thomas Danby. 
Sir Jhon Talbott. 
Sir Rowland Clerk. 
Sir Jhon Horsely. 
Sir Jhon Forster. 
( Sir Christofer Dies. 
iii Spaniards -J Sir Peter Negroo. 
(^ Sir Alonzo de Vile. 
Sir Henry Hussey. 
Sir James Granado. 
Sir Walter Bouham. 

Sir Robert Brfldling, mayr of Xew Castell, and made knight 
thear at my lordes graces retoume. 


'' As it is not be douted but right uuiy mo in the armit beside these 
did also well and yaliauntly quite them ; although their preferment was 
rather then differred, then their deserts yet to forgotten : euen so among 
these wear thear right many^ the knowledge of whose actes and demerytes 
I coold not cu by : And yet woold haue no man no more to doubt of the 
worthines of their aduauncemet^ than they ar certein of his circQspectitf ' 
and wisedome^ who preferd them to it. Whearupon all mg may safely 
thus far foorth without offence presume^ y^ his Grace unworthily bestowed 
this honour on no man. 

*' By this day^ as Rokesborowe was sufficiently made tenable and defen«* 
sible (y® whiche to see^ my lordes grace seemed half to haue vowed be« 
fore he woold thence departe) his grace and the counsell did first deter-* 
mine, that my Lord Gray shoold remayne ypo the Borders thear as the 
Kynges Maiesties Lieutenaunt. And then took ordre for the forts, that 
Sir Andrew Dudley, Captein of Broughty Crak, had leaft with him CC. 
soldiours of hakbutters and oother, and a sufficient number of pyoners for 
his works. Sir Edwarde Dudley, Captain of Hume Castell, Ix. hakbut- 
ters, xl. horseme, and a C. pioners. Sir Rafe Bulmer, Captain of Rokes- 
borowe CCC. souldyours of hakbutters and oother, and CC. pioners. 

" Thursday the axiar of September, being Mighelnuu day, 
*' Asthinges wear thus concluded, and warnyng gyuen ouer night that 
our cape shoold this day dissolue, every man fell to pakkyng a pace : My 
lordes grace this morening soon after vii. of the clok was passed ouer the 
Twede here. The best place whearof for gettig ouer (which was ouer 
against the west ende of our cftp, and not farr from ye brok£ arches 
of y^ broke bridge) was yet with great stones in y^ bottom so vneuen of 
grounde, and by reason of rayne that lately fel before^ the water so depe, 
and the strearoc so swyft, that right many of our horsemen and footmen 
wear greately at theyr passage in perell, and one or twoo drowned, and 
many carriages ouerthrowen, and in greate daunger also of losyng." 

No. XII. 

Article in the Treaty of Boulogne, concluded March 24, 1550, re- 
specting the giving up of the Forts or Castles iff Douglcu and LaU" 
der, and the demolishing of them, and of the Castles of Roxburgh 
and Eyemouth, 

*' Item, conventum, concordatum et conclusum est, quod si diets Arces 
sou castra de Dough* et Ladre, dcsierint esse in manu et potestate dicti 


Screninimi IWgif Anglie, nichilomimis umcn librr erit ab en obligmtionc 
qua ilia ut Rupndictum ctt rcstitucre Kpospoiidcrat, et hc obstrinxerBt, fro 
quibus et vcluti recompense loco iclcm Scrmiiriniuii Rex AngUie teiiebi« 
tiir oppifla et castra de Roxbourgh et Aymonilc diruere, et nolo rqnarc in- 
fra Quad raginta dies a die Datie penctcntis Tractatus, nee licrbit dictis Sc» 
reniasimo Anglic Regi, Cbristianinimoqae Reg!, Regin«*Te Scotiir. dicta 
loca de Roxburgh et Aytnonde, restaurare et revdificare : Et ultcriua, ai 
d ictus Serenissimus Rex Anglic reddat atque restituat pivdictai Arcca 
Douglaa et I^rc, prout supra conventum est, tamen dicta oppida et Caa- 
tra de Roxburgh et Aymondc diniere et solo square tcnebitor, ai nindo 
dicta Regina Scotic illud idem Tolnerit, et fccerit in dictis arcibus ct Caa- 
trisde Douglas et Laudre, quod si accederit, non licebit dictis sereniaaimo 
Anglic Regi^ Christianimimoque Rcgi^ Rcgincve Scotic, eoninve Hmdi- 
bus, et successoribus posthac restaurare et rectlificare dicta oppida ci 
tra Roxburgh et Aymoiide.'* Rymer, torn. XV. p. 91i-l^. 


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